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Full text of "A handbook for travellers in Japan including the whole empire from Saghalien to Formosa"

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A HANDBOOK 



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HANDBOOK FOR TEAYELLERg 



IN 



JAPAN 

INCLUDING THE WHOLE EMPIRE FROM SAGHALIEN 
TO FORMOSA 



BY 

BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, F. R, G. S. 

EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF JAPANESE AND PHILOLOGY IN THE IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO 

AND 

W. B. MASON 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SCOTTISH GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY AND LATE OF THE 
IMPERIAL JAPANESE DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS 



With Thirty Maps and Plans and Numerous Illustrations 



EIGHTH EDITION, REVISED AND PARTLY REWRITTEN 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street 

IZor ! KELLY & WALSH, L..,tk. \fZZZl 
, 1 9 O 7 

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED] 



PKIXTED BY THE SHUEISHA, t5k;y5. 



UNIV. OF 



CALIF. LIBRARY. W^ ANGELES 



PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH EDITION. J'P^ 

This edition of the Handbook has been revised through- 
out with diligent care, — a revision amounting to the re- 
writing of several routes, Notably those describing portions 
of the West and North- West Coast of the Main Island, 
various mountain ascents, and the interior of Yezo. Even 
such favourite summer resorts as Karuizawa and Yumoto, • 
and such classic ground as the old capital Kyoto, have been 
practically redone, and numberless minor changes all over 
the country, arising from the extension of railways and 
electric trams, incorporated in the new text. Special atten- 
tion has been devoted to the maps, and to a verification of 
the merits of the inns recommended. At the same time, it 
has been borne in mind that picturesque "Old Japan," so 
far as it still survives, is what the majority of intelligent 
persons come out to see. The total result, it is hoped, 
will supply travellers with a vade-mecum which, while 
retaining all needful information concerning temples, art 
treasures, legends, flower festivals, and the other charming 
peculiarities of this fascinating land, is at the same time 
thoroughly practical and up to date. 

The compilers' thanks are due to various corresx)ondents 
for information courteously supplied, more especially to 
Eev. Walter Weston, Dr. E. Papellier, J. Stiircke, Esq., 
J. Orange, Esq., and A. E. Wileman, Esq. To Edward Beart, 
Esq., they are indebted for valuable assistance in the correc- 
tion of the proof-sheets. 

Suggestions or corrections will be welcome at any time. 

Yokohama, May, 1907. 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION. 



Page 

1. Greneral 1 

^. Steam Communication 2 

3. Custom-Hoiise 3 

4. Public Holidays 3 

5. Guides 3 

G. Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks 4 

7. Currency 4 

8. Weights and Measures 4 

9. Inns ; Travelling Expenses G 

10. Climate ; Dress ; Time of 
Visit 7 

11. Provisions 9 

12. Means of Locomotion ; 
Luggage 10 

13. Where to Go and AVhat to 
See 11 

14. Purchase and Shipment of 
Goods 12 



Page. 

15. Shooting ...■..•...........■..■.,.,.. 12 

16. Fishing 13 

17. Miscellaneous Hints 14 

18. Language 16 

19. The Shinto Eeligion 35 

20. Japanese Buddhism 39 

21. List of Gods and God- 
desses 43 

22. Art 56 

23. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory '61 

24. Chronological Tables 63 

25. Celebrated Personages 70 

26. Population of the Chief 
Cities 87 

27. Christian Missions 88 

28. Outline Tours 89 

Glossary of Japanese Words . . , i)2 



ROUTES. 

Section I. — Eastern Japan. 



RotJTE. Page. 

1. Yokohama 99 

2. Excursions from Yokohama 101 

3. From Yokohama to Tokyd. 109 

4. Tokyd 110 

5. Excursions from Tokyo . . . 137 

6. Miyanoshita and Hakone... 147 

7. The Peninsula of Izu 156 

8. Fuji and Neighbourhood ... 161 

9. Bound the Base of Fuji to 
Lake Shoji and Kami-Ide... 169 

10. Chichibu and the Temple 

of Mitsumine 171 

11. Tokyo-Takasaki-Karuizawa 
Kailway; Myogi-san 173 

12. Karuizawa and Asama- 
yama 176 

13. Bcao, Kusatsu, and Neigh- 
bourhood 181 



Route. Page. 

14. The Shimizu-goe and 
Milmni-toge 188 

15. The Oyama-Maebashi Bail- 
way 190 

16. Nikko and Chuzenji 192 

17. From Yumoto to Ikao over 
the Konsei-toge 209 

18. From Nikko to Ikao via 
Ashio and the Yalley of the 
Watarase-gawa 211 

19. From Wakamatsu to Nikko 
by the Valley of the Kinu- 
gawa 213 

20. Shiobara and Nasu 2 14 

21. The Provinces of Shimosa, 
Kazusa, and Boshii 216 

22. The East Coast Ban way ... 222 



Contents. 



Section II. — Koutes Connectixg Tokyo with Kyoto. 

KouTE. Page. Route. Page. 



23. TheT5kaid5 227 

24. TheNakasendo 242 

25. Eailway ExDiite joining the 



Tokaido and Nakasendo . . . 247 
20. The Steamer Voyage from 
Yokohama to Kobe 248 



Section III. — Central Japan. 



27. The KarmzaM-a-Naoetsu- 
Niigata Eiiilway ; Island of 
Sado 253 

28. The Mount^iins on the N. W. 
Boundary of Shinshu and 
Echigo 259 

29. From Shinonoi to Shiojiri... 261 

30. Mountains of Hida and 
Etchu 283 

31. Ways to and from Kofu . . . 278 

32. Valley of the Hayakawa ... 290 

33. ]\Iountains between the 
Fujikawa and the Tenryu- 
gawa 291 

34. Eapids of the Tenryu-gawa 295 

35. The Shrines of Ise 297 

36. Kobe and Neighbourhood... 308 



37. Osaka and Neighbourhood 312 

38. Ky5to and Neighbourhood 319 

39. LakeBiwa 351 

40. Nara and Neighbourhood... 356 

41. Through Yamato to Koya- 
san and AVakayama in 
Kishu 364 

42. The jMountains of Yamato 378 

43. Through Kumano to Ise ... 379 

44. jVIinor_Itineraries in Kishu 389 

45. From Osaka to ]Maizuru and 
Ama-no-Hashidate 390 

46. From Lake Biwa to Ama- 
no-Hashidate, Ivinosaki, 
and the Mines of Ikuno . . . 394 
The West Coast from 
Tsuruga to Naoetsu 396 



47 



Section IV. — Western Japan and the Inland Sea. 



48. 



49. 
50. 



The Inland Sea and the 
Chief Places on and near 

its Northern Shore 403 

The Iskind of Awaji 416 

Matsue, Temple of Izumo, 



and the Old Islands 420 

51. The West Coast from 
Matsue to Tottori and on 
to Fukiichi-yama 425 



Section V. — The Island of Shikoku. 



52. North-Eastern Shilcolm 429 

53. North- Western Shikokii . . . 436 

54. Valley of the Yoshino-gaM'a 439 



55. Western Shilvoku from 
Matsuyama to Uwajima . . . 442 

56. Ways to and from Kochi . . . 443 



Section YI. — Kyushu 

57. Nagasald and Neighbour- 
hood 451 

58. Unzen and the Shimabara 
Peninsula 454 

59. The Kyushu Raihyay from 
Nagasald to Moji 457 



and Outlying Islands. 



00. 



The Kyushu Eaihvay from 

Tosu to Yatsushiro 462 

Hiko-san and Yabakei 464 

From Nagasaki to Aso-san, 
Beppu, and the North-East 
Coast 406 



Route. 



Contents, 

Page. Route. 



63. From Kmnamoto to Nobe- 
oka and Oita 472 

64. Sonth-Eastern Kyushu 474 

65. Kagoshima and Neighbour- 
hood ; Volcanoes of Sakura- 
jima, Kirishima, and Kai- 
mon-dake 475 



Page. 



66. From Kagoshima to Yatsu- 
shiro via the Eapids of the 
Kumagawa 478 

67. Through Satsuma and 
Amakusa to Nagasaki 479 

68. The Got5 Iskinds and Tsu- 
shima 481 



Section VII. — Northern Japan. 



69. The Northern Eailway 485 

70. Wakamatsu and Bandai- 
san 493 

71. From Niigata to Waka- 
matsu 496 

72. From Niigata to Tsuru-ga- 
oka 497 

73. Matsushima 498 



74. From Fukushima to Yama- 
gata, Akita and Aomori 501 

75. From Funagata to Sakata, 
and up the North- West 
Coast to Akita 506 

76. The North-East Coast 508 

77. The Tonami Peninsula 510 



Section Vm. — The Island of Yezo (Hokkaido) ; the 
KuRiLE Islands, and Saghalien. 



78. Hakodate and Neighbour- 
hood 515 

79. Excursions from Hakodate 516 

80. From Hakodate to Otaru, 
Sapporo, and Muroran 520 

81. From Asahi-gawa to Aba- 



shiri and Nemuro 524 

82. From Asahi-gawa to Kushi- 

ro 525 

83. The South-East Coast and 
the Southern Kuriles 525 

84. Saghalien 527 



Section IX. — The Izu and Bonin Islands ; Luchu and Formosa. 

85. The Izu and Bonin Islands 531 1 87. Formosa 536 

86. The Luchu Islands 535 



ADDENDA 543 

INDEX 545 



MAPS AND PLANS. 



1. Japan in pocket of cover. 

2. Key to Sectional IVIaps to face title page. 

3. Distribution of Eainfall to face p. 7 

4. Shinto Temple of Izumo „ p. 37 

5. Buddhist Temple of Ikegami .^ „ p. 43 

6. Eastern Japan „ p. 97 

7. Neighbourhood of Yokohama „ p. 99 

8. City of T5ky5 „ p. Ill 

9. Temples and Tombs of Shiba on p. 116 

10. Neighbourhood of Tokyo to face p. 137 

11. Fuji and the Hakone District „ p. 147 

12. Neighbourhood of Karuizawa „ p. 177 

13. Ikao and Kusatsu „ p. 181 

14. Nikko „ p. 193 

15. Neighbourhood of Nikko „ p. 201 

16. Central Japan „ p. 225 

17. K5fu „ p. 279 

18. Gekti Temple at Ise on p. 304 

19. Osaka andKdbe to face p. 309 

'20. Kyoto „ p 319 

21. "Western Japan and the Inland Bea „ p. 401 

22. Miyajima , on p. 413 

23. Kyushu to face p. 449 

24. Neighbourhood of Nagasaki „ p. 451 

25. Kumamoto Castle on p. 463 

26. Northern Japan to face p. 483 

27. !NLatsushima „ p. 499 

28. South-Western Yezo „ p. 515 

29. North-Eastern Yezo „ p. 525 

30. Formosa , „ p. 537 



Handbook for Travellers 



JAPAN . 



INTRODUCTION. 



Page 

1. General 1 

2. Steam Communication 2 

3. Custom-House 3 

4. PubHc HoMays 3 

5. Guides 3 

6. Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. 4 

7. Currency 4 

8. Weights and Measures 4 

9. Inns ; Trayelling Expenses. 6 

10. Climate ; Dress ; Time of 
Visit 7 

11. Provisions 9 

12. Means of Locomotion ; 
Luggage 10 

13. ^\^lere to Go and What to 
See 11 

14. Purchases and Shipment of 
Goods 12 



Page 

15. Shooting 12 

16. Fishing 13 

17. Miscellaneous Hints 14 

18. Language 10 

19. The Shinto Kehgion 35 

20. Japanese Buddhism 39 

21. List of G<)ds 43 

22. Art 56 

23. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 61 

24. Chronological Tables 63 

25. Celebrated Personages 70 

26. PopuMion 87 

27. Christian Missions 88 

28. Outhne Tours 89 

29. Glossary of Japanese 
Words 92 



1. — GrENERAL. 

Japan, secluded for over two centuries from contact with the outer 
world, was burst open by the American expedition in 1853-4 under the 
command of Commodore Perry. Making a virtue of necessity, her rulers 
soon determined to Europeanise the country, as the best means of pre- 
serving its independence. Ships were bought, foreign naval and mihtary 
instructors engaged, feudalism replaced by a centralised autocracy, 
education reorganised on the pattern offered by Western nations, ix)sts, 
telegraphs, and railways introduced, European dress, European manners, 
European amusements adopted, Buddhism disestabhshed, Christianity, 
if not encouraged, at least no longer persecuted. In short, in every 
sphere of activity, the old order gave way to the new. The most drastic 
changes took place between 1871 and 1887. The war wath China in 
1894-5 again marked an epoch. Not only did its successful issue give 



2 Introduction : — General. Steam Communication. 

an extraordinary impetus to trade and industry, but the prestige then 
acquired brought Japan into the comity of nations as a power to be 
counted \\dth. Another point has become clear of late years, — Europeani- 
sation, after all, is not to carry everything before it. Along many lines 
the people retain their own manners and ways of thought ; they even, to 
a great extent, retain their own dress. Japan, though transformed, still 
rests on her ancient foundations. 

It is impossible, within the hmits of this Introduction, to enter into 
those details of race, history, customs, rehgion, art, literature, etc., which, 
combined with the influence exercised more recently by Europe and 
America, have made Japan what she is to-day. The traveller who desires 
to travel intelhgently — to do more than merely vrander from hotel to 
hotel — may be referred to a small octavo volume entitled Things Japanese, 
where, under the heading " Books on Japan," he will find a descriptive 
list of the best hterature of the subject. Of art and rehgion alone a short 
account seemed indispensable, as art objects of many lands, and temples 
both Buddhist and Shinto, rank amongst Japan's most characteristic 
attractions. An outhne of history and hsts of gods and celebrated per- 
sonages have been added, in order to assist the traveller to thread his way 
through the maze of proper names with which he vvdll be confronted. In 
Japan, more than in any "Western country, it is necessary to take some 
trouble in order to master such preliminary information ; for whereas 
England, France, Italy, Germany, and the rest, all resemble each other 
in their main features, because all have alike grown up in a culture 
fundamentally identical, this is not the case with Japan. He, therefore, 
who should essay to travel without having learnt a word concerning 
Japan's j^ast, would run the risk of forming opinions ludicrously erroneous. 
In any case, a supply of books of some sort is necessary to help to while 
away the frequent rainy days. 

The elaborate series of maps in course of pubhcation for many years 
past at the Imperial Geological Office, may be obtained of Messrs. Kelly 
and "Walsh, at Yokohama. 

2.— Steam Communication. 

Jai)a.n may be reached by the Canadian Pacific Company's steamers 
from Vancouver in lOi days ; by the Pacific Mail, the Occidental and 
Oriental, and the Toyo Kisen Kwaisha's steamers from San Francisco in 
about 16 days, or 18 days if Honolulu be touched at ; by the JS^ippon Yftsen 
Kicaisha (Japan Mail Steamship Co.) steamers from Seattle, or by the 
Northern Pacific Company's steamers from Tacoma, in about 16 days ; or 
else from Europe through the Suez Canal by the Peninsular and Oriental 
steamers from London or Brindisi, by the Messageries Maritimes from 
Marseilles, and by the Norddeutscher Lloyd from Bremerhaven, South- 
ii.mpton, or Genoa in about 40 days. Yokohama is the connecting jDort of 
all the above. The trans-Siberian Railway connects with steamers of the 
Russian East -Asiatic Steamship Company, running once a week between 
Vladivostok and Tsuruga on the West Coast of Japan ; the Nippon Yusen 
Kwaisha also runs steamers between Nagasaki and Vladivostok via 
Korean jwits. 

This last, the most imiwrtant steamship company in the empire, runs 
steamers from Yokohama almost daily to K5be, tvidce weekly to Nagasaki 
jind Shanghai, also t-odce weekly to Hakodate ; from Kobe weekly to Sakai, 
Tsuruga, Niigata, and Hakodate ; also from Kobe monthly to jwrts in 
Korea and North China ; from Hakodate to various i»orts in Yezo and to 



Gustom-House. Holidays. Guides. 3 

Korsakofl: in Saglialien thrice monthly in summer ; fortnightly from Kobe 
to Formosa ; once monthly from Yokohama to the Bonin Islands. The 
Company also has hnes to the piincipal Chinese ix)rts, to Austraha via 
Manila, to Bombay, and to Europe. Australia is also to be reached by 
the Eastern and Australian Line. The Osaka Shosen Kmilsha runs 
steamers to Inland Sea ports and to Formosa, Korea, South China, etc. 

Boats — known in the Treaty Ports as scunjyans — ply in all the har- 
bours, and land passengers from the steamers. The usual fare from ship 
to shore, or vice versa, is from 15 to 25 sen per head. Steam launches from 
the steamer companies and hotels are in attendance at the larger places. 

3. — CuSTOM-HouSE. 

Strict examination of the luggage of passengers is made at the 
Custom-House, and the best way to avoid trouble and delay is to open 
up everything freely. Tobacco, liquors, cameras, bicycles, sporting gear, 
and most other articles, except ordinary personal effects, are liable to 
duty. 

4. — Public Holidays. 

The Custom-House and other public offices observe the following 
holidays : — 
Jan. 1 ) 

,, 3 r New Year Holidays {iShogicatsu). 

„ 5) 

„ 30. Annivets.ity of death of Komei Tenno, the late Emperor. 
Feb. 11. Accession of Jimmu Tenno in 660 B.C., and Promulgation 

of Constitution in 1889 {Kigen-setsu). 
Mar. 20. Sirring Equinox [Shunki Korei-sai). 
April 3. Death of Jimmu Tenno. 
August (first Monday in). Summer Bank Holiday. 
Sept. 24. Autumn Equinox [Slmki Korei-sai). 
Oct. 17. Harvest Thanksgiving to the Deities of Ise {Shinjo-sai, also 

called Kan-name Matsuri). 
Nov. 3. Emperor's Birthday (7e7ic/io-se^6'w). 

,, 23. Second Harvest Festival {Shinjo-sai or Kit-name Matsuri). 

The foreign banks, besides observing Christmas (25th and 26th Dec), 
Good Friday, Easter Monday, and the Japanese official hohdays, keep the 
Chinese New Yea,r, which generally falls in February, and httle business is 
done at Yokohama during the race meetings in sx>ring and autumn. 

5. — Guides. 

Licensed guides understanding English can be engaged at any of the 
principal hotels in T5ky6, Yokohama, Kyoto, and Kobe. The charge at 
present (1907) is as follows : — 4 yen per day for a party of one or two 
toiirists, and 50 sen more for each additional person. In all cases, the 
guide's travelhng and hotel expenses must be paid by his employer. 
Messrs. Cook and other tourist agencies also undertake to provide guides 
and to arrange all other matters for the convenience of travellers. 

A guide is almost a necessity to persons unacquainted with the 
language, unless they be expert travellers, or confine themselves to such 
places as Tokyo, Kyoto, Nikko, etc., where a certain amount of Enghsh 
is spoken. Those knowing a little Japanese may feel themselves more 



4 Introduction: — Posts. Telegraphs. Money. 

their own masters by hiring a man-servant, or " boy," also able to cook, 
and having neither objection to performing menial functions, nor opinions 
of his owu as to the route which it vdYi be best to take. 

Ladies may sometimes find it convenient to hire a Japanese maid 
(generally called amah by the foreign residents). Some of them speak 
EngUsh and act more or less as guides. 

A society called Eihin Kicai (Welcome Society), having its head office 
in Tokyo, affords facilities to travellers by obtaining permits for various 
institutions and other sights. 

G. — Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. 

The Impeiial Japanese Post and Telegraph services are organised on 
the European model. Letters and papers can be forwarded with safety to 
the different stages of a journey. The Post-Office Order and Parcel Post 
systems vnU. also be found usefiil. 

In most towns of any size the Post and Telegraph Offices are com- 
bined. Telegrams in any of the principal European languages cost 5 sen 
per word, with a minimum charge of 25 sen, addresses being charged for. 
A telegram in Japanese of 15 Kana characters costs 20 sen, the address of 
the receiver not being charged for. The foreign residents often avail them- 
selves of this means of communication. Telephones are in general use. 

There are at Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki, branches or agencies of 
the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, the Chartered Bank of India, Austraha, 
and China, the International Bank, and the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank. 
The facilities offered by such large Japanese banks as the Yokohama 
Specie Bank (Shokin GinJco), the Mitsui, and the Mitsubishi, which are 
conducted on foreign hnes, may also be availed of at Tokyo and in the 
interior. 

7. — Currency. 

The values are decimal, vnth. the yen, equivalent to about two shillings 
Enghsh, or 50 cents U. S. gold, as the unit. One yen contains 100 sen, 
one sea contains 10 rin. The currency consists of gold, which is practical- 
ly never seen ; of silver pieces of 50 sen, 20 sen, 10 sen, and 5 sen ; of 
nickel pieces of 5 sen ; of copper pieces of 2 sen, 1 sen, and 5 rin, and of 
l^aper money worth 1 yen, 5 yen, 10 yen, and various larger sums. 

It is best to travel with paper money, both because of its superior 
portability, and because it is better known to the inhabitants of the 
interior than silver or gold. One of the first things the tourist should do 
is to learn the difference between the various notes for the values 
above-mentioned. He is advised to take with him no notes of higher 
denomination than 10 yen, as it is often difficult to get change excei^t in 
the big towns. 

Except at Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki, no foreign bank-notes or 
circular notes are negotiable. 

8. — Weights and Measures. 

Except on the railways, where Enghsh miles have been adopted, 
distances are reckoned by ri and cho, 36 cho going to the ri* One ri 
is equal to 2.41 English statute miles, or, roughly speaking, to a trifle 

* Some mountain districts Lave a longer ri of 50 cho. 



Weights mid 3Ieasures. Distances. 5 

under 2^ miles. One cho is equal to 358 Englisli feet, or j^^ of a mile. 
The cho is subdivided into 60 ken (1 ken = Q ft. approximately), and the 
ken into 6 shaku (1 shaku = l ft. approximately). The subdivisions of the 
shaku follow the decimal system. Throughout this work, the distances 
iire given in rl and did as well as in miles, as visitors to Japan drop very 
soon into the Japanese method of reckoning, which indeed must be learnt 
in any case, as coolies, jinrildsha-men, and others know nothing of English 
miles. A word of caution may here be given against the habit of certain 
Japanese having a suj^erficial knowledge of Enghsh, who mistranslate the 
ward ri by " mile." The following table, borrowed from Dr. N. Whitney, 
vrill be found useful : — 



EQUIVALENTS OF JAPANESE RI AND CHO IN ENGLISH MILES. 



Japanese Ri. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


1 


2.44 


24.40 


26.84 


29.28 


31.72 


34.16 


36.60 


39.04 


41.49 


43.93 


46.37 


2 


4.88 


48.81 


51.2.5 


53.69 


56.13 


58.57 


61.01 


63.45 


65.89 


68.33: 70.77i 


3 


7.32 


73.20 


75.65; 78.09 


80.53 


82.97 


85.41 


87.85 


90.29 


92.73 95.171 


4 


9.76 


97.61 


100.051 102.49 


104.93 


107.37 


109.81 


112.25 


114.69 


117.13' 119.53' 


6 


12.20 


122.01 


124.46 126.90 


129.34 


131.78, 134.21 
156.191 158.63 


136.66 


139.10 


141.54' 143.98 


6 


14.64 


146.43 


148.87 


151.31 


153.75 


161.07 


163.51 


165.95 168.39 


7 


17.08 


170.83 


173.27 


175.71 


178.15 


180.59| 183.03 


185.47 


187.91 


190.351 192.79 


8 


19.52 


193.23 


197.67 


200.11 


202.55 


205.00! 207.44 


209.88 


212.32 


214.76 217.20 


9 


21.96 


219.64 


222.08 


224.52 


226.96 


229.40 


231.84 


234.28 


236.72 


239.16! 241.60 


Cko 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


1 


0.07 


7 


0.47 


13 


0.88 


19 


1,., 


25 


1.69 


31 


2.10 


2 


0.14 


8 


0.54 


14 


0.95 


20 


1.36 


26 


1.76 


32 


2.17 


3 


0.20 


9 


0.61 


15 


1.02 


21 


1.42 


27 


1.83 


33 


2.24 


4 


0.27 


10 


0.63 


16 


1.08 


22 


1.49 


28 


1.90 


34 


2.30 


5 


0.34 


11 


0.75 


17 


1.15 


23 


1.56 


29 


1.97 


35 


2.37 


6 


0.41 


12 


0.81 


18 


1.22 


24 ! 1.63 

1 


30 


2.03 


36 


2.44! 
1 



Long Measure {Kane). 10 bu = l sun (often translated "inch," but = 
1.19 inch of Enghsh measure); 10 sun = l shaku (nearly 1 foot English, 
actually 11.93 inches) ; 6 shaku = l ken ; 10 shaku = l jo. 

Cloth Measure {Kujlra). 10 hu = l sun; 10 sun = l shaku, or 14.91 
inches Enghsh ; 10 sJiaku = 1 jo. Note that the same Japanese names 
represent standards about ^ longer thiin those in the previous paragraph. 

Laml Measure ( Tsuho). The unit is the tsuho, nearly equivalent to 4 
square yards Enghsh, An acre is nearly equivalent to 1,210 tsuho. 

1 chd = 2h acres, and 1 ri (square) = 6 sq. miles, approximately. 

Pleasure of Capacity. 10 ^5 = 1 sho, which contains about 108J cubic 
inches, and is a little larger than IJ quart; 10 sho = l to, nearly half a 
bushel, or, for hquids, 4 gallons ; 10 ^o = 1 koku, which is a fraction less 
than 5 Enghsh bushels. 

Weights. The kin is about Ij lb. avoirdupois; 1 lb. avoir. = about 
120 momme. The kican is equal to 1,000 momme (6i kin or a httle over 
8^ lbs.). 



6- Mrodudion': — Inns. Travelling Expenses. 

9.— Inns ; .Travelling Expenses. 

The inns fire given from ix^rsonal knowledge or from the best ac- 
cessible information, an asterisk being sometimes prefixed to tlie name 
of a house specially v.-orthy of mention. '^rMiat is termed hatago at a 
Japanese inn includes supper, bed, [and breakfast, for which a single 
charge is usually made. This varies according to the style and standing 
of the estabhshment, and ranges at] present from 75 sen to 3 yen per head. 
Scanty as the entertainment may often appear to one fresh from the 
innumerable luxuries of a comfortable Eiiropean hotel, it should be 
remembered that such things as fine lacquer and ]X)rcelain utensils, 
painted screens, and silk quilts, to say nothing of numerous well-dressed 
attendants, are expensive items to mine host, and are charged for ac- 
cordingly. Anything in the way of food or hquor ordered in addition to 
the meals supj)lied is considered an extra. There is no charge for firing, 
lighting, attendance, or bath, provided always the traveller is content with 
v,'hat is given to every one else, neither is there any for tea. But it is 
usual, shortly after arriving and being shown into a room, or else in pay- 
ing one's account just before leaving, to make a present, known as chadai, 
or " tea-money." The latter course is recommended. With Japanese 
travellers, this tea-money varies with the rank of the individual, the 
amount of extra attention which he desires or has received, and -with, the 
quahty of the accommodation. Generally they are very hberal. The foreign 
tourist stands on a somewhat different footing, and there are seldom 
gi-adations of rank to be considered in his case. As a fair and practical 
solution of a vexed question, those vrho travel a la japonaise and who aie 
charged in accordance v,-ith the native scale, may be recommended to make 
the amount of their chadai vary from 50 sen to 2 yen per night, according 
to the style of the estabhshment. If two or more persons are traveUing 
together, the chadai is increased, say, to one-half more for two, and double 
for three jjersons. In some locahties, especially at bathing resorts, there 
is a fixed rate for the accommodation of foreigners, — IJ yen or 2 yen per 
night for room and bedding only, any food that may be ordered being 
charged for separately. Many such places, which have come under 
European influence, have abohshed the chadai system while raising their 
rates. It is then usual to give a small gratuity to the servants, whereas in 
the old-fashioned inns such presents are not looked for. 

It is but fair that foreigners should pay more than natives, both for 
accommodation and for jinriMshas. They usually weigh more, they 
almost always want to travel more quickly, they give infinitely more 
trouble at an inn v/ith their demands for fresh water in the bath, the 
occupation of a portion of the Idtchen to cook their European food, and 
a dozen other such lequiroments, to say nothing of their insisting on 
having separate rooms, while Jamnese guests — even strangers to one 
another — are habitually required to share a room between them. 

Though one should always choose the best inn in each place to sleep 
at, it will often be found more convenient to lunch at some wayside tea- 
house or eating-house. The more elegant repast at the higher class inn 
frequently takes much longer to prepare than it is worth ; besides which, 
most foreign travellers carry their own provisions. 

In the Europeanised hotels at such frequented spots as Nikko, Karui- 
zawa, Miyanoshita, Kydto, Nagoya, etc., the|general charge is from 5 to 10 
yen a day, everything included except ^^'ines. The charge per diem for a 
native servant is commonly 1 yen. The charges at the hotels under foreign 
management in the Open Ports are from 5^to 15 yen. 



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Inns. Travelling Expenses. Climate. 7 

It will be seen from the above that the hostelries at which travellers 
in Japan put uj? are of three lands, — the European hotel, the Euroj)eanised 
or half-European half-Japanese hotel {hoteim), and the purely native inn 
{yadoya). The rijori-ya, or eating-house, supplies meals with less delay 
than the regular inns, but rarely offers sleeping accommodation. The 
tea-house [chaya) is different again, being a place where i^eople neither 
sleep nor dine, but only halt for a short time to rest and take hght 
refreshments. Kesidents in Japan, however, often include inns under 
the denomination of tea-houses. Every Httle railway station has its tea- 
house, which undertakes to purchase the traveller's ticket and to check 
his luggage. 

Many inns now provide chairs and tables. Beds are still very rare ; 
V)ut good quilts {futon) are laid down on the mats, wherever may be most 
convenient ; pillows of sorts are now common, or else a small quilt will be 
rolled up as a pillow, and in summer a mosquito-net is provided. The 
use of sheets, too, has become common. No inn in native style has a 
dining-room. Each guest dines in his own apartment at whatever time 
he (or more often the host) may select. 

The average charge (to foreigners) for jinrildshas in the most frequent- 
ed portions of the country is now (1907) from 20 to 30 sen per ri, the same 
per hour, and yen 2.50 per diem. About 50 per cent is added to these rates 
in bad weather and at night. But the tendency of late years has been 
towards constantly increased rates, owing to the rise in the price of rice 
and other staple commodities. It is usual to give a small gratuity [sakaie) 
to jinrikisha-men after a hard run of any distance. 

Perhaps one might say that the total cost to a tmveller of average 
requirements, travelhng at a reasonable speed, and having with him a 
guide, should not exceed 10 yen -per diem. If he restricts himself to 
mountainous districts, the expense will be considerably less. A certain 
saving is also effected when two or three persons travel together. 

Down to 1899 travellers had to be furnished with passports. These 
have now been abolished, and all that is necessary is compliance with the 
regulations requiring visitors at an inn to inscribe their name, nationah- 
ty, age, profession, etc., in the register. It is a common Japanese custom 
to carry letters of introduction {annal-jo) from inn to inn. This offers 
advantages, especially in seasons of epidemic disease or under any other 
circumstances Hable to cause the traveller to be viewed with suspicion, or 
Avhen, for the purposes of any special investigation, he wishes to be 
brought into intimate relations with his hosts along the road. Many inns 
keep printed forms of annal-jo, w^hich they fill in with the traveller's 
name. Occasionally these, and the little pa^^er slips in which toothpicks 
are wrapped up, as also the fans or towels which it is still the custom in 
many places to present on departure to those guests who have given a 
suitable chadai, are charming specimens of Jaj>anese taste in small matters 
of every-day life. 

10. — Climate ; Dress ; Time of Visit, 

Kemember that Japan is not in the tropics, and bring warm clothing 
with you, whatever be the season of your visit ; also very light clothing, if 
your visit be in the summer. Even in July, when the mean temperature 
of Tokyo is about 76° Fahrenheit, dixys may come when you will be glad 
of all your winter things. This applies still more to the mountains. On 
the other hand, be more careful of exposure to the sun than you would 



8 Introduction: — Climate. Dress. 

be in England. A sun helmet and a wliite umbrella are useful additions 
to the traveller's wardrobe. 

Though garments of the roughest description vnW. suffice for the 
country districts, bring good clothes, such as might be worn at home, in 
which to apj)ear at the larger hotels, and to mix, if need be, in society, 
whether Japanese or foreign. Japanese officials now attend their offices 
in frock or morning coats, and Euroj^eans visiting them should be similar- 
ly attired. At garden paities and special social functions, frock-coats and 
tall hats are expected. With regard to boots, it is advisable to wear such 
as can be pulled off and on easily, as it is necessary to remove one's hoots 
every time one enters a house or temple, in order not to soil the mats on v:hich 
the Japanese sit. Grave offence is given, and naturally given, by the 
disregard of this cleanly custom. Light shoes or boots with elastic sides 
are therefore to be preferred, excei:»t for mountain work. If your boots 
give out, try the native straw sandals {icaraji) with the native sock (taU), 
which give a better foothold than boots on smooth rocks. Many foreign- 
ers have found them excellent foot-gear, the only addition required being 
a small piece of cotton-wool to prevent chafing by the thong which passes 
between the great and second toes. Boots barely holding together can be 
made to last a day or two longer by tying icaraji underneath them. 
Kanjiki, that is, iron clamps of triangular shape %\ith spikes, are often 
fastened below the icaraji for walking over snow. The native blue cotton 
gaiters called kyahan afford excellent protection fi'om the attacks of flies, 
and from the rank undergrowth so often found on the lower slopes of 
Japanese mountains. Some prefer putties. 

At Yokohama, Chinese tailors attend the hotels, and will fit out 
travellers with duck, crape, and other hght clothing, hterally between a 
night and a morning. Washing is well and exj)editiously done at the 
Open Ports and at the principal summer resorts. 

Eoughly speaking, the Japanese summer is hot and frequently wet ; 
Sei^tember and the first half of October still wetter ; the late autumn and 
early winter cool, comparatively dry, and delightful ; February and March 
disagreeable, with occasional snow and dirty weather, which is all the 
more keenly felt in Japanese inns devoid of fire-places ; the late spring 
rainy and windy, ^vith beautiful days interspersed. But different years 
vary greatly from each other. The average temperature of January, which 
is the coldest month, is between 36° and 37° Fahrenheit at Tokyo ; but 
there are frequent frosts at night during five months of the year, namely, 
from November to March inclusive. Skating, however, is rare. The 
average temperature of August is 78^, the thermometer sometimes register- 
ing over dO-'. The chmate of iSTorthern Japan from Sendai onwards is 
much colder in winter, though not appreciably cooler during July and 
Aiigust. A similar remark apphes even more forcibly to the entire West 
Coast, which is exix)sed to the icy winds that blow direct from Siberia. 
Kishu, Southern Shikoku, and Southern Kyushu are warmer all the year 
loiind. 

Each traveller must judge for himself from the above remarks which 
season to select for his tour. If possible, he should be either in Tdkyo or 
in Kyoto during the first half of April to see the lovely display of cherry- 
blossoms, which are followed throughout the early summer by other 
flowers, — i)eonies, azaleas, wistarias, irises, — well-worth seeing both for 
their own sake and for that of the picturesque crowds of Japanese sight- 
seers whom they attract. Fuither north and higher in altitude, the 
blossoms are two or three weeks later. If not able to visit Kyoto early in 
April, he should try to be there at the end of October or early in November, 



Time of Visit. Provisions. 9 

Mhen the autumn leaves are in all their glory of red and gold, Tokyo 
is less favoured in this respect, but the chrysanthemums there early in 
November are magnificent. The summer may most advantageously be 
devoted to Nikko, to Miyanoshita, Karaizawa, Ikao, Unzen, or other mineral 
bath resorts, or else to travelling in Yezo and in the high mountainous 
districts of the interior of the Main Island, which are practically inac- 
cessible except between June and October. No high passes should be 
attempted before May, — not so much on account of the snow as because 
the aversion of the Japanese coohes to crossing it raises obstacles which 
would not be experienced in Eurojie. Fuji is only ascended during the 
hottest period of summer. 

11. — Peo VISIONS. 

Except at some of the larger towns and favourite hill or sea-side 
resorts, meat, bread, and other forms of Euroj^ean food are scarce. Even 
fowls are rarely obtainable ; for though plenty may be seen in almost 
every village, the j^eople object to selling them — partly because they keej) 
them for the sake of their eggs, partly on account of a Hngeiing Buddhist 
dishke to taking life. Those, therefore, who cannot subsist on the native 
fare of rice, eggs, and fish (this, too, not to be counted on in the 
mountains), should carry their own supf)hes with them. Wines, spirits, 
aerated waters, and cigars are equally unobtainable ; but beer is to be met 
with in most towns, the Kirin Beer brewed at Yokohama being excellent, 
as are the Ebisu Beer of Tolcyo and other brands of the same company. 
It is advisable to take one or two knives, forks, spoons, a corkscrew, a tin- 
opener, and the most elementary cooking utensils ; also a few candles. 
Plates and glasses can be borrowed almost everywhere. Persons fairly 
easy to please and who wish to travel hghtly, can reduce the size of 
their provision basket by using the rice, fish, and eggs of the country as 
auxiUary to what they carry with them. Curry-jDowder will often help to 
make insipid Japanese dishes palatable, and shdy^u (soy) adds a zest to 
soups. When starting off for the first time, it is best to err on the side of 
taking too much. Many who view Japanese food hopefully from a 
distance, have found their spirits sink and their tempers embittered when 
brought face to face with its unsatisfying actuahty. 

Fresh milk may now be obtained on all the ordinary lines of travel. 
The yolk of an egg beaten up is considered by many to be a good 
substitute for it in tea or coffee. It is essential to avoid all water into 
which rice-fields may have drained. Boiled water is, however, generally 
safe, and easy to procure in this land of perpetual tea-drinldng. 

The following Japanese articles of food are considered palatable by 
most foreigners : — 

Kasuteira, sponge-cake. 

Miso-shiru, bean-soup. 

Sakana no shio-yaki, broiled fish. 

Sakana no tempura, fish fritter. 

Sake, a strong hquor made from rice, and genenxlly taken hot. 

Semhei, thin biscuits of various lands 

Tamago-yaki, a sort of omelette. 

Tori-nabe, chicken cut up small and stewed. 

Ushi-nahe, beef similarly treated. 

Unagi-meshi, layers of rice with eels done in soy. 

Yokan, sweet bean-paste. 



10 Introduction: — Means of Locomotion. Luggage. 

12. — Means of Locomotion ; Luggage. 

Take railwj\y or electric tramway wliereTer available. On those plains 
wliicli no railway yet traverses, take jinriMslia. Avoid the native basha 
(carnage), if yon have either nerves to shatter or bones to shake ; and be 
chary of burdening yourself vrith. a horse and saddle of yotir own in the 
interior, as all sorts of troubles are apt to arise vdth regard to shoeing, 
rnn-away grooms {betto), etc. Such, in a few words, is our advice, founded 
on long personal experience. Other ]X)ssible conveyances are pack-horses 
(but the Japanese pack-saddle is torture), cows, the kago, — a si^ecies of 
small palanquin, uncomfortable at first, but not disliked by many old 
residents, — and lastly, chairs borne by four coohes ; but these have only 
recently been introduced from China, and are not found except at Miyano- 
shita, Nikko, and a very few other places much resorted to by foreigners. 
Persons obhged to use the pack-saddle will find considerable rehef by 
improvising stirrups of rope. The pleasantest sort of trip for a healthy 
man is that in which walking and jinrikisha-riding are combined. In 
those hilly districts which make Japan so picturesque, walking is the only 
}x»ssible, or at least the only pleasant, method of progression. The luggage 
is then taken on a j^ack-horse or on a coohe's back. Bicycles are used 
to a Hmited extent, long trips being even occasionally made over the 
chief highways ; but hilhness, indiiferent roads, and extremes of climate 
combine to i^revent Japan from being a good field for cyclist and motorist 
alike. 

Persons intending to go at all off the beaten tracks are advised to 
compress their luggage within narrow hmits. This is specially necessary 
in the thinly ix)i3ulated mountainous parts of the country, where one 
coolie — not improbably a grandfather superannuated from regular work, or 
possibly a buxom lass — is often the sole means of transport that a village 
can sui)ply, all the horses being generally with their masters miles away 
in the mountains. 

It is always best to avoid large boxes and portmanteaus, and to divide 
the luggage into two or three smaller pieces for convenience in pihng on 
a coohe's hod, or for balancing the two sides of a pack-horse's load. The 
Japanese vvicker baskets called yanagi-gori are much recommended, as 
cheap, i)ortable, capacious, and contractible. The yanagi-gori (often called 
hori for shoit) consists of an oblong basket, with a second fitting over it to 
any depth as a cover, and is consequently convenient, not only for clothes 
and books, but for provisions, since the size of the basket diminishes 
as the stores are consumed, without any empty space being left for the 
remaining articles to rattle about in. A pair of these yanagi-gori — one 
for loersonal effects, the other for provisions— should suffice for him who 
intends to rough it. They should be i^rovided with a large wrapi^er of 
oil-paper {abura-kami) against the rain, and fastened either with cords, 
which can be procured anywhere, or ^ith stout leather straps. 

As to Japanese roads, no general opinion can be expressed. Some- 
times excellent when first made, they are often kept in insufficient repair. 
Tnivellers must, therefore, not be astonished if they come across roads 
VN'hich, though mentioned in this work as good for jinrildshas, have become 
almost impassable even for foot passengers, — the result of a single season 
of floods or typhoons. The changes in this respect are in jjroportion to 
the violence of the Japanese chmate. It is furthermore i^robable that 
the distances given in our itineraries differ shghtly in some cases from 
the actual truth, notwithstanding aU the care taken to obtain accurate 
information. It is hoped, however, that such discrei)ancies will never 



Where to Go and What to See. 11 

be so great as seriously to affect the traveller's comfort. An apparent 
error of \ mile will occasionally be observed in tlie total mileage of the 
itineraries. This arises from the fact that the mileage of each stage 
of a journey being given only within \ mile of the actual distance, the 
fractional errors thus arising, though balanced and allowed for as carefully 
as possible, sometimes unavoidably accumulate. On the other hand, the 
so-called total mileage is obtained, not by adding ujj the mileage column, 
but by direct calculation (also M'ithin \ mile) of the value of the total in 
ri and chb. Distances are indicated wherever possible. WTien the time for 
a walk is given instead, it must be understood to bo that of an average 
]^)edestrian. 

Europeans usually avail themselves of the first-class railway cars 
whenever such are provided, and ladies in particular are recommended to 
do so, as not only are the other classes a]3t to be overcrowded, but the 
ways of the Japanese bourgeoisie with regard to clothing, the management 
of children, and other matters, are not altogether as our ways. Smoldng 
is general even in the first-cLass, except in compartments specially labelled 
to the contrary ; but such are not often provided. 

Sleeping and dining-cars have been introduced only on the main 
artery connecting Nagasaki with K5be, Tokyo and Aomori ; but neat 
httle boxes of Japanese food (bento), sandwiches, tea, beer, cakes, and ice 
are offered for sale at the principal stations. The Eailway Regulations 
permit holders of tickets for distances of over 50 miles to break their 
journey at the more important places. Luggage is checked as in the 
United States, each first-class i)assenger being allov/ed to carry 100 lbs., 
and each second-class passenger 60 lbs., free of charge. 

Licensed porters [aka-bb), distinguished by scarlet caps, are in at- 
tendance at the larger stations, and carry parcels for a few cents, 

13. — Where to Go and What to See. 

"How long does it take to do Japan?" is a question often asked. 
If by " doing " Japan be meant hurrying through its chief sights, the 
globe-trotter can manage this in three or four weeks, by adopting one of 
the Outline Tours given in Sect. 28. He who is bent on more serious 
observation \nl\ not find four months too much ; and one who has spent 
that time rarely fails to come again. Travellers' tastes differ widely. 
Some come to study a unique civihsation, some come in search of health, 
some to climb volcanoes, others to investigate a special art or industry. 
Those who desire to examine Buddhist temples will find what they want 
in fullest perfection at Kyoto, at Nara, at Tokyo, and at Nild^o. The chief 
shrines of Shinto are at Ise, and at liizuld in the province of Izumo. The 
"Three Places" {San-kei) considered by the Japanese the most beautiful 
in their country, are Matsushima in the North, IVIiyajima in the Inland 
Sea, and Ama-no-Hashidate on the Sea of Japan. Persons in search of 
health and comparative coolness during the summer months, to be obtain- 
ed without much " roughing," are advised to try Miyanoshita, Nikkd, Ikao, 
or Karuizav/a in the Tdkyo district, Arima in the Kobe district, or (if they 
come from China, and wish to remain as near home as possible) Unzen 
in the Nagasaki district. AU the above, except KizuM, may be safely 
recommended to ladies. Yezo is specially suited for persons residing in 
Japan proper, and desiring thorough change of air. At Hakodate they will 
get sea-bathing, and in the interior a httle fishing and a peep at the Aino 
aborigines. But Japan is more especially the happy hunting-ground of 
the lover of the picturesque. With the symmetrical outhnes of its volca- 



12 Introduction : — Purchases. Shooting. 

noes, with its fantastic rocks, its magnificent timber whicli somehow, even 
when growing naturally, produces the impression of having been planted 
for artistic elfect, -VNith its tiny shrines and quaint hostelries constantly 
placed so as to command vistas that dehght the eye, this beautiful land is 
a fitting abode for the most esthetic of modern peoi^les. Every variety of 
scenery, fi-om the gracefiilly lovely to the ruggedly grand, is here to be 
found. Of the former character are the neighbourhood of Yokohama 
(Kamaktua, Enoshima, Kanazawa), the whole Hakone district, Fuji and 
its surrounding belt of lakes, Nilcko, Haruna, the Inland Sea, the Iviso 
valley, North-Eastern Kyushu, jMatsushima in the north of the Main 
Island, and many more. Kugged and sublime in their character are the 
Hida-Etchii range, Koma-ga-take in Koshti, and the mass of mountains 
Ijing between the rivers Fujikawa and Tenryu-gawa. But the traveUing 
amidst these rough mountains is itself rough in the extreme. None but 
thoroughly healthy men inured to hardship should attempt it. 

The i)rovincial towns have, for the most part, Httle individuahty. 
As for what is called "seeing Jajmnese life," the best plan is to avoid 
the Foreign Settlements in the Open Ports. You will see theatres, 
v>Testhng, dancing-girls, and the new Japan of European uniforms, 
IX)htical lectures, clubs, colleges, hospitals, and Christian chapels, in the 
big cities. The old peasant life still continues almost imchanged in the 
districts not opened up by railways. 

14. PUECHASE AND SHIPMENT OF GoODS. 

Travellers ^^ill find the greatest facihties for purchases of every de- 
scription in the large stores of Y''okohama and K5be. They will also find 
much to attract them in Kyoto, Tokyd, Nagoya, and Nagasaki. The names 
of the best shops are given under each of these towns. It was formerly, 
and is still to some extent, characteristic of the Japanese tradesman and 
artisan-artist to hesitate to bring out his best specimens at once. The 
rule is that several visits are necessary before he will display his choicest 
articles, and that even then a long time must be spent in bargaining. 
Some estabhshments of the more modern sort have fixed prices. This 
remark also applies to the Kicankoba, or bazaars. Japan is now almost 
denuded of old curios. Some have fotmd their way into the museums 
of the country, while priceless collections have crossed the sea to Europe 
and America. But many of the productions of the present day are 
eminently beautiful, more especially the clolsonnS, the metal-work, and 
embroideries. 

A reference to the local Directories (or Hong Lists, as they are also 
called) will supply the names of those firms in Yokohama and Kdbe which 
make a business of shipping travellers' purchases to Eiu:ox>e, America, 
and elsewhere. As a rule, too, foreign firms which deal in cimos will 
undertake to forward anything to destination. Kemember, when sending 
a box for shipment to a shipping firm, to nail it down but sHghtly, as 
it will be opened and examined at the Japanese Custom-House. The 
shippers should be furnished with a detailed hst of the contents and 
their value, and be requested to see to the box being secured in a more 
solid manner after examination. 

15. — Shooting. 

The mountainous districts of Japan shelter deer and boars, though in 
ever decreasing numbers, while in Yezo some bears still remain. Ducks 



Shooting. Fishing. 13 

of various kinds, the green pheasant, qnail, woodcock, snipe, and hares, 
are to be found in the plains and on the lower ranges of hills bordering 
the flat country, while on somewhat higher ground the copper pheasant 
has its abode in the thickest cover. Hybrids between the green pheasant 
and an importe;! Chinese species are also sometimes met with. Japan, 
with its rich plains and hills giving ample shelter to game, should natural- 
ly be a good sjMrting country ; but it docs not seem to be such in fact. 
The law protecting birds and animals during the breeding season has 
never been rigorously enforced. Moreover, the districts around Yokohama, 
Kobe, and Hakodate, have for decades been too much shot over, while in 
other places much of the best sporting ground is privately preserved, and 
hence inaccessible, the total result being that this country is not one to 
recommend to the sportsman. 

In Japan proper the shooting season lasts from the 15th October till 
the 15th April ; but in Yezo it begins a month earUer. Licenses may be 
obtained from the local authorities, on maldng a written application in 
due form in the Japanese language. The fee varies according to the 
applicant's income, the maximum being 40 yen. 

16.— FlSH^G. 

Fish. First of the sporting fish in point of size and dehcacy is the 
rnasu {Salmo japonicus), pink-fleshed and weighing from 3 to 6 lbs. It is 
in the best condition when the temperature of the water ranges from 55° to 
65°. In Biwa, Chuzenji, and other lakes of the Main Island, this fish is 
taken with the spinning bait only ; in the rivers of Yezo, if a run is on, it 
will rise greedily to the fly. The ame-masu, white-fleshed, weighing from 
-J lb. up to 3 lbs., is found in the rivers of Yezo and in the more northerly 
streams of the Main Island. It is a fly-taking fish, though at times it will 
take a small spoon or a worm. The yamame, also white-fleshed but more 
closely aUied to the trout than the two preceding species, is found in most 
of the central and northern rivers of the Main Island. At times it will rise 
freely to the fly, but is more often taken with dried fish spawn, worms, or 
the natural insect. Its average weight is between ^ lb. and 1 lb. The 
iwana, with lemon and orange spots on the belly, hves in the same streams 
as the yamame, but is fond of lurking under stones in small torrents high 
up among the hills. The ito, a white-fleshed fish, is found only in Y^ezo ; 
it attains to 10 lbs. and rises more readily to the fly than the masu. The 
ai is to be met with in any of the shallow rivers winding through broad 
pebbly beds, which are so common a feature of the Japanese landscape. 
This is the fish commonly taken at Gifu witli the help of cormorants (see 
Route 23). When quite small, in April and May, it is caught with the fly. 
In July and August when it is larger, the native fishermen catch it with a 
decoy fish, by foul-hooldng, or with casting-nets. 

Locality. The masu is common in most of the rivers of Yezo, par- 
ticularly on the East coast. Rivers to be recommended are the Sarugawa, 
the Sarachiputo, on the "West coast, the rivers between Muroran and 
Tomakomai, and the Yurapu on the East coast. But the rapid develop- 
ment of the railway system in Yezo is opening up many other places. 
Sport with this fish can also be obtained on the Main Island in Lakes 
Biv/a and Chuzenji. The ame-masu, as noted above, is found both on 
the Main Island and in Yezo. In this latter the l)est-known localities 
are Lake Chitose and the river running through the swainps beyond Toma- 
komai, In the ]\lain Island, the masu is found in the northerly streams 
on both the East and West coasts ; biit the river joining Lakes Yumoto 



14 Introduction: — Miscellaneous Hints. 

and Chuzenji, is more accessible. There is a good stretch of water near 
Fukuoka, in the province of Kiknokii, which would probably be best 
worked by staying at Ichinohe. Further south, near Furusawa, and close 
to the railway, is a fishing river called Naga-gawa. Yamame and iwana 
exist in the streams among the hills of Chichibu, and in those around the 
Kofu plain. The season Lasts from April to August. 

17. — Miscellaneous Hints. 

Xevei' enter a Japamse house loith your hoofs on. The mats take the 
pLace of our chairs and sofas. What would we say to a man who trod on 
our chairs and sofas vnth his dirty boots ? 

In the event of trouble arising with regard to accommodation, the 
X^rocuring of coohes, etc., always apply to the pohce, who are almost in- 
variably polite and serviceable. These officials must not be insulted by 
the offer of a tip. The same remark applies to railway guards and pubhc 
servants generally. 

Photograi3hy is prohibited under severe penalties in the vicinity of 
forts and arsenals. 

One standard time is now kept throughout Japan, — that of E. Long. 
135°, which passes through Akashi near Kobe. This time is 9 hours ahead 
of Greenwich, and 14 hours ahead of American " Eastern Time." 

Take visiting cards "snth you. Japanese vdth whom you become 
acquainted "^-ill often desire to exchange cards. 

If going off the beaten tracks, take plenty of flea-powder or camphor ; 
but those who do not mind the odour of oil-paper {almra-kami), will find 
sheets of it stretched over the quilts by far the best protection against 
fleas. Take soaj), candles, and some disinfectant to counteract the un- 
pleasant odours that often disturb the comfort of guests in Japanese inns. 
Also take towels, a pair of sheets, and a pillow, or at least a pillow-case 
to lay on the extem]X)rised pillow which the tea-house people will arrange. 
Instead of loose sheets, some i^refer to sew two sheets together to form a 
bag which is tied roimd the sleeper's neck. 

If your servant seems honest and inteUigent, entrust him vnih money 
for current expenses. This ^^'i\\ save a world of petty bother and vexation 
as to change, bargaining, and such matters. If you have much money 
with you, entrust it to the host of each respectable hotel you stop at, and 
get his receipt for it. 

Start early, and do not insist on travelUng after dark. You will thus 
most easily obtain good coohes or horses for the day's journey. By 
arriving at your destination before sunset, you wiU be hkely to find the 
bath as yet unused, and will thus avoid the trouble and delay entailed 
by the necessity of getting other water heated. You wiU also have a better 
choice of rooms. 

Make youj- pLans as simple at ix)ssible. The conditions of travel in 
this country do not lend themselves to intricate arrangements. 

"When planning your day's journey, allow an hour for each ri to be 
done on foot, which should be sufficient to cover stoppages and un- 
avoidable delays. Ten ri (24i miles) is considered by the Japanese a 
proper day's work. However inconvenient to yoiurself, never refuse the 
coohes' request to be allowed to stop for food, as they can do no work on 
an empty stomach. 

The Jaijanese, M-hose grande passion is bathing, use water at higher 
temperatures — 110°-120° Fahrenheit— than physicians in Europe consider 
healthful. No one, however, wiU be injured by taking baths of between 



Miscellaneous Hints. 15 

100° and 104° Fahrenheit, unless he have a weak heart or be Hable to 
congestion. Owing to some "unexplained peculiarity of the chmate, hot 
baths arc found by almost all Europeans in Japan to suit them better 
than cold. It is advisable to j>our hot water over the head from time to 
time, and strong persons may advantageously end up M'ith a cold douche. 
Paradoxical as the assertion may sound, it is nevertheless true that the 
hotter the bath, the greater the impunity with which one may after- 
wards expose oneself to the cold air. The reason why peojDle at home 
have come to entertain the notion that hot baths give a chilly reaction, is 
that they do not take them hot enough, or do not immerse themselves up 
to the neck. The Japanese have the habit, to us disagreeable, of getting 
into the same bath one after another, or even at the same time ; but it is 
a breach of etiquette to discolour the water by the use of soap. They 
soap themselves outside. The first guest to arrive at an inn has the prior 
right to the bath. Formerly promiscuous bathing of the sexes v/as 
common, and though now forbidden by the pohce regulations, is still 
carried on at many of the provincial spas. 

Massage is much practised in Japan, and is an excellent restorative 
from fatigue after hard exercise. The services of a bhnd shampooer {amma 
sail) may be obtained at almost every inn. 

It is next to impossible to get windows opened at night in Japanese 
inns. The reason is that it is considered unsafe to leave anything 
open on account of thieves, and there is a police regulation to enforce 
closing. 

Above all, be constantly polite and concihatory in your demeanour 
towards the people. A^Tiereas the lower classes at home are apt to resent 
suave manners, and to imagine that he who addresses them pohtely 
wishes to deceive them or get something out of them, every Japanese, 
however humble, exi^ects coiirtesy, being himself courteous. His courtesy, 
however, differs from that of the West in not being specially directed 
towards ladies. Many travellers irritate the Japanese by talking and 
acting as if they thought Japan and her customs a sort of peep-show 
set up for foreigners to gape at. Others run counter to native custom, 
and nevertheless expect to get things at native prices. They cannot 
understand why a bill for several dollars should be j)resented to them 
for ten minutes' dancing, which perhaps after all has not amused 
them. The reason for the high charge is simiDle. Japanese do not 
send for dancing-girls without ordering a dinner at the same time. 
The dancing is an incident of the dinner, and it is in this dinner 
that the tea-house proprietor finds his profit. He does not care to have 
his premises invaded at unusual hours by people who take nothing for the 
good of the house ; neither can the dancers get ready on the spur of the 
moment. Too many foreigners, we fear, give not only trouble and offence, 
but just cause for indignation, by their disregard of ^Dropriety, especially in 
their behaviour toM^ards Japanese women, whose engaging manners and 
naive ways they misinterpret. The subject is too delicate to be treated 
here. We may, however, be permitted to remark in passing that the 
waitresses at any respectable Japanese inn deserve the same respectful 
treatment as is accorded to girls in a similar position at home. 

Never show any impatience. You will only get stared at or laughed 
at behind your back, and matters v.dll not move any the quicker in this 
land where an hour more or less is of no account. The word tadrdma, 
which the dictionaries, in their simphcity, render by " immediately," may 
mean any time between now and Christmas. Storming will not mend 
matters, when you find (to take one example out of a hundred) that your 



16 Introduction: — Miscellaneous Hints. Language. 

jinriMsha coolies \visli to stop for a meal just after you have started, and 
have been calcnlating that yon will arrive at snch and snch a place at 
such and such an hour. Or to take another instance. You are at a 
large town, whose ix)rt hes only 3 or 4 miles distant. You ask at your 
inn for information about steamers, and are told (in i>erfect good faith) 
that they leave daily. On arrival at the port, you find they leave but 
once in three days, and yours left yesterday. ^Vliat does a Japanese do 
imder such circumstances? He says " shikafa ga nai" ("it can't be 
helped"), and there is an end of the matter. Imitate his example, if 
you ^^ish to save yourself and others much waste of temi)er and energy. 
It is best to resign yourself at the beginning, once for all. While waiting 
patiently, you have an opportunity for studying Japanese life. Neither be 
moved to anger because you are asked i)ersonal questions by casual 
acquaintances. To ask such questions is the Fcir-Eastern way of sho^^dng 
kindly interest. 

18. — Language. 

The Japanese language, though extremely difldcult to learn correctly^ 
is easy to acquire a smattering of ; and even a smattering will add im- 
mensely to the pleasure of a tour in the country, by bringing the traveller 
into j)ersonal relations with the people, and by delivering him from the 
wearisome tutelage of guides and interpreters. 

Remember, in pronouncing Japanese, that the consonants are to be 
sounded approximately as in Enghsh, the vowels as in Spanish or Italian, 
that is to say : — 

a as in father, i as in pin, 

e as in pet, o as in pony, 

u as in. full. 

There is scarcely any tonic accent ; in other words, all the syllables 
are pronounced equally or nearly so. But particular care must be taken 
to distinguish long o and u from short o and u. The short vowels are 
i:)ronounced in a very light, staccato manner. Thus tori nasai means 
" Please take this ; " but tori nasai means " Please come (or go, ht. 
pass) in." Short i and a sometimes become almost inaudible, and are 
then marked t and u in the following vocabulary, thus arimasu, " there 
is;" icakarimashita, "I understand." In diphthongs, each vowel retains 
its original force. Thus : — 

ai as in the English word " skyy 
au as in the Enghsh M-ord " cow." 
ei as in the Enghsh word " hay." 

G is hard as in " give," never soft as in " gin ; " but in Tokyo and 
Eastern Japan it sounds like ng M'hen in the middle of a word, exactly as 
in the Enghsh M'ords " singer," "springy" {not "sing-ger," "spring-gy"). 
S is always sharp as in " mouse." W is often omitted after k or g, as 
kashi, " cake," for kicashi. Be very careful to pronounce double con- 
sonants really double, as in the Enghsh words " sho^-tower," " meanness," 
" coc/crrow." Thus kite with one / means "coming;" but kifte vi-ith two 
t's means "a ticket ; " ama is "a nun," arnma "a shfimpooer." 

As in all other langiuiges of the Tartar or Mongohan type, so in 
Japanese the adjective precedes its noun, and the genitive precedes the 



Language. 



17 



nominative. Prepositions follow their noun, and are therefore really 
" postpositions." Explanatory or dependent clauses precede the principal 
clause, and the chief verb comes at the end of the sentence. There is no 
distinction between singular and plural, or betw^een the different j)ersons 
of the verb, and there are no genders. Consequently, such jjhrases as 
K'lmashtta ka ? may equally well mean " Has he come ?" " Has she come ?" 
or " Have they come ? " — for pronouns are very httle used, the sense they 
would convey being generally left to be gathered from the context. Ques- 
tions are asked by suffixing the particle ka, as in the instance just cited. 
There are no negative adverbs or pronouns, hke our Enghsh " not," 
'' never," " nothing," etc. ; but the tenses of Japanese verbs have negative 
forms. Though the conjugations are too comphcated to be given here in 
detail, the following specimens of the most useful tenses, positive and 
negative, may be of practical utihty. The beginner will probably find the 
Honorific forms the easier to remember ; they are in constant use. 



Paradigm of Japanese Verbs. 



Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 

Past. 

Probable Put. 
Gerund. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fat. 



\ Plain. 
(Honoiific. 
j Plain. 
(Honorific. 
j Plain. 
/ Honorific. 
^ Plain. 
} Honorific. 
^ Plain. 
/Honorific. 
) Plain. 
/Honorific. 
j Plain. 
(Honorific. 



ABU 

Arimasu 

Atta 

Arimashtia 

xiro or aru daro 

Arimasho 

Atte 

Arimashite 

Nai 

Arimasen 

Nakatta 

Arimasen deshita 

Nakarb or arumai 

Arimasumai 



There is or 
will be. 

There was. 

( There probably will 
i be. 

/ There being, there 
] having been, 
j There is not or 
) will not be. 

i There was not. 

} There probably will 
^ not be. 



Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 

Past. 

Probable Fut. 
Gerund. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Fut. 

Desid. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 



(Plain. 
(Honorific. 
(Plain. 
/Honorifi.c. 
j Plain. 
/Honorific. 
i Plain. 
/Honorific. 
j Plain. 
/ Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
/Honorific. 
j Plain. 
/Honorific. 



IKU 

Ikimasu 

Itta 

Ikimashita 

Iko or iku daro 

Ikimashb 

Itte 

Ikimashite 

Ikanai 

Ikimasen 

Ikanakatta 

Ikimasen deshita 

Ikumai 

Ikimasumai 

Ikitai 

Ikitaku nai 



I go or 
shall go. 

• I went. 



/ 1 shall probably 

f go. 

( Going, having 

^ gone. 

/ 1 do not or 

) shall not go. 



I did not go. 

1 1 shall probably not 
i go. 

I want to go. 

I don't want to go. 



18 



Introduction : — Language. 



Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 

Past. 

Probable Fut. 
Grerund. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Flit. 

Desid. Adj. i 
Neg. ditto. 1 

1 


^ Plain. 
/Honorific, 
j Plain. 
/Honorific. 
1 Plain. 
/Honorific, i 
{ Pkin. 
\ Honorific. 

Pkin. 
/Honorific. 

Plain. 
/Honorific. 

Plain. 

Honorific. 


KURU /I come or 
Kimasu ( shall come. 

Kimasmta l^^^^^' 

Koyb or kuru daro )I shall probably 

Kimasho ( come. 

Kite ) Coming, having 

Kimashtte ( come. 

Konai 1 1 do not or 

Kimasen ( shall not come. 

Konakatia (tt-i^^^- ^ 

Kimasen desUta 1 1 chd not come. 

Kimai / 1 shall probably not \ 
Kimasumai ( come. | 
Kitai I M-ant to come. 
Kitaku nai I don't want to come. '' 

i 


Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 

Past. 

Probable Fut. 
Grerund. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Fut. 

Desid. Adj. 

Neg. ditto. 


j Pkin. 
/ Honorific, 
j Plain. 
1 Honorific. 
jPkin. 
/Honorific. 
jPkin. 
/Honorific. 
Pkin. 
1 Honorific, 
j Plain. 
/Honorific, 
j Pkin. 
/ Honorific. 


! 
SURU / 1 door 
Shimasii ( shall do. 
S?Lita / y , . -, 
SMmashita T 
Shiyo or sum daro ) I shall probably 
Shimasho f do. 
Shite "/ Doing, having 
Shimashite ^ done. 
Shinai / 1 do not or 
Shimasen ( shall not do. 

Shinakaita ) -r -,■ -, , -.^ 

Shimasen desMta J I ^hd not do. 
Shimai } I shall probably not 
Shimasumai ] do. 
Shitai I %yant to do. 
Shitaku nai I don't -o'ant to do. 


Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 

Past. 

Probable Fut. 
Gerund. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Fut. 

Desid. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 


^Pkin. 

/Honorific. 

^Pkin. 

/Honorific. 

j Pkin. 

/ Honorific. 

^ Pkin. 

/Honorific. 

jPkin. 

(Honorific. 

^Pkin. 

/Honorific. 

|Pkin. 

(Honorific. 


TABERU -/I eat or 
Tabemasu ^ shall eat. 
Tabeta / -r , 
Tabemashita ^laie. 
Tabeyo or iaberu daro ) I shall jirobably 
Tabemasho ] eat. 
Tabete } Eating, having 
Tabemashtte ^ eaten. 
Tabenai ) I do not vr 
Tabemasen ^ shall not eat. 
Tabenakatta It j-j t. *. 
Tabemasen deshita ll^^^noteat. 
Tabemai \ I shall probably not 
Tabemasumai ^ eat. 
Tabetai I want to eat. 
Tabetaku nai I don't want to eat. 



Language. 



19 



Adjectives are conjugated somewhat after the model of am, " to be,"' 
as yoroshii or yoi, " it is good ; " yokatta, " it was, or %YOiild have beeu 
good ; " yokaro, " it will probably be good ; " yoku nai, " it is not good ; " 
yokute, " being good ; " yoku nakiite, " not being good." Similarly warui, 
"is bad;" icarukatta, "was bad;" takai, "is dear;" takaku nai, "not 
dear; " muzukashii, "is diflflcult ; " muzukashikute, "being diflficiilt," etc. 

The Japanese, hke other nations of the Far East, are much addicted 
to the use of pohte forms of speech. When two equivalents for the same 
English phrase are given in our " List of Useful Sentences." that marked 
"less polite" should be used only to coolies and others of the lov/est 
class. It will be noticed in numerous examples that our English impera- 
tives are almost always softened down to a pohte periphrasis with the 

word kudasai, "please give," "condescend to " Sometimes the final 

kudasai is omitted for brevity's sake, as lb tco shimete kudasai (lit. 
"Door shutting condescend"), or more famiharly, To ico shimete, "Shut 
the door." The Negative Imperative is mostly rendered as follows : — 
So shicha (for shite v:a) ikenai, "Don't do that," lit. "As for so doing, 
it is no go ; " Otoshicha ikenai, " Don't drop it." 

The following Vocabukiry and the Sentences that follow will be 
found useful. The interlinear hteral translations serve to show which 
word corresponds to which, — a thing otherwise hopelessly perplexing to 
the beginner, on account of the mde gulf that separates Jajmnese from 
English idiom. Those ambitious of learning more of the language can 
provide themselves with Chamberlain's Handbook of Colloquial Japanese 
and Hampden and Parlett's English-Japanese Dictionary. Hepburn's 
Pocket-Dictionary is to be recommended for Japanese-Enghsh. 



address 
(written) 

aerated 
water 

bad 

bag, (hand-) 

baggage 

barber 

k 

bar(-room) 

bath (hot) 
„ (cold) 

beans 

bed 

bed-clothes 

bed-room 

bedstead 
beef 

beer 
beU 
bicycle 
big 
biU 
(account) 



tokoro-gaki 

teppd-mizu 

icarui 

kaban 

nimotsu 

toko-ya, 

'ami-hasami 

sakaba 

furo, o yu 

mizu-buro 

mame 

toko 

futon, yogi 

nema, 

nebeya 
nedai 
gyu-niku, 

ushi 
biiru 
yohi-gane 
jitensha 
bkii 
kanjo 



VOCABULAHY. 






bilhards 


tama-tsuki 


candle 


rosoku 


bill of fare 


kondate 


cards 


karuta 


black 


kuroi 


(playing) 




blanket 


furanken, 


cards 


na-fuda. 




ketto 


(visiting) 


meishi 


blue 


aoi, 


carriage 


basha 




sora-iro 


change 


tsuri 


boat 


fune 


(money) 




boatman 


sendo 


charcoal 


sumi 


book 


hon 


cheap 


yasui 


boots 


kutsu 


chicken 


niwatori, 


bottle 


tokkuri 




tori 


,, (big) 


o-bin 


chopsticks 


hashi 


„ (small) ko-bin 


cigar 


maki-taba- 


„ (hot- 


yu-iampo 




ko,hamaki 


water) 




cigarettes 


kami-maki 


box 


hako 


coachman 


gyosha 


brazier 


hibachi 


coal 


sekitan 


bread 


pan 


coffee 


kohl, kahe 


breakfast 


asa-han 


cold 


samui. 


bridge 


hashi 




isumetai 


brocade 


nishiki 


consulate 


rydji-kican 


bronze 


kara-kane 


coolie 


ninsoku 


cabin 


heya 


corkscrew 


sen-nuki 


cabinet 


tansu 


cotton 


momen 


cake 


kicashi 


crape 


chirimen 



20 



Introduction : — Language. 



cucumber ki-uri 
cup koppu 

cuxio-shop dogu-ya 
dear takai 

dining-room shoku-do 
dinner (late) yushoku, 
yfi-han 
disinfectant shuki-dome 
doctor isha 

door to 

downstairs shtta 
driver gyosha 

duck (tame) ahiru 
., (wild) kamo 
eels unagi 

egg tamago 

„ (boiled) ude-tamago 

.. (half- hanjiku 

boiled) 

egg-plant iiasii 
electric tram densha 
embroidery nxd-mono 
express kyuko- 

train tessha 

fair (festi- ennichi 

val) 
fan (that ogi, se/isu 

shuts) 
fan (not uchiica 

shutting) 
far tot, ernpo 

feast gochisb 

t&nj funa- 

icatash i 
festival raatsari 

fire hi 

fire (conflag- kytxiji 

ration) 
fish sakami 

flea nomi 

food tdbe-mono 

„ (Euro- yo-shoku 

pean) 
fork ynku-sash}, 

hoko 
fowl tori 

fruit kudamono 

garden niica 

gold kin 

good yorosliii 

grapes hudb 

green midori 

guide annai-sha 

„ book annai-sho 
hard kaiai 



heavy 


omoi. 


mustard 


karashi 




omoiai 


napkin 


kuchi-fuki 


high 


takai 


near 


chikai 


hill 


yama 


oil 


abura 


horse 


uma 


oil-paper 


ahura-gami 


hot 


afsv.i 


omnibus 


nori-ai- 


hotel 


yadoya, 




basha 




hoteru 


onions 


negi 


house 


ie, uchi 


orange 


mikan 


ice 


kbri 


overcoat 


gicaiio 


ink (Indian 


) sumi 


oyster 


kaki 


inn 


yadoya 


pafter 


kami 


„ -keeper 


aruji, teishi 


parcel 


ko-zutsumi 


interpreter 


tsiihen 


„ post 


ko-zutsumi 


island 


shima 




yubin 


Japan 


Xihon, 


pass (moun 


- toge 




Nippon 


tain) 




kettle 


tetsiibin 


path 


michi 


kitchen 


dai-dokoro 


peach 


morno 


knife 


hocho 


pear 


nashi 


1 lacquer 


urushi. 


peas 


endb-mame 


i 


nurimono 


pen 


fude 


lake 


ndzu-urtii. 


pepper 


koshb 


i 


kosui 


persimmon 


kaki 


lamp 


rampu 


pheasant 


klji 


landing- 


hatdba 


pin 


tome-bari 


place 




plum 


sumomo, 


lantern 


chochin 




ume 


lemonade 


ramune 


pohceman 


junsa 


letter 


tegami 


pohce- 


koban 


j hght (not 


karui 


station 




1 heavy) 




porcelain 


seto-mono 


hght (lamp 


, akari 


portmanteau kahan 


1 etc.) 




post-office 


yfibin- 


j low 


hikui 




kyoku 


i luggage 


nimotsu 


potatoes 


imo 


j lunch 


hiru-meshi 


„ (sweet) Satsuma- 


; mat 


tatami 




imo 


'. match 


tsukegi. 


pretty 


kirei 


1 
1 


matchi 


price 


nedan 


matting 


goza 


quail 


uzura 


meat 


niku 


railway 


tetsudb 


medicine 


kusuri 


train kisha 


melon 


makuwa- 


raw 


nania 


(musk-) 


uri 


razor 


kami-sori 


melon 


suikvia 


red 


akai 


(water-) 




rice (boiled) meshi, 


1 milk 


{ushi no) 




gozen 


i 


chichi 


river 


kaica 


1 milk 


kanzume- 


road 


michi 


(tinned) 


no-chichi 


„ (new) 


shindb 


money 


kane, kinsu 


„ (old) 


kyildb 


moscxuito 


ka 


room 


hey a. 


„ -net kaya 




zashiki 


mountain 


yama 


rug 


ketto 



Language. 



21 



salmon shake 


stick 


tsue, 


train kislui 


Halmon-trout masu 




sutekki 


„ (first) ichi-ban- 


salt 


shiico 


strawbeny 


' ichigo 


gisha 


sardines iicashi 


street 


machi, tori 


„ (last) shu-ressha 


screen 


hyohu 


sugar 


said 


„ (ex- kyukb- 


sea 


umi 


supper 


yushoku, 


press) ressha 


servan 


t meshi- 




yilhan 


„ (through) chokkb 




tsukai 


tea 


cha, cha 


tramway tetsudo- 


shaving- hige no yu 


„ (Chinese) iVanfcin- 


basha 


water 






cha 


„ (electric) densha 


ship 


fune 


tea-cup 


cha-wan 


trout at, yamame 


shop 


mise 


tea-house 


chaya 


tub (not re- gybzui 


shop-keeper akindo 


tea-pot 


kibisho 


gular bath) 


silk 


kinu 


telegram 


dempo 


ugly migurvshii 


silver 


gin 


telegrai)h 


denshin- 


umbrella kasa. 


small 


chilsal 


office 


kyoku 


kbmorl 


snipe 


shigi 


telephone 


den-ica 


upstairs nikai 


soap 


shahon 


temple 


tera 


vegetables yasai 


soup 


soppu. 


(Buddhist) 


vinegar su 




tsuyu 


temple 


jinja, mlya 


waiter ! boy ! 


soy 


shoyu, 


(Shinto) 




waitress ! ne-san ! 




shitaji 


ticket 


kippu 


water (cold) mizu 


spoon 


saji 


„ (return) ofuku- 


„ (hot) yu, yu 


stamp 


yiibin-gitte 




gippu 


„ (tepid) nuruma-yu 


(postage-) 


time-table 


jikan-hyo 


water-closet benjo. 


station 


station, 


tinned pre 


)- kanzume 


chozuba 




teishaha 


visions 




white shi7'oi 


steamer jokisen 


toothi^ick 


koydji 


window mado 


steam- 


ko-joki 


towel 


tenugui 


wine budoshu 


Launch 


town 


machi 




I 1 


catakushi 


She ayio 


hito, ano onna 


You (plur.) anata-gata 


My watakushi no 


iS[-« 


Mto no 


They anohito-tacli 


You anata, omae 


This kore 


Your anata no, omae no 


It sore 


, are 


That sore, are 


He ano hito, ano otoko 


We t':atakushi-domo 




1 — 


Miotsu or ich I 


11 -r- 


ju-ich'i 


21 Hi-— ni-ju-ichi 


2 - 


futatsu or nl 


12 i-z: 


ju-ni 


30 3-h san-ju 


3 H 


mitsu or san 


13 -hH 


ju-san 


40 0i- shi-ja 


4 m 


yotsu or shi 


14 -rm 


ju-shi 


50 S-f- go-jil 


5 S 


itsutsu or go 


15 i-s 


ju-go 


60 p;^;-^ roku-ju 


6:^ 


mutsu or roku 


16 -f-:^ 


JH-roku 


70 ^r-h shlchi-ju 


7 -b 


nanatsu or shichi 


17 ^-b 


ju-shichi 


80 A+ hachi-jfi 


8 A 


yatsu or hachi 


18 iv\ 


ju-hachi 


90 X-Y ku-ju 


9;fL 


kokonotsu or ku 


19 i-7L 


ju-ku 


100 -g" hyaku 


10 -t 


to or ju 


. 20 --P 


ni-jii 


1000 =f- sen 


No. 1 


ichi-han 


1 1 o'clock 


ichi-ji 


j 5 o'clock go-ji 


No. 2 


ni-ban 


1 2 „ 


ni-ji 


5J „ go-ji-han 


No. 3 


sam-han 


3 „ 


san-ji 


6 „ roku-ji 


No. 4 


yo-ban 


; 4 


yo-ji 


61 „ roku-ji-han 


1 yen ichi-yen 


20 sen 


ni-jis-sen 


j 1st class ittd,jdtd 


2 „ 


ni-yen 


30 „ 


san-jis-sen 


2nd „ ni-to, chiito 


10 sen jis-sen 


40 „ 


shi-jis-sen 


\ 3rd „ san-to, kato 



22 



Introduction: — Language. 



A jmrildsliii with one man is called ichi-nin-hlki ; with two men, 
nl-nin-hiki. A carriage with one horse is it-tb-hxVi ; with two horses, ni-to- 
biki. 

Many of onr words have no Japanese equivalents, because the things 
for which they stand are not commonly known in Japan. Such are, for 
instance, jam, lamb, pmlding. The following are examples of Japanese 
words for which there are noexact Enghsh equivalent : 

nto-oslil, a second jinriMsha coolie who jiushes from behind. 

berdb, lunch carried with one. 

hento-bako, a box to hold such lunch. 

betto, a running groom. 

dotera, a kind of wadded dressing-gown. 

kago, a kind of basket or htter in which travellers are carried. 

kai-kiri, engaging the whole (of a vehicle or boat). 

kimono, a Japanese gown. 

kya-han, a kind of gaiters. 

y'anagi-gori, a useful sort of trunk made of wicker-work. 

yukata, a thin dressing-gown worn before and after the bath. 



1 


'TsEFUL Sentences. 
I. 

>rTSCELT.ANEOrS. 












How do you do ? 


KonnlcJil v:a ? 
To-day as for 






Good morning 


hayb. 

Honourably early 






I is fine weaiiif r to-day. 


KonmcM n-n. 


y<A tenkl 


de 




To-day as for, 


good weather 


by 




qozaimasu. 








is 






It is hot to-day. 


atsii. gozalmasu. 
Honourably hot augustly-is 




It is cold to-day. 


fiamii gomlmnsu. 




(The above weather 


remarks almost amount to greetings.) 




Crood evening. 


Komban ica! 
This evening as for 






Good night. 


ya.snmi 


nami. 






Honourably resting 


deign 




Goodbye. 


Saydnara. 






Thank you. 


Arlgato. 






Pray don't mention it. 


Do UashlmasJnte .' 
How having done 






That is so (= English " yes '") 


1. Sayd de goznlmasu. 
So by is 






„ (less ix)lite). 


So desu, or So da. 
So is so is 






Is that SD ? 


So dcsu ka ? 







Language. 



23 



That is not so. 

Isn't that so ? 

Is that all right ? (poHte) 

„ (less polite). 
That is all right. 
Is it this ? 

It is this. 
It isn't this. 

Do you Tinderstand ? 

I understand. 

I don't understand. 

Please speak slowly. 

Please come here. 

Come in. 

Please sit down. 

Please come again. 

Please excuse me. 

AUow me to congratiilate you. 

This is plenty. 
No, thank you. 

What shall we do ? 

^Vhat is it ? 

AVhat is this ? 

Please show me. 

Please let me know. 

Just let me look. 

Please go and ask. 

You had better go and ask. 

Just go and see. 



So ja nai. 
So by isn't 

So ja nai ka ? 

Yoroshiu gozaimasu ka ? 
Good is ? 

Yoroshii ka ? 

Yoroshiu gozalmasv, or Yoroshii. 

Kore desu ka ? 
This is ? 

Kore desu. 

Kore ja nai. 
This by isn't 

WakarimasJnia ka ? 
Have understood ? 

Wakarimashita . 
Wakarimasen. 

Soro-soro hanashite kudasal. 
Slowly speaking condescend 

Oide nasai. 

Honourable-exit deign 

lialri nasai. 

Honourably entering deign 

Bozo o kake nasai. 

Please honourably to-place deign 

Mata irasshai. 
Again come 

Gomen nasai. 

August-excuse deign 

medeto gozaimasu. 

Honoiarably congratulatory is 

[ Mo takusan. 
i Already plenty 

Do shimasJtd ? 
How shall do 

2^an desu ka ? 
VvTiat is ? 

Kore ica, nan desu ka ? 
This as for, what is ? 

Misete kudasai. 
Showing condescend 

Shirashtfe kudasa i. 
Informing condescend 

Ghotto halken. 
Just respectful-glance 

Kiite kudasai. 
Asking condescend 

Kiite kuru ga ii. 
Asking to-come (nom.) good 

Chotto mite kite kudasai. 
Just looking coming condescend 



24 



Introduction: — Language. 



Is that aU right ? 

Don't do that. 

That won't do. 

■\Miy do you do such things ? 

Please take care. 

Please pay attention. ; 

TMiere is it ? 

Who is it ? 
"When is it ? 
"\Miere is it from ? 
V,Tiat o'clock is it ? 

Is this aU? 

I don't know. 

He says he doesn't know. 

Wait a httle. 

Go qnickly. 

That is no good, or That won't do. 

"\Miich is yours ? 

This is mine. 

V.Tio is that ? 

WTiat is his name ? 

That is enough. 

Oh, what a bother ! 

Don't make such a row ! 

Don't bother so ! 

^Vhat a horrid smell ! 

Please leave off. j 

Don't do that. I 



Sore de yoroshii ka ? 
That by good ? 

So shicha ikenai. 
So as for doing, is no go 

Sore ja ikemasen. 
That by, is no go 

Xaze sonna koto uo sum ka ? 
Why such things (accus.) do ? 

Ki ICO tsukete kudasai. 
Spirit (accus.) fixing condescend 

Boko desu ka? 
Where is ? 

Dare desu ka ? 

Itsu desu ka ? 

Doko kara desu ka ? 

Kan-doki desu ka ? 
What-hour is ? 

Kore dake desu ka ? 
This only is ? 

Shirimasen (less polite Shiranai). 

Sldrimasen to i'lmasu. 
Kno-ws-not that says 

Sukoshi mate. 
Little wait 

Ikiyaku ! Ilayaku ! 
Quickly q\iickly 

Sore ica dame desu. 
That as for, useless is 

Dotchi fja anata no desu ka? 
Which (nom.) you of is ? 

Kore fja icatakushi no desu. 
This (nom.) me of is 

Ano Jiito ica, dare desu ka ? 
That person as for, who is ? 

Ano Into no na ira, nan 
That person of name as for, what 

to iimasu ka ? 
that say ? 

Jio yoroshii. 
Already good 

Komatta mon' da nel 
Troubled thing is, indeed 

Yakamashii ! 
Xoisy 

Urusai! Urusai! 

Troublesome troublesome 

Kusai! kusail 
Smelly smelly 

yoshi nasal. 

Honourably abstaining deign 



Language. 



25 



It can't be helped. 
As quickly as possible. 
As early as xx)ssible. 
Is anything the matter ? 

Which is the best ? 

How much for one ? 

How much per ri (2^ miles) ? 

How much per head ? 

I don't want that. 
This is the one I want. 

It doesn't matter. 
I don't care. 

What a pity ! 

I have none at all. 

Has nobody come ? 

Can you ? 

I can. 

I can't. 

Can you go ? 

I can (go). 

I cannot (go). 

^^Tiat is the reason ? 

You mustn't touch it. 

Give me one more (another). 

Please go first {aprds vons). 

I should Hke to borrow it for 
minute. 



Shikata (ja nui 

Doing luanner (nom.) isn't 

Xarutake isoide. 

A.s...aB possible hurrying 

Xa ru fake h ayaku . 

As.. .as possible quickly 

Do ka shimashita ka ? 
Somehow has done ? 

Dotchi (/a yorosJiii ? 
Which (nom.) ' good 

Hitoisu ikura ? 
One how much 

IcJd-ri ikura ? 
One ri how much 

H^torl-mae ikura ? 

One person front, how much 

Are ica irimasen. 
That as for, enters not 

Kono ho ga irimasu. 
This side (nom.) enters 

Kamaimasen. 
Matters not 

OsJiii koto desu ne! 
Regrettable fact is, indeed 

Sukoshi mo nal. 
Little even isn't 

Dare mo konai ka? 
Anybody comes not ? 

Dekimasu ka ? 
Forthcomes (it) ? 

Dekimasii. 
Forthcomes 

Dekimasen. 
Forthcomes not 

Ikaremasu ka ? 
Can go ? 

Ikaremasu. 
Can go 

Ikaremasen. 
Cannot go 

Bo iu icake desu ? 
What say reason is 

Ijltcha ikenai. 

As for-touching is-no-go 

Mo Jntotsu kudasai. 
More one condescend 

TJozo saki ye. 

Please honourable front to 

Chotto haishaku. 
Slightly borrowing 



26 



Introduction : — Language. 



Don't break it. 

You mustn't break it. 

It is your fault. 

It is not my fault. 

I am very glad to see you. 

Please give it to me. 

I am going out at about nine 
o'clock. 

^\Tiat is the matter ? 
Look for it everywhere. 
How long -s^-ill it take ? 
Hov\^ much will it cost ? 
I want a piece of string. 
I have not yet deciclecl. 
I only want one. 

And then 

It can't be found. 

Call him back. 

"Wliich are yours ? 

AMiose are these ? 

He said he'd come to-morrow. 

Will you guarantee it ? 



KowasJncha ikenaL 
As-for-breaking is-no-go 

Anafa c/a icanii. 
You (nom.) bad 

Watakitshi ga icanii n'ja nai 
I (nom.) bad of isn't 

Yoku o ide nasa'imashita 
Well honourable exit have-deigned 

Kuclasal. 
cone 



Ku-ji goto ni de-kakemasu 
Nine-hours about at go-out 

Do shimashtta ka? 
How has-done ? 

Yoku yoku sagaslnfe. 
Well well seeking 

( Toki tea) dono kural kakarbiuisu ? 
Time as for, what about costs 

(Kane u-a) dono kural kakarimasu ? 
Money as for, what about costs 

Ito ICO kudasal. 
String (accus.) condescend 

Mada kimemasen. 
Yet decide not 

IlMotsu de yoroshii. 
One by is good 

Sore kara 

That from 

Mi-tsukaratyxi. 
See fix cannot 

Yohi-modoshife kudasal. 
Calling back condescend 

Dochira ga anata no desu 7 
^Vhich (nom.) you of is? 

Dare no desu ka ? 
Who of is ? 

Mydnlchi kuru to ilmashVa 
To-morrow come that said 

Uke-aimasu ka ? 
Guarantee V 



n. 



^Miicli is the best inn ? 

Have you any rooms ? 
Have you any beer ? 



AT AN INN. 

Yado 
Hotel 



as for, 



nam-ya 
what-h'ouse 



nom.) 



yoroshll ka ? 
good ? 

Zashlkl u-a, arbnasu ka? 

Hoom as for, is ? 

Bilru u-a, arlmasu ka ? 



Language. 



27 



This room will do. 

Can you give tis European food ? 

I suppose you haven't bedsteads, 

have you ? 
I don't want a bedstead. 

Are there any mosquitoes here ? 



It is dreadfully hot. 

Please ojDen the paper slides. 

Please shut the window. 
Bring some hot water. 

Bring some cold water. 

Where is the W. C. ? 
Please show me the way. 
Please bring a candle. 

Is the bath ready ? 

It is not ready yet. 

Isn't it ready yet ? 
A\Tien will it be ready ? 

As soon as it is ready. 

Please let me knoAV wheii it is 
ready. 

All right, Sir. 

Please buy me five 10 sen ix)st- 
age-stamps. 



va, 
as for. 



ga 



ka 
niosqiuto 



nai. 
isn't 



Kono zaslCikl de yoroshlL 
Thia room by, good 

Yo-shoku ga dekimasu ka ? 
Sea-food (nom.) forthcomes ? 

Neda'i wt, arlmasumal, ne ': 
Bedstead as for, probably is not, eh V 

Neddi rn(, irimasen. 
Bedstead as for, enters not 

Kono hen 

This neighbourhood 

ga imasu ka ? 
(nom.) dwells ? 

Atsukute, shi-yd 

Hot being, way of doing (nom 

Shoji ICO akete kudasal. 
Paper slides (accus.) opening condescend 

3Iado u-o shimete kudasal . 
Window (accns.) shutting condescend 

yu ICO motte 

Honourable hot water (accus.) bearing 

kol 
come 

Mmi motte koi. 
Cold water bearing come 

Benjo na, dochira desu ? 
W. C. as for, where is ? 
(Jhotto annal slide ku.dasai. 

Just guide doing condescend 
Jidsoku v:o motte kite 

Candle (accus.) carrying coming 

kudasal. 
condescend 

Faro ga deklmashita ka ? 
Bath (nom.) has forthcome V 

Mada deklmasen. 
Still forthcomes not 

Mada deklmasen ka? 

Its'ii dekimasu ka ? 
When forthcomes ? 

Bcki shidal. 

Forthcomes according 

Deklmasltitara, 
When shall have forthcome 

kudasal. 
condescend 

Kashikomarlmashita . 
Have been reverential 

Jls-sen no yuhln-glite go-mal 
Ten sen of postage-stamp five jjieces 

kaite kite kudasal. 
buying coming condescend 



shirashile 
informing 



(said only to 
superiors). 



28 



Introduction : — Language. 



And then please take these things 
away. 



Have the things come from the 

wash ? 
I am thirsty. 

Give me a glass of water. 

Please give me some more. 

I am himgry. 

I want something to eat. 
Please get it ready qtiickly. 

Anything vnH do. 

Do you want any more. 

No, thanks. 

And then please lay down the 
bedding. 

Please let me have more quilts. 



There is a hole in the mosqnito- 
net. 

I want to get shaved. Is there a 
barber here ? 



There is. 

Then send for him. 
I feel unwell, 
s there a doctor here ? 



Sore 
That 



kara, 
from. 



ga Icaicakimaslnta. 
(nom.) ha."? dried 



kore uo sagete 
this (accus.) lowering 

kudasai. 
condescend 

Sentaku-mono ga dekita ka ? 

Wash-things (nom.) h3.ve forthcome ? 

Nodo 
Throat 

Mizii ICO ippai. 
Water (accus.) one-full 

Motto kudasai. 
More condescend 

naka 

Honourable inside 

sukimashlta. 
has become empty 

Xani ka tahetal. 
Something want to eat 

sJtitaku 

Honourable preparations (accus.) 

doka. 
please 

Xan de mo yorosldi. 
What by even good 

Motto agarimasu ka ? 
More take ? 

J/o takusan. 
Already plenty 

Sore kara, toko sJwte kudasai. 
That from, bed spreading condescend 

Fidon ico motto shiiie 

Quilt (accus.) more spreading 

kudasai. 
condescend 

Kaya ni, 

Mosquito-net in, 



ga 
(nom.) 



ico hayaku 

quickly 



ana ga anmasu. 
hole (nom.) is 



Hige 
Beard 



v:o 
(accus. 



ga, koko 
whereas, here 



sotte 
shaving 

rd 
in 



mora it a i 
want to receive 

tokoya ga 

barber (nom.) 



arima.9u 
is 



ka ? 
1 



GozaimasU, (more polite than 
masu). 

Sonnara yonde koi. 
If so, calling come 

Kagen ga uand. 
state (nojn. ) bad 

Koko ni isha ga 
Here in doctor (nom. 



Ari- 



arirnasu 
is 



u ka 



Language. 



29 



Please call my " boy." 

Please hiirry him up. 
Please lend a hand here. 
Please post these (letters). 

Please hght the hghts. 

I start at 7 o'clock to-morrow 
morning. 

As I am starting early to-morrow, 

please wake me early. 
I want to be called at half past 5. 



1 am going by the first train in 
the morning. 

At what o'clock does the first 
train start ? 

Please engage two coohes. 



Please bring the bill. 



Please to accef)t this small sum 
as tea-money. 



Many thanks for the troiible you 
have taken. 



Is the luggage ready ? 



Is nothing forgotten ? 



Watakushi no 
I of 

kudasai. 
condescend 

Saisoku shite 
Urgency doing 

Te wo kasliite kudasai. 
Hand (accus.) lending condescend 
Kono yuh'in tco dashite 
This ' post (accus.) putting forth 

kudasai. 
condescend 

Akari rco tsukde kudasai. 
Light (accus.) fixing condescend 

Myo-asa shichi-ji ni 

To-morrow morning Beven-hours at 

shuttatsu shimasu. 
departure do 

Myo-asa hayaku tats a 

To-morrow morning early start 

kar'a, hayaku okoshite kudasai. 
because, early rousing condescend 

Go-ji-han ni okoslnfe morai- 

Five-hourshalf, at rousing want-to- 

iai. 
obtain 



hoy tco yonde 

boy (accus.) calling 



kudasai. 
condescend 



Ichi-han-gisha de 

One-number-train by 

IcM-han-gisha tea 

One-number-train as for, 



Xinsoku 
Coolie 

kudasai. 
condescend 

iJoka 
Please 

kite 
coming 

Kore 



futari 
two people 



ikimasu. 
go 

nanji desu ? 
what-hour is 

tanonde 
requesting 



kanjo-gaki 
bill-writing 

kudasai.) 
condescend 

sukoshi 



KO 
(accus. 



{rnotte 
carrying 



ica. 



desu ga — 
This as for, little is although,— 

o chadai desu. 

honourable tea-price is 

Oki-ni o sewa ni 

Greatly honourable help to 

narimashtta. 
have become 

Ximotsu no shtiaku 
Luggage of preparation 



wa, 
as for. 



yoroshii ka ? 
good ? 

Wasure-mono wa nai ka? 
Forgotten things as for, aren't ? 



30 



Introduction : — Language. 



Please order the jinrikislias. 



"We A\ill start as soon as every- 
thing is ready. 

It is time to start. 

We must not be late. 

It is so nasty I can't eat it. 

There are none anywhere. ) 

It is not to be found anywhere. f 
It is so hot I can't get into it. 

It is not hot enough 

I want a jiniildsha. 

I am not going to buy anything. 

WTaere have you been ? 

(in scolding a servant for absence) 

What is this called in Japanese ? 



K'uruma no shitaku ico, 

Jinrikisha of preparation (accus.) 

shite kudasai. 
doing condescend 

Stiitaku shidai, de-kakemasho. 
preparation according will go forth 

Jikan nl narimasluto . 
Hour to has become 

Osoku nam to ikenai. 
Late become if, is no go 

Mazukute taheraremasen. 
Being-nasty cannot-eat 

IJoko ni mo, arimasen. 
Where in even is-not 

Atsukute liairemasen. 
Being-hot cannot-enter 

Xurukute ikenai. 
Being-tepid is no go 

Kuruma ga irimasii. 
Jinrikisha (nom.) is-necessary 

Xani-mo kaimasen. 
Anything buy-not 

Omae ica, doko ye itte ita? 
You as-for, where to going have been 

Xihon-go de, kore v:a nan to 
Japan-language in, this as-for, what that 

iimasu ? 



It is very inconvenient. 
According to circumstances. 
If it suits your convenience. 
I think that would be the most 
convenient. 

That is a different thing. 
It is a mistake. 

Please dry this. 

Please clean the room. 

AViU you change this five yen 
note? 

Please sew this. 

I will go and see it. 



Yohodo futsugo desu. 
Plenty inconvenient is 

Tsugo shidai. 

Convenience according 

Go tsugo ga yokereha. 

August convenience (nom.) if-is-good 

Sono ho ga, tsugo ga 

That side as-for, convenience (uom. 

yb gozalmasho. 

good will-probably-be 

I Chigaimasu. 
) (It) differs 

Kore no hoshtte kudasai 
This (accus.) drying condescend 

Soji shite kudasai 
Cleansing doing condescend 

Kono go-yen satsu tori-kaeit 
This five-yew bill changing 

kuremasu ka ? 
give ? 

Kore ICO nuite kudasai 
This (accus.) sewing condescend 

Mite kimashb. 
Looking will-come 



Language. 



31 



Please cool the beer. 

That is not enough. 

We will engage the whole (car, 
boat, etc.). 

I will go if it is fine, 

I will take my bath first and my 
food afterwards. 

I want to get my hair cut. 

Don't cut it too short. 

It is very uncomfortable. 

What are you looking for ? 

It is only a little way. 

It is dreadfully draughty. 

The fire has gone out ; please 
bring some more charcoal. 



Please put out the light. 

You must not put out the hght. 
Did any one call while I was out ? 
Put them separately. 



Biiru ICO hiyashtte kudasai. 
Beer (accus.) cooling condescend 

Sore de tarimasen. 
That by euffices-not 

Kai-kirl ni itashimashd. 

Buy-completing to will-do 

Tcnki vara, ikimashd. 
Fine-weather if-ig will-go 

l^uro ica saki, shokuji ica ato 
Bath as-for before, food as-for after 

nl shimasho. 
to will-do 

Kami ico hasande raoraUa'i. 
Hair (accus.) cutting want to get 

Aniari mijikaku kitcha ikenai. 
Too short as-for-cutting is-no-go 

Yohodo fujiyu desv. 
Very uncomfortable is 

JVani ICO sagasJnte iru ? 
What (accus.) seeking are 

Jxki soko desii. 
Soon there is 

Kaze cja Jiaitte, komaru. 
Wind (nom.) entering am troubled 

Hi ga kieta kara, motto 
Fire (nom.) vanished because, more 

su7nl ICO motte kite 

charcoal (accus.) carrying coming 

o kure. 

honourably give 

Akari v:o keshtte o 

Light (accus.) extinguishing honourably 

kure. 
give 

Akari ico keshicha ikemasen. 
Light (accus.) extinguishing is no go 

Ilusu ni, dare ka kimasen ka '.' 
Absence in somebody comes not ? 

Betsu-betsu ni shite kudasai. 
Separate separate in doing condescend 



ni. 



I think I'll go out shopping. 
How much is it ? 
That is too dear. 



Kaimono ni de-kakemasho. 
Purchases to will probably go out 

Ikura desvL ? 
How much is 

Sore wa takai. 
That as for. dear 



32 



Introduction : — Language. 



You must go down a little in price. 
Hayen't you any a little chea]per ? 

How much does it till come to ? 
Have you change for a yen ? 

Please send them to the hotel. 
Haven't you got something new ? 



Siikoshi o make nasai. 

Little honourably cheapening deign 

J/o chitto yasui no ga 

still slightly cheap inea (nom.) 

nai ka ? 
aren't ? 

Mina de, ikura ni nririmasu ka ? 
All by how much to becomes ? 

Ichi-yen no tsuri wa, 

One yen of change as for 

arimasu ka ? 
is ? 

Yado ye iodokete kudasai. 
Hotel to forwarding condescend 

Xani ka atarashii mono arimasen 
Something new thing isn't 

ka? 



This is the better of the two. ) 

This is the one I want. (" 

VThht is this used for ? 



"\Miat is this made of ? 

I don't like it. 

Is there a cake-shop here ? 

How much for one ? 

I'll take aU these ; please wrap 

them up in paper. 
Wrap them up separately. 

Are they all the same price ? 



tsukaimasu 
employ 



dekite 
forthcoming 



Kono ho <ja ii. 
This side (nom.) good 

Kore ica, nani ni 
This as for what to 
ka ? 
? 

Kore v:a, nani de 
This as for what by 

imasu ka? 
is ? 

Ki ni irimasen. 
Spirit to enters-not 

Koko ni kwashi-ya arimasii ka? 
Here in cake-shop is ? 

Hiiotsu ikura ? 
One how-much 

Kore dake kaimasu kara, karai 
This amount buy because, paper 



ni tsv.tsunde 
in wrapping 

Betsu betsu 

Separate separate 

kudasai. 
condescend 

Jlina do-ne 
All same-price 



kudasai. 
condescend 

ni 
in 



tsutsirnde 
wrapping 



desu ka? 
is ? 



VtTiich is the way to Kiga ? 



IV. 

ON THE EOAD. 



Kiga ye 
Kiga to 

dochira de 
which by 



iku 



michi tea, 
road as for, 



gozaimasu ? 

iB 



Language. 



33 



Please tell me the way. 

Go straight on. 

"\Miere is the telegraph office ? 



Michi wo oshiete kudasai. 
Road (accus.) teaching condescend 



Massugu ni 
Straight in 

Denshin-kyoku 
Telegraph office 

desu ka ? 



oide n«.9«i. 

honourable exit deign 

u-a, dochira 

as for, where 



^\^aere is the ticket-office 



(Give me) one 1st class ticket to 
Nikko. 



(Please Look) this luggage for 
Nikkd. 



How many hours does it take to 
get to Nagoya. 



I mean to spend the night at 
Nagoya. 



"When does the train for Nikko 
start ? 



Where do we change trains ? 

I will rest a httle. 

^Yh.at is the name of that moun- 
tain ? 

What is this jilace called ? 



Is this a Buddhist or a Shintd 
temple ? 



Kippu 
Ticket 


wo uru 
(accus.) sell 


tokoro wa 
place as for 


doko 
where 


desu ka ? 
is ? 




Xikko 
Nikko 


made, 
till. 


itto ichl- 
first class one- 


mai. 






piece 






Kore 
This 


dake no 
only of 


nimotsu wo 
luggage (accus.) 


Xikko made. 
Nikko till 




Xagoya 
Nagoya 


made, 
till. 


nan-ji-kan 
what-hour -space 


kakarimasu ? 
lasts? 




Xagoya 
Nagoya 


de, ippaku 

at one-night's lodging 


suru 
do 


tsumorl desu. 
intention is 


2\ikko-yukl no 
Nikko going of 


kisha wa, 
train aa for. 



nan-doki 7il demasu 
what hour at issues 



ka. 



Doko de nori-kaemasu ka ? 
Where at ride-change ? 

Sickoshi yasumimashb. 
Little will rest 



nan to 
what that 



to 
that 



Ano yama ica. 
That mountain as for, 

iimasu ka ? 
say ? 

Koko ica, nan 

Here as for, what 

tokoro desu ka ? 
place is ? 

Kore wa, tera desu 

This as for, Buddh. temple is 

yashiro desu ka ? 
Shinto temple is ? 



m 

say 



ka? 
? 



34 



Introduction : — Language. 



How far is it from here to the 
next town ? 



I \yi\l lie do^^^l a bit, as I feel 

seasick. 
Will you come with me ? 
Let us go together. 
Let us rest a httle. 
I want to see the dancing. 
I don't want to see it. 
Is it much further ? 
"When wiU. you come ? 
"WTien \^-ill he come ? 
I have left it behind. 

What is there to see here ? 

Do you think we shall be in time ? 

Are you ready ? 

There is jilenty of time. 

There isn't enough time. 

I am busy now ; come later. 

What is the faie ? 

Give them 10 sen each as a tip. 



Koko 
Here 


kara, saki 'no 
from, front of 


shukii 
post-town 


made, 
till. 


ri-su v:a 
mile-number as for. 


dono 
what 


kurai 
about 


desu ? 
is 




Fane 
Ship 


ni yoimashita 
in have-got- tipsy 


kara, 
because. 


chotto 
little 


nemashb. 
will-lie 




Issho ni ide 
Together honourable exit 


nasal. 
deign 


Tssho 7U 
Together 


ikimasho ja nai ka ? 
will-go isn't it ? 


Chitto yasumimasho ja nai 
Little will-rest isn't it 


ka? 

; ? 



Odori ICO mi-tai. 
Dance (accus.) want-to-see 

Mitaku nai. 
^Yant to-see not 

Mada takusan arimasu ka ? 
Still much is ? 

Itsu o ide ni narimasii ka ? 

When honourable exit to become ? 

Itsu kimasu ka ? 
When comes ? 

Oite kimasMta 

Leaving have-come 

kirtmshita. 
have-come 

Koko de mini 
Here at see 

nan desu ka ? 
what are ? 



Wasurete 
Forgetting 



mono ica, 
things as for 



Ma 
Time 

Mo 

Already 

Ma 

Time 

Ma 

Time 

Ima 
Now 



ka? 
? 



ni aimashb 
to shall meet 

yorosMi ka ? 
'all right ? 

ni aimasii. 
to meets 

ni aimasen. 
to meets-not 

isogashii kara, 



busy 

irasshai. 
deign-to-come 

Chinsen ica, 
Fare as for 



because. 



nochi-hodo 
afterwards 



iku) 



how much 

ni sakate ivo jis-sen 
to, tip (accus.) ten sen 

yatte kudasai. 
giving condescend 



Mei-mei 
Each 



The Shinto Religion. 



35 



It is too wet. 

Isn't there a short cut ? 

I would rather wallv:. 
Is it far ? 

I have a headache. 

I have a toothache. 

Where can we stop for hmch ? 

I shall go whether it rains or not. 

Put me down (said to a jinrild-man). 

I should Hke to enquire. 

^\llich is the best inn at Minobu ? 

Isn't there any inn in this village ? 



Kono ame de shiyo ga nai. 
This rain by way-to-do (nom.) isn't 

ChlJca-michA arimasen ka ? 
Near-road isn't ? 

Arukwiasho. 

Empo desu ka ? 
Far is V 

Zutsu shimasu. 
Headache does 

Ha ga itai. 
Tooth (nom.) iminful 

Hira wa, doko de 
Noon as for, where at 

Futte mo tette 
Raining even, shining even, 

Grose ! 
Let down 

Choito ukagabnasu. 
Little (I) enquire 

Jlinohu ica, yado ica, 
Minobu as for inn as for 

ga yoroshiu gozaimastt ? 



tahemasho ka ? 
shall eat ? 

10 ikimasu. 
I go 



dochira 
where 



(nom.) good 

Kono mura 
This village j 

arimasen ka ? 
isn't ? 



ica, yadoya v:a 

IS for inn as for 



19. — The Shinto Religion ; Kyobu and Puke Shinto. 

The Japanese have two religions, Shinto, and Buddhism, — the former 
indigenous, the latter imported from India via China and Korea ; but 
it must not be supposed that the nation is therefore divided into two 
distinct sections, each professing to observe one of these exclusively. 
On the contrary, the two are so thoroughly interfused in practice, that the 
number of pure Shintoists and pure Buddhists must be extremely small. 
The only exceiDtion is afforded by the province of Satsuma, from which the 
Buddhist priesthood has been excluded ever since some of their number 
betrayed the local chieftain into the hands of Hideyoshi. Every Japa- 
nese from his birth is placed by his parents under the i^rotection of some 
Shint5 deity, whose foster-child he becomes, while the funeral rites are 
generally conducted according to the ceremonial of the Buddhist 
sect to which his family belongs. It is only in recent years that 
burial according to the ancient ritual of the Shintoists has been 
revived, after almost total disuse during some twelve centuries. This 
apparently anomalous condition of things is to be explained by the fact 
that the Shintd religion demands little more of its adherents than a visit 
to the local temple on the occasion of the annual festival, and does not 
profess to teach any theory of the destiny of man, or of moral duty, thus 
leaving the greater part of the field free to the priests of Buddha, ^^•ith 
their apparatus of theological dogma aided by sj)lendid rites and 
gorgeous decorations. Multitudinous as are its own deities, Buddhism 



36 Introduction: — The Shinto Religion. 

found no difficulty in receiying those of the indigenous belief into its 
pantheon, this toleration having been previously displayed with regard 
to Hindu deities and other mythological beings. In most cases it was 
assumed that the native Shinto gods [Kami) were merely avatars of 
some Buddhist deity (Ilotoke) ; and thus it was jxDssible for those who 
became converts to the foreign doctrine to continue to believe in and offer 
up prayers to their ancient gods as before. 

Shinto is a compound of nature-worship and ancestor-worship. It 
has gods and goddesses of the wind, the ocean, fire, food, and pesti- 
lence, of mountains and rivers, of certain special mountains, certain 
rivers, certain trees, certain temples, — eight hundred myriads of deities in 
all. Chief among these is Ama-terasu, the radiant Goddess of the Sun, 
born from the left eye of Izanagi, the Creator of Japan, while from his 
right eye was produced the God of the Moon, and from his nose the 
violent God Susa-no-o, who subjected his sister to various indignities and 
was chastised accortlingly. The Sun-Goddess was the ancestress of the 
line of heaven-descended Milvados, who have reigned in unbroken succes- 
sion from the beginning of the world, and are themselves gods upon 
earth. Hence the Sun-Goddess is honoured above all the rest, her shrine 
at Ise being the Mecca of Japan. Other shrines hold other gods, the 
deified ghosts of princes and heroes of eld, some commanding a wide 
popularity, others known only to narrow local fame, most of them tended 
by hereditary families of priests believed to be lineal descendants either 
of the god himself or of his chief servant. From time to time new 
names are added to the pantheon. The present reign has witnessed 
several instances of such apotheosis. Not a few deities have been traced 
back to a phallic origin. Even down to twenty years ago, shrines 
adorned with emblems of that cult were scattered about the country, and 
processions and other ceremonies were performed in their honour ; but 
this naturalistic vrorship has now almost vanished under the influence of 
modern European ideas. 

Shint5 has scarcely any regular services in which the j^eople take 
part, and its priests (kannushl) are not distinguishable by their appearance 
from ordinary laymen. Only when engaged in presenting the morning 
and evening offerings do they wear a pecuhar dress, which consists of 
a long loose gown with wide sleeves, fastened at the waist with a 
girdle, and sometimes a black cap bound round the head with a broad 
white fillet. The priests are not bound by any vows of cehbacy, and 
retain the ojjtion of adopting another career. At some temples young 
girls perform pantomimic dances which are known as kagura, and assist 
in the presentation of the daily offerings. They likewise are under no 
vows, and marry as a matter of course. The services consist in the pre- 
sentation of small trays of rice, fish, fruits, vegetables, rice-beer, and the 
flesh of birds and animals, and in the recital of certain formal addresses 
[norito], partly laudatory and partly in the nature of petitions. The style 
of composition employed is that of a very remote period, and would not 
be understood by the common jjeople, even if the latter were in the 
habit of taking any jjart in the ritual. With moral teaching, Shinto does 
not profess to concern itself. "Follow your natural impulses, and obey 
the Miksido's decrees : " — such is the sum of its theory of human duty. 
Preaching forms no part of its institutions, nor are the rewards and 
punishments of a future lite used as incentives to right conduct. The 
continued existence of the dead is believed in ; but whether it is a condi- 
tion of joy or pain, is nowhere declared. 

Shin-to is a Chinese word meaning " the "Way of the Gods," and was 











1 ^ 



^'i 




. The Shinto Religion. 37 

first adopted after the introduction of Bnddliism, to distinguish the native 
beliefs and practices from those of the Indian religion. Shintd has several 
sects, — the Honkyoku, the Kurozumi Kyo, etc.; but these divisions do not 
obtrude themselves on public notice. Practically the cult may be regarded 
as one and homogeneous. 

The architecture of Shinto temples is extremely simple, and the mate- 
rial used is plain white wood with a thatch of cham?ecyparis Kark. The 
annexed plan of the Great Temple of Izumo {Izuvio no 0-yashiro), 
taken from a drawing sold to pilgrims, and printed on Japanese paper, 
will serve to exemplify this style of architecture. Few Shinto temples, 
however, are quite so elaborate as this, the second holiest in the Empire. 
We find then : — 

1. The Main Shrine {honsha or honden), which is divided into two 
chambers. The rear chamber contains the emblem of the god {mi-tama- 
shiro), — a mirror, a sword, a curious stone, or some other object, — and is 
always kept closed, while in the ante-chamber stands a wand from which 
depend strips of white paper {gohel) intended as substitutes for the cloth 
offerings of ancient times. The mirror which is seen in front of not a 
few temples was borrowed from the Shingon sect of Buddhists, and has 
nothing to do with the Shint5 Sun-Goddess, as is often supposed. 

2. An Oratory [ha'ulen) in front of the main building, with which it 
is sometimes, but not in the case of the Izumo temple, connected by 

3.^A Corridor or Gallery [al-no-ma). A gong often hangs over the 
entrance of the Oratory, for the worshipper to attract the attention of the 
god, and beneath stands a large box to receive contributions. 

4. A Cistern {mi-tarashi), at which to wash the hands before prayer. 

5. A low Wall, or rather Fence {tama-gakl, lit. jewel hedge), enclosing 
the chief temple buildings. 

6. A second Enclosing Fence, often made of boards, and therefore 
termed ita-gaki. 

7. A peculiar Gateway [forii) at the entrance to the grounds. Some- 
times there are several of these gateways. Their origin and signification 
are alike unknown. The presence of the torii is the easiest sign whereby 
to distinguish a Shintd from a Buddhist temple. 

8. A Temple Office {shanmsho), where the business of the temple is 
transacted, and where some of the priests often reside. 

9. Secondary Shrines {.'^essha or massha) scattered about the grounds, 
and dedicated, not to the deity worshipped at the main shrine, but to 
other members of the crowded pantheon. 

10. A Library (fmnko). This item is generally absent. 

11. A Treasure-house {hdzd). 

12. One or more Places for Offerings {shin.9enjd). 

13. A GaUery {krcairo). 

14. A Dancing-stage {bungaku-dai). A more usual form of this is the 
kagura-do, or stage for the performance of the kagura dance. 

15. A Stable in -v^-hich is kept the Sacred Horse [jlmme), usually an 
albino. 

1(*. An Assembly Hall. This is generally missing. 
17. Gates. 

Frequently there is some object of minor sanctity, such as a holy well 
or stone, a tree of odd shape or unusual size, the image of the bull on 
which the god Tenjin rode, etc. 

The curiously projecting ends of the rafters on the roof of the honsha 
are termed chigl. The cigar-shaped logs are termed katsuogi. Both these 



38 Introduction: — The Shinto Beligion. 

omamente are derived from the architecture of the primitive Japanese 
hut, the katsuogl having anciently served to keep in place the two trunks 
foiming the ridge of the roof. The temple grounds are iisually surrounded 
by a grove of trees, the most common among which is the cryptomeiia, a 
nsefni timber tree. These plantations were originally intended to supply 
materials for the repair or re-erection of the buildings ; but in many cases 
their great antiquity causes a sacred character to be attribiited to the 
oldest trees, which are surrounded by a fillet of straw rope, as if to show 
that they are tenanted hj a divine spirit. 

The two figures with bows and arrows, seated in niches right and left 
of the gate to keep guard over the approach to the temple, are called 
Zuijin, or " Attendants," more popularly Ya-daijin, or " Ministers with 
Arrows." The stone figures of dogs, — or lions, as some suj^pose them to 
be, — which are often found in temple grounds, are called Ama-inu and 
Koma-inu, lit. " the Heavenly Dog " and " the Korean Dog." They are 
credited with the power of driving off demons. 

Often a large straw-rope, peculiarly twisted [shime-naica) is to be 
seen Vjefore the entrance to a Shinto shrine, and sometimes in other 
l^laces. This, too, is credited with power to avert evil, more especially 
small-pox, cholera, and other infectious diseases. 

For the go-hel, or paper emblems, see Glossary at the end of this 
Introduction. 

The distinction between what are termed respectively Ey5bu and Pure 
Shinto arose from the fact that the doctrines of metempsychosis and 
universal i:)erfectibLLity taught by Buddhism naturally made it tolerant of 
other creeds, and willing to afford hospitahty to their gods in its own 
pantheon. Hence the early Buddhist teachers of the Japanese nation 
were led to regard the aboriginal Shinto gods and goddesses as incarnations 
or avatars — the Japanese term is gongen, signifying Hterally " temiDorary 
manifestations " — of some of the many myriads of Buddhas. Thus with 
an added tincture of Chinese philosophy, was formed a mixed system, 
known as Bybhii Shinto or Shinbutsu Konko, which lasted throughou.t the 
Middle Ages. For a thousand years the service of most of the Shintd 
temples, except Ise and Izumo, was performed by Buddhist priests, and 
the temple architecture was deeply affected by Buddhist (that is, Indian) 
principles, — -udtness the elaborate carvings, the foim of the two-storied 
Sammon, or outer gate, and even the pagoda itself, whicli, though essen- 
tially Birddhistic, was found in the most popular Shinto shrines. In 
several cases, for instance, Kompira and Hachiman, the so-called Shinto 
deities worshipped were probably unknov.n in pre-Buddhist ages, and 
owed their origin to priestly ingenuity. This cirrious state of things began 
to totter more than a century ago, under the attacks of a school of 
enthusiastically patriotic hterati who revived the ancient traditions of 
" pure Shinto." When the revolution of 1868 occurred, and restored the 
Mikado's authority, these old traditions, amongst which the divine right of 
the sovereign was one of the most important, became paramount. It was 
for a time hoped that Buddhism might be suppressed, and Shint5 estab- 
lished as the sole national religion ; but the extreme jjarty was in the end 
not allowed to have its way. The reform was hmited to the complete 
separation of the two rehgions, and the Buddhist priests were expelled 
from the Shinto temples, which they had so long " contaminated " by their 
sway. All bnilchngs, such as pagod^^s, lieltries, and richly decorated 
.shrines, that did not properly belong to the Shinto estabhshment were 
removed, many precious structures being thus destroyed by " purifying " 



Japanese Buddhism. 39 

zeal. In consequence of all this, the modern visitor to Japan loses 
much that delighted the eyes of those who came forty years ago. To 
qitote but a single example, the temple of Hachiman at Kamakura has 
hoen despoiled of its chief beauty. On the other hand, he has better 
op]:>ortunities for familiarising himself with the style of " pure Shinto," 
which, if severely simple, is at least unique, being one of the few things 
Jai^anese not borrowed from China. 

Those desiring fuller information on Japan's native religion will find 
it in Mr. W. G. Aston's classic v>'ork, entitled Shinto : the Way of the Gods. 



20. — Japanese Buddhism. 

Buddhism, in its Chinese form, first entered Japan via Korea in the 
6th century of the Christian era, the first Japanese pagoda having been 
erected about A. D. 584 by one Soga-no-Iname. The Constantine of Japa- 
nese Buddhism was Shdtoku Taishi, prince regent under the Empress Suiko 
(A.D. 593-621), to whose time the foundation of many of the most celebrated 
temples is traced. Thenceforv/ard, though Shint5 was never entirely sup- 
pressed, Buddhism became for centuries the popular national rehgion, 
api)ealing as it did to the deepest instincts of the human heart, both by its 
doctrine and by its ritual, in a way which Shinto could never emulate. 
Buddhism was adopted by the very Mifoxdos, descendants of the Shint5 
G-oddess of the sun. During the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries Korean and 
Chinese monks and nuns visited Japan for purposes of proselytism, much 
as Christian missionaries visit it to-day. From the 8th century onwards, 
it became more usual for the Japanese monks to go to China, in order to 
study the doctrines of the best-accredited teachers at the fountain-head. 
From these historical circumstances results the general adhesion of the 
Japanese Buddhists to the Chinese, Northern, or " Greater Vehicle " school 
of that rehgion (Sanskrit, Mahaydna ; Jap. Daljb), in whose teachings the 
simple morality of Southern Buddhism, as practised in Ceylon and Siam, 
is overlaid with many mystical and ceremonial observances. It must not 
be supposed, however, that all Japanese Buddhists agree among them- 
selves. Buddhism was already over a thousand years old when introduced 
into this archipelago, and Chinese Buddhism, in particular, was spht into 
niimerous sects and sub-sects, whose quarrels took new root on Japanese 
soil. Some of the Chinese sects of that early day still survive ; such are 
the Tenda'i and the Shingon. Others, notably the Nichiren and Shin sects, 
are later Japanese develoi^ments. The following are the chief denomina- 
tions existing at the present day, classed in the order of their numerical 
importance :— 

(Ilinzai (10 sub-sects). 
Soto. 
Obaku. 
Shin or Monto (10 sub-sects). 
Shingon (2 sub-sects). 
Jodo (2 sub-sects). 
Nichiren or Hokke (8 sub-sects). 
Tendai (3 sub-sects). 

The ix)ints in dispute between the sects are highly metiiphysical and 
technical,— so much so that Sir Ernest Satow, speaking of the Shingon 
sect, asserts that its " whole doctrine is extremely difficult to comprehend, 
and more difficult to put into intelligible language." Of another sect he 



40 Introductign : — Japanese Buddhism. 

tells ns that its "highest truths are considered to be incomprehensible, 
except to those who have attained to Bnddhaship."* 

Under these circumstances, the general reader will perhaps do best 
simply to fix in his mind the following few cardinal facts : — that 
Buddhism arose in India, some say in the 7th, others in the 11th, century 
before Christ ; that its founder wjis the Buddha Shaka Miini, a prince of 
the blood royal, who, disenchanted first of worldly pleasures and then of 
the austerities which he jtractised for long years in the Himalayan 
wilderness under the guidance of the most seh-denying anchorites of 
his time, at length felt dawn on his mind the truth that all happiness 
and salvation come from within, — come from the recognition of the 
impermanence of all phenomena, from the extinction of desire which 
is at the root of life, hfe itself being at the root of all sorrow and 
imperfection. Asceticism still reigned supreme ; but it was asceticism 
rather of the mind than of outward observances, and its ultimate object 
was absorption into Nirvana, which some interpret to mean annihilation, 
while others describe it as a state in which the thinldng substance, after 
numerous transmigrations and progressive sanctification, attains to 
perfect beatitude in serene tranquillity. Neither in China nor in Japan 
has practical Buddhism been able to maintain itseK at these philosophic 
heights ; but by the aid of hoben, or pious devices, the priesthood has 
played into the hands of popular superstition. Here as elsewhere there 
have been evolved charms, amulets, pilgrimages, and gorgeous temple 
services, in which people worship not only the Buddha who was himself 
an agnostic, biit his disciples and even such abstractions as Amicia, (i^. 43) 
which are mistaken for actual divine personages. 

Annexed is the plan of the temple of Hommonji at E^egami near 
Tokyo, which may be regarded as typical of Japanese Buddhist architec- 
ture. The roofing of these temples is generally of tiles, forming a contrast 
to the primitive thatch of Shintd places of worship. The chief features 
are as follows : 

1. The Sammon, or two-storied Gate, at the entrance to the temple 
enclosure. 

2. The Ema-do, or Ex-voto Hall, also called Oaku-do. 

* The following may serve as a specimen of the difficulties to he encountered in 
this study : — " The doctrine of the sects is compared to a j)iece of cloth, in which the 
teaching of Shaka is the warp, and the interpretation or private judgment of the 
individual, corrected by the opinion of other monks, is the woof. It is held that 
there is a kind of iutuition or perception of truth, called Shin-gijO, suggested by the 
words of scripture, but transcending them in certainty. This is said to be in 
harmony with the thought of Shaka. The entirety of doctrine, however, results in 
one central truth, namely that Nirvana is the final result of existence, a state in 
which the thinking substance, while remaining individiaal, is unaflected by anything 
external, and is consequently devoid of feeling, thought, or passion. To this the 
name of Mui (Asawskvita) is given, signifying absolute, unconditioned existence. 
"WTien this is spoken of as annihilation, it is the annihilation of conditions, not of the 
substance, that is meant. Tushed to its logical result, this would appear to the 
ignorant (i.e. the unregcnerate) to amount to the same thing as non-existence; but 
here we are encountered by one of those mysteries which lie at the foundation of all 
religious belief, and wliich must be accepted without questioning, if there is to be 
any sjiiritual religion at all. A follower of Herbert Spencer would probably object 
that this is an ' illegitimate symbolical conception.' 

"Ignorant and obtuse minds are to be taught by hbhen, that is, by the presenta- 
tion of truth under a form suited to their capacity. For superior intellects Shaka, 
quitting the symbolic teaching appropriate to the vernacular understanding, revealed 
the truth in itself. Whoever can apprehend the Ten Abstract Truths in their proper 
order may, after four successive births, attain to perfect Buddhaship, while the in- 
ferior intelligence can only arrive at the condition after 100 Kalpas, or periods of 
time transcending calculation."— (Satow.) 



Japanese B uddhism . 



41 



3. The Shoro, or Belfi-y. 

4. The Ilorido, or Main Temple. (Here called Shaka-do, because 
devoted to Shaka.) 

5. The Soshi-do, or Founder's Hall, dedicated to Nichiren, the 
founder of the sect to which this temple belongs. 

6. The Taho-io, or Pagoda-shai^ed Keliquary, containing portions of 
Nichiren's body, hence also called Kotsu-do, or Hall of the Bones. 

7. The Iilnzo, or Eevolving Library, holding a complete copy of the 
extremely voluminous Buddhist Scriptiires. 

8. The Uojo, also called iSho-m or ZashiJd, the Priests' A^iartments. 
d. The Kyaku-den, or Reception Booms. 

10. The Ilozo, or Treasure-house. 

11. The Dai-dokoro, or Kitchen, 

12. The Chozu-bachi, or Cistern for washing the hands before worship. 

13. The Drum-tower [Koro). 

14. The Pagoda {Go-ju no to). 

15. Stone Lanterns {Ishl-ddro), presented as offerings. 

All temples do not possess a Founder's Hall, and very few possess a 
Taho-io or a Rinzb. In the temples of the Monto or Hongwanji sect, 
which almost always comprise two principal edifices, the larger of the two 
unites in itself the functions of Main Temple and Founder's Hall, while 
the lesser, with which it is connected by a covered gallery, is sometimes 
specially dedicated to Amida, the deity chieiiy worshipped by this sect, 
and is sometimes used for preaching sermons in, whence the name of 
Jlki-do, or Eefectory, alluding to the idea that sermons are food for the 
soul. A set of Buddhist buildings, ^\dth pagoda, belfry, etc., all complete, 
^^^ is often called a Shichi-do Garan. The termi- 

nation ji, which occurs in so many temple 
names, means " Buddhist temple " in Chinese ; 
the native Jaj^anese word is tera. Most Bud- 
dhist temples have alternative names ending in 
san and in. 

Many temples have what is called an Oku- 
no-in, — a Holy of Hohes, so to say, which is 
generally situated behind the main shrine, and 
often a long way up the mountain at whose foot 
the other temple buildings cluster. Most Oku- 
no-in are less highly ornamented than the 
temples to which they belong ; some indeed are 
mere sheds. Where Shinto influence has pre- 
vailed, the Oku-no-in is termed Oku-sha. Some- 
times there is an intermediate shrine called 
Chu-in or Chu-sha. 

The ceremony of throwing open to the gaze 

of worshippers the shrine which holds the image 

of the patron saint is called Kal-cho, and is 

usually accompanied by a short service. Many 

sacred images have more than one abode ; when 

jv, removed at stated intervals, their resting-places 

J^ on the way are termed 0-Tahisho. Pictures of 

^^X^ the god, together with holy inscriptions (o fuda) 

and charms {mamorl), are sold at many temples. 

\^ The specimens here figured are from the great shrine of Fudo 

— J at Narita. Sometimes cheap miniature reprints of Buddhist 




fm 




42 



Introduction : — Japanese Buddhism. 



sntras are offered for sale, also bundles of strav/s or sticks iised as counters 
by those performing what is termed the Hyaku-do, that is the pious act 
of walking up and down the temple court a hundred times, etc., etc. 
The httle •s\-isps of paper often to be seen on the grating of minor shrines 
are tied there by devotees in token of a tow or a ^-ish, mostly connected 
with the tender passion. The flocks of doves seen fluttering about many 
temple courts are not objects of worship. They simply take up their home 
^•here piety secures them from molestation. 

An object frequently seen in 
Buddhist temple grounds is the sofohn 
or toha, a corruption of the Sanskrit 
stupa ("tope"), which v>-as originally 
a memorial erected over the remains 
of an Indian saint. In Japan it as- 
sumes two forms, one being a thin 
stick, notched and often inscribed 
A\-ith Sanskrit characters, the other a 
stone monument in common use as 
a grave-stone, where the component 
elements of the structure are more 
clearly indicated. They are the ball, 
crescent, pyramid, sphere, and cube, 
symbohsing respectively Ether, Air, 
Fire, Water, and Earth. One glance 
at a sotoba is said to ensure the for- 
giveness of aU sins. 

The way up to temples or sacred 
mountains is frequently marked by 
oblong stones, like mile-stones, at the 
interval of a chb, inscribed as fol- 
lows : — PfT (or — T)» oiie chb ; ZI^X, 
two cho, etc. Stones with inscriT)tions, 
for which wooden boards are often 
substituted, also serve to commemo- 
rate gifts of money to the temple, or 
of trees to ornament the grounds. Irregularly shaped sLabs of stone are 
much prized by the Japanese, who use them as monumental tablets. 

All the famous holy places have subsidiary or representative temples 
{uf sushi or dc-hari) in various j)arts of the empire, for the convenience of 
those worship])ers who cannot make the actu;xl jnlgrimage. The shrine 
of the Narita Fudo at Asakusa in Tdlcyo is a familiar example. 

Finally, a broad distinction can be drawn between those temples 
which are resorted to by worshipping crowds, such as Iviyomizu at Kyoto, 
the Asaku.sa temple at Tokyo, and the various Hongwanji on the one 
hand, and on the other those wliich like the Shiba temples at Tokyo, are 
privately maintained. These last are often beautiful specimens of art ; 
but it is in the former class that the reUgious life of the people can be 
l)est studied. 

One, alas ! of the characteristic features of the Buddhist temples of 
to-day is the decay into which most of them have fallen, not because of 
any general conversion to Christianity, but owing to the disendowment 
of the priesthood and the materiahstic tendencies of the age. The wooden 
architecture of Japan, so attractive when fresh, at once becomes shabby 
and ramshackle under neglect, — not venerable hke the stone ruins of 
Europe. 




THE SOTOBA 

(in Us two shajjes) 



Gods and Goddesses. 



43 



21. — List of Gods and Goddesses. 



The following are the most popular deities, Bufldhist and Shinto. 
They are placed together in one list, because throughout Japanese history 
there has been more or less confusion between the two rehgions : — 

AizEN Myo-o, a deity represented with a fierce expression, a flaming 
halo, three eyes, and six arms. Neyertheless, he is popularly regarded as 
the God of Love. Anderson describes him as "a transformation of 
Atchala the Insatiable." 

Ama-tekasu, ht. "the Heaven-Shiner," that is, the Sun-Goddess. 
Born from the left eye of the Creator Izanagi, when the latter was 
performing his ablutions on returning from a visit to his dead wife Iza- 
nami in Hades, the Sun-Goddess was herself the ancestress of the 
Imperial Family of Japan. The most striking episode in her legend is 
that in which she is insulted by her brother Susa-no-o, and retires in 
high dudgeon to a cavern, thus plunging the whole world in djirkness. 
All the other gods and goddesses assemble at the cavern's mouth, with 
music and diincing. At length curiosity 
lures her to the door, and she is finally 
enticed out by the sight of her ov.-n fair 
image in a mirror, which one of the gods 
pushes towards her. The origin of the 
sacred dances called kagura is traced to 
this incident by the native literati. Other 
names under which the Sun-Goddess is 
known are Shimmei, Ten Shokd Daijln, and 
Daljlngu. 

Amida (Sanskrit, Amitabha), a jxiwerful 
deity dwelhng in a lovely paradise to the 
west. Originally Amida was an abstrac- 
tion, — the ideal of boundless light. His 
image may generally be recognised by the 
hands lying on the lap, with the thumbs 
placed end to end. Yery often, too, the halo 
[goko) forms a background, not only to 
the head lint to the entire body, and is then 
termed fann-goko, from its resemblance in 
shape to a boat. The spot on the forehead 
is emblematical oE v>'isdom. The great im- 
age [Dalhutsu) at Kamakura represents this 
deity. Kwannon and Daiseishi are often 
represented as followers of Amida. — The 
name Amida is sometimes shortened to 
Mida. 

AxAX (Sanskrit, Ananda), one of Buddha's cousins and earliest con- 
verts. He is often called Tamon {^f^), lit. "hearing much," on account 
of his extensive knowledge and v\'ondeiful memory, — a name which is also 
applied to Bishamon. 

Atago, a god worshipped as the protector of towns against fire. He 
is an avatar of the Creatress Izanami and of her last-born child Ho-musubi 
(also called Kagu-tsuchi), the SJiinto god of fire, whose entry into the world 
caused her death. 

Benten, or Benzaiten, one of the Seven Deities of Luck, She is 
often represented riding on a serpent or dragon, whence perhaps the 




AMIDA. 



44 



Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 



sacred character attributed in many localities to snakes, 
are mostly situated on islands. 



Benten's shrines 




BixzrBiT, originally one of the 
"Sixteen Eakan," -v^'as expelled from 
their number for having violated his 
TOW of chastity by remarking npon 
the beauty of a female, whence the 
usual situation of his image outside the 
sanctum. It is also said that Bnddha 
conferred on him the power to cure all 
human ills. For this reason, believers 
rub the image of Binziira on that part 
which may be causing them pain in 
their own bodies, and then rnb them- 
selves in the hope of obtaining relief ; 
and thiis it comes about that such 
images are often found with the limbs 
X3artly worn av\'ay and the features 
nearly obliterated. Binzuru is a high- 

1 I I I I I ly popular object of worship with the 

^^-^ I -^^ lower classes, and his image is often to 

\<''^'^^^^\ ! 1 \^y\ be seen adorned by his devotees with a 

red or yellow cotton hood, a bib, and 
mittens. 

BiSHAMON (Sanskrit, Vaisramana), 
explained in Eitel's Hand-hook of Chi- 
nese Buddhism as the God of Wealth, 
BiNzuBU ^'^^^ been adopted by the Japanese as 

one of their Seven Gods of Luck, 
with the special characteristic of im- 
personating war. Hence he is repre- 
sented as clad in armour and bearing a spear, as well as a toy pagoda. 
BoNTEN, Brahma. 

BosATSu (Sanskrit, Bodhisaitva), the general title of a large class of 
Buddhist saints, vvho have only to pass through one more human existence 
before attaining to Buddhahood. The "Twenty-Five Bosatsu" [Ni-ju-go 
Bosatsu), specially worshipped and frequently represented in art, are sup- 
loosed to be sent by Buddha himself as guardian spirits to watch over 
earnest believers. The list includes Kwannon, Daiseishi, Fugen, Kokuzo, 
and a number of less well-known divinities. 
Buddha, see Shaka Muni. 

Daikoku, the God of Wealth, may be known by his rice-bales. Popu- 
lar Japa.nese art, which exhibits little awe of things divine, represents 
these bales being nibbled at by a rat. 

Dainichi Nyobai (Sanskrit, Vdirotchana Tathdgafa) is one of the 
persons of the Triratna, or Buddhist Trinity, the personification of wisdom 
and of absolute purity. He is popularly confounded with Fudo, the 
images of the two being difficiilt to distinguish. 

Daiseishi or Seishi, a Bosatsu belonging to the retinue of Amida. 
Daisht, a title which is applied to many Buddhist abbots and saints. 
It means either "Great Teacher," or "Perfected Saint" (Sanskrit Maha- 
sattva), according to the Chinese characters used to write it. 
Dosojiy, the God of Eoads. 

Ebisu, one of the Gods of Luck, is the patron of honest labour. He 
bears in his hand a lishing-rod and a ^ai-fish., 



Gods and Goddesses. 



45 



Emma-0 (Sanskrit, Ydma-rdja), the regent of the Buddhist hells. 
He may be known by his cap resembhng a judge's beret, and by the huge 




mace in his right hand. Before him often sit two myrmidons, one of 
M^hom holds a pen to write down the sins of human beings, while the 
other reads out the list of their offences from a scroll. 

Fu-Daishi, a deified Chinese priest of the 6th century, is represented 
in art seated between his two sons Fuken and Fvijo, who clap their hands 
and laugh, and hence are popularly known as IVaral-hoioke, or the Laugh- 
ing Buddhas. Fu-Daishi is the reputed inventor of the Riazd, or Bevolving 
Library, which is attached to some Buddliist temples. It is a recejjtacle 
large enough to hold a complete collection of the Buddhist scriptures, but 
turning so easily on a pivot as to be readily made to revolve by one 
vigorous push. A native authority says : " Owing to the voluminousness 
of the sutras,— 6,771 volumes, — it is difficult for any single individual to 
read them through. But a degree of merit equal to that accruing to him 
who should have persued the entire canon, may be obtained by those who 
M'ill cause this Library to revolve three times on its axis ; and moreover 
long hfe, prosperity, and the avoidance of all misfortune shall be their 
reward." 



46 



Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 




FUDO 
SEITAKA AND KOKGAEA DOJT, 



FvDo (Sanskrit, Achala). Mucli 
obscmity hangs over the origin and 
attributes of this popiiLir divinity. 
According to Monier WiUiams, 
Achala, M'hich means "immovable" 
(Fudo yf,^ translates this meaning 
exactly), is a name of the Brahmini- 
cal god Siva and of the first of the 
nine deified persons called "^Miite 
Baks" among the Jainas, Satow 
says : — " Fndo (Akshara) is identified 
with. Dainichi (Yairofcana), the God 
of Wisdom, ■which quahty is sym- 
bolised by the flames Avhich smround 
him : it is a common error to snjDpose 
that he is the God of Fire. According 
to the ix)pular view, the sharp sword 
Avhich he grasps in the right hand 
is to frighten evil-doers, while in his 
left hand he holds a rope to bind 
them with." — Fudo is generall^'^ rep- 
resented in art attended by his tv.o 
chief followers, Seitalai Ddji and 
Kongara Doji. 

FuGEN (Sanskrit, SamantahJiadra) 
is the special divine patron of those 
who practise the Hokke-zammai, a 
species of ecstatic meditation. His 
image is generally seated on the 
right hand of Shaka. 

FrKUEOKUJU, one of the Gods of 
Lnck, is distinguished by a j^reter- 
naturally long head, and typifies 
longevity and wisdom. 

Go-CHI Nyoeai, the Five Bnd- 
dhas of Contemplation or of Wisdom, 
viz., Yalmshi, Taho, Dainichi, Ashn- 
lai, and Shaka. But some authori- 
ties make a different enumeration. 

GoKGEN. This is not the name 
of any special divinity, but a general 
term used in Eyobu Shintd (see p. 
38) to denote such Shintd gods as 
are considered to be " temporary 
manifestations," that is, avatars or 
incarnations of Buddhas. It is, 
however, apphed with special fre- 
quency to leyasu, the deified foimder 
of the Tokugawa dynasty of Shdguns, 
who is the Gongen Sama, that is. 
Lord Gongen jiar excellence. 

GwAKKO BosATSU, a Buddhist 
lunar deity. 

Hachiman, the Chinese_ name 
imder which the Emperor Ojin is 



Gods and Goddesses. 



47 



worshipped as the God of War, the Japanese equivalent being Yawata. 
The reason for this particular form of apotheosis is not apparent, as no 
warlike exploits are recounted of the monarch in question. Perhaps it 
may be owing to the tradition that his mother, the Empress Jingo, 
carried him for three years in her womb whilst making her celebrated 
raid upon Korea. Another explanation, suggested by Sir Ernest Satow, 
is that his high position in the pantheon resulted from the fact of his 
haying been the patron of the powerful and warlike Minamoto family. 

HoTEi, one of the Seven Gods of Luck, tyiDifies contentment and good- 
nature.. He is represented in art with an enormous naked abdomen. 

HoTOKE, the general name of all Buddhas, that is, gods or perfected 
saints of x>opular Buddhism. The dead are also often spoken of as 
hotoke. 



Ida Ten (Sanskrit, Veda Bdja), 




protector of Buddhism, generally 
represented as a strong and 
handsome youth. 

Inaki, the Goddess of Eice, 
also called Uga-no-Mitama. The 
fox, whose image is always found 
in her temples, is her servant or 
messenger, though the more igno- 
rant worshippers take that wily 
beast for the goddess herself. 
There is some confusion with 
regard to the sex of Inari, who 
is occasionally represented as a 
bearded man. 

IzANAGi and IzANAMi, the 
Creator and Creatress of Japan. 



The curious though indelicate legend 
of their courtship, the striking legend 
of the descent of Izanagi into Hades 
to visit Izanami after the latter's 
death and burial, and the account of 
Izanagi's lustrations, will be found in 
pp. 18-43 of the translation of the 
KojiJd, forming the Supplement to 
Vol. X. of the Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan. 

Jizo (Sanskrit, Kshitigarhha), the 
comimssionate Buddhist helper of 
those who are in trouble. He is the 
patron of travellers, of pregnant wo- 
men, and of children. His image is 
often heaped with pebbles, which serve 
in the other world to relieve the labours 
of the young who have been robbed of 
their garments by the hag named Sho- 
zuka-no-Baba, and then set by her 
to perform the endless task of piling up 
stones on the banlv Jof Sai-no-Kawara, 
the Buddhist Styx. Jiz5 is rei^resented 
as a shaven priest with a benevolent 




Jiz5. 



48 Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 

countenance, holding in one band a jewel, in the other a staff with metal 
rings {shakujo). His stone image is found more frequently than that 
of any other object of worship throughout the empire. It need scarcely 
be said that the resemblance in sound between the names Jizo and Jesus 
is quite fortuitous. 

JuKOJiN, one of the Grods of Luck, often rei^resented as accompanied 
by a stag and a crane. 

Kami, a general name for all Shinto gods and goddesses. 
Kasho (Sanskiit, Kdsyapa), one of Buddha's foremost disciples. He 
is said to have swallowed the sun and moon, in consequence whereof his 
body became radiant like gold. 

KisHi Bojix, the Indian goddess Hariti or Ai'itt, was originally a 
woman, who, having sworn to devoiir all the children at Eajagriha, the 
metropolis of Buddhism, was born again as a demon and gave biith to five 
hundred children, one of M'hom she was bound to devour e^'ery day. She 
was converted by Buddha, and entered a nunnery. The Japanese wor- 
ship her as the protectress of children. She is represented as a beauti- 
ful v.'oman, carrying -a child, and holding a pomegranate in one hand. 
The lanterns and other ornaments of the temples dedicated to her are 
marked with the crest of the pomegranate. This emblem illustrates the 
curious turns sometimes taken by ix)pular legend. The red hue of the 
jxjmegranate might suggest to naive fancy red blood, and hence human 
flesh. But we are told that Buddha cured the woman of cannibahsm 
by a diet of pomegranates, because that fruit resembles human flesh in 
taste. The offerings brought to her shrine by bereaved mothers are such 
as may well touch any heart, — the dresses, dolLs, and other mementoes of 
their lost darlings. 

KoKUzo BosATSu (Sanskrit, Akdsha JBodhisattva), an infinitely wise 
female saint who dwells in space. 

KoMPiBA (Sanskrit, Kumbhira). Much obscurity shrouds the origin 
and nature of this highly popular divinity. Some trace in him a god of 
mountains, charged with the protection of the royal palace. According to 
some he is a demon, the crocodile or alhgator of the Ganges. Others aver 
that Shi^ka ]\Iuni (Buddha) himself became " the boy Kompira," in order to 
overcome the heretics and enemies of religion who pressed upon him one 
day as he was i^reaching in " the Garden of Delight," — the said " boy 
Kompira" having a body 1,000 ft. long provided with 1,000 heads and 
1,000 arms. The mediasval Shintoists identified Komj^ira with Susa-no-o, 
brother of the Japanese Sun-Goddess. More recently it has been de- 
clared, on the part of the Shint5 authorities whose cause the Government 
espouses in all such disputes, that the Indian Kompira is none other 
than Kotohira, a hitherto obscure Japanese deity 
whose name has a convenient similarity in sound. 
Consequently, the great Buddhist shrine of Kompira 
in the island of Shikoku, and all the other shrines 
erected to Kompira throughout the country, have 
been claimed and fc^ken over as Shintd property. 
- -^ ,,V Kompira is a special object of devotion to seamen 

X 1 :' 'N and travellers. 

^^' - ' •!) Ko-xo-Haxa-Saku-ya-Hime. See Sengen. 

; V ] KosHiN, a deification of that day of the month 

-5 .^^ Mhich corresponds to the 57th term of the Chinese 

^ c,:^ & "^ sexagenary cycle, and is called in Japanese Ea-no-e 

Saru. This, being the day of the Monkey, is 

Kosuix. icpresented by three monkeys [sam-hiki-zaru] called 




Gods and Goddesses. 



49 




4. '^-^^^=^^^ 



KWANNON. 



50 Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 

respectively, by a pky ni)on words, mi-zaru, kika-zaru, and iica-zaru, that 
is, " the blind monkey," " the deaf monlcey," and " the dumb monl^ey." 
Stone slabs with these three monlxcys in reUef are among the most 
usnal objects of derotion met with on the roadside in the rural districts 
of Japan, the idea being that this curious triad will neither see, hear, nor 
speak any evil. 

KuNi-TOKO-TACHi, lit. " The Earthly Eternally Standing One," This 
deity, with Izanagi, Izanami, and four others, helps to form what are 
termed "the Seven Divine Generations" {Tenjin Shichi-dai). 

KwAXxox, or more fully Kicanze-on JDai Bosa.tsu (Sanskrit, Avalokltes- 
vara), the Goddess of ^lercy, who contemplates the world and listens to 
the prayers of the unhappy. According to another but less favourite 
opinion, Kwannon belongs to the male sex. Kwannon is represented 
under various forms — many-headed, headed like a horse, thousand-handed. 
With reference to the images of this deity, it should be stated that the 
so-called Thousand-Handed Kwannon has in reality but forty hands 
which hold out a number of Buddhist emblems, such as the lotus-flower, 
the wheel of the law, the sun and moon, a skull, a pagoda, and an axe, — 
this last serving to typify severance from all worldly cares. A pair of 
hands folded on the image's lap holds the bowl of the mendicant priest. 
The Horse-Headed Kwannon has three faces and four pairs of arms, a 
horse's head being carved above the forehead of the central face. One 
of the four pairs of arms is clasped before the breast in the attitude 
called Benge no In, emblematical of the lotus-flower. Another pair holds 
the axe and wheel. Yet another pair grasps two forms of the tokko 
(Sanskrit, vajra), an ornament originally designed to represent a dia- 
mond club, and nov\' tised by priests and exorcists as a rehgious sceptre 
symbolising the irresistible power of prayer, meditation, and incantation. 
Of the fourth pair of hands, the left holds a cord v,■here^^'ith to bind the 
wicked, while the right is stretched out open to indicate almsgiving or 
succour to the weak and erring. A title often applied to Kwannon is 
Nyo-i-rin, properly the name of a gem which is supposed to enable its 
possessor to gratify all his desires, and which may be apf)roximately 
rendered by the adjective " omnipotent." 

The two figures often represented on either side of Kwannon are 
Fiido and Aizen My5-o. The " Twenty-eight Followers " of Kwannon 
(^'i-jn-hachi Bushil), — favourite subjects of the Japanese sculptor and 
painter, — are personifications of the twenty-eight constellations known to 
Far-Eastern astronomy. The various forms rei:>resented in the accom- 
panying illustration are : 

1. Sho-Kicannon (Kv>-annon the Wise). 

2. Jii-ichi-men Kicannon (Eleven-Faced). 

3. Sen-ju Kwannon (Thousand-Handed). 

4. Ba-to Kicannon (Horse-Headed). 

5. Xyo-i-rin Kwannon (Omnipotent). 

M.\iiishi-Tex (Sanskrit, Mancld) is the personification of light in the 
Brahminical theology, and also a name of Krishna. In Chinese and Japa- 
nese Buddliism, Marishi-ten is considered to be the Queen of Heaven, 
and is believed by some to have her residence in a star forming part of 
the constellation of the Great Bear. She is represented with eight arms, 
two of which hold up emblems of the sun and moon. 

Maya Bunix, the mother of Buddha. 

MiKOKU (Sanslo-it, Mdi(reya), Buddha's successor,— the Buddhist 
Messiah, whose advent is expected to take pLice 5,000 years after 
Buddha's entry into ^Xixvana. 



Gods and Goddesses. 



51 



MoNJU (Sanskrit, Manjusrl), the apotheosis of transcendent;il wisdom. 
His image is usually seated on the left hand of Shaka. 

NiKKO BosATSu, a Buddhist solar deity. 

Ni-o, lit. "The Two Deva Kings," Indra and Brahma, who keep 
guard at the outer gate of temples to scare away demons. One bears 




mmir^-imm 



Nl-O. 



in his hand the tokko. The figures of the Ni-6 are of gigantic size and 
terrific appearance, and are often bespattered with little pellets of paper 
aimed at them by devotees, who think thus to secure the accomplishment 
of some desire on which they have set their hearts. 

Nyokai (Sanskrit, Tathagaia), an honorific title applied to all 
Buddhas. It is compounded of Chinese 7iyo {iu), "like," and red (^), 
" to come," the idea being that a Buddha is one whose coming and going 
are in accordance with the action of his predecessors. 

Onamuji or Okuni-nushi, the aboriginal deity of Izumo, who re- 
signed his throne in favour of the Mikado's ancestors when they came 
down from heaven to Japan. He is also worshipped under the titles of 
Sanno and Hie. 

Oni, a general name for demons, ogres, or devils,— not ''the Devil" 
m the singular, as Japanese theology knows nothing of any supreme 
Prince of Darkness. 

Eakan (Sanskrit, Arhdn, or Arhaf), i:>roperly the perfected Ary'a or 
"holy man," but used to designate not only the perfected saint, but 
all Buddha's immediate disciples, more especially his "Five Hundred 
Disciples" {Go-hyaku Bakan), and his "Sixteen Disciples" {Ju-roku 
liakan). Few art-motives are more iDopular with Japanese painters and 
sculptors. The holy men are represented in various attitudes, many of 
them being emaciated and scantily clad. 



52 



Introduction : — Goda and Goddesses. 



EoKT-Bu-TEN, a collective name for the Buddhist gods Bonten, 
Taishaku, and the Shi-Tenn5. 

Saeuta-htko, a Shinto deity ^vho led the van when the divine 
ancestors of the Mikado descended to take possession of Japan. 

Sekgen, the Goddess of Mount Fuji. She is also called Asama or 
Kono-Haim-Saku-ya-Jibne, that is, " the Princess who makes the Flowers 
of the Trees to Blossom." 

Shaka Muki, the Japanese pronunciation of S'dkya Muni, the name 
of the founder of Buddhism, who was also called G-autama and is gene- 
rally spoken of by Europeans as "Buddha," though it would be more 
correct to say " the Buddha," as there are other inferior Buddhas innumer- 
able. In his youth he was called Shitta Taishi {Sanslnit, Siddhdrtha). 
His birth is usually placed by the Chinese and Japanese in the year 1027 
B.C., but the date accepted by European scholars is 653 B.C. The most 
accessible account of Buddha's hfe and doctrine is that given by Professor 
Ehys Davids, in his httle work entitled Jjuddhism, pubhshed by the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The entombment of Buddha, 
with all creation standing weeping around, is a favourite motive of 
Japanese art. Such pictm-es are called Nehan-zb, that is, " Eepresentations 
of the Entry into Nirvana." The birth of Buddha [tanjo-Shaka) is also 
often represented, the great teacher then appearing as a naked infant with 
his right hand jwinting up and his left hand down, to indicate the power 
which he exercises over heaven and earth. Our illustration gives the most 
usual form of his image. Though not unhke that of Amida, it differs from 
the latter by the position of the hand and the shape of the halo. The chief 




snAKA MUNI. 



Oods and Goddesses. 




GODS OF LUCK (SHICHI FUKUJIN). 



54 Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 

festivals of Shaka are on the 8th April (his birthday), and the 15th 
February (the anniversary of his death). 

Shaeihotsu (Sanskrit, S'ar'qmttra), the wisest of Buddha's ten chief 
disciples. 

SmcHi FuKUJiN, the Seven Gods of Luck, namely 1, Ebisu ; 2, Dai- 
koku ; 3, Benten ; 4, Fukurokuju ; 5, Bishamon ; 6, Jurojin ; 7, Hotei. 

Shi-Texxo, the Four Heavenly Kings, who guard the world against 
the attacks of demons, each defending one quarter of the horizon. Their 
names are Jikoki;, East (Sanskrit, Dhritardshtra) ; Komolai, South 
( Virupdksha) ; Zocho, West ( Virudhaka) ; and Tamon — also called Bisha- 
mon, — North {Vdisravana or Kuvera). Their images differ from those of 
the Ni-6 by having weapons in their hands, and generally tramphng 
demons under foot. Moreover, they are placed, not at the outer gate of 
temples, but at an inner one. 

Shodex. This deity, also called Kwangi-ten, is the Indian Ganesa, 
God of Wisdom and Obstacles. '' Tliough he causes obstacles, he also re- 
moves them ; hence he is invoked at the commencement of undertakings. 
He is represented as a short, fat man, \riih. a protuberant belly, fre- 
quently riding on a rat or attended by one, and to denote his sagacity, 
has the head of an elephant, which, however, has only one tusk." (Sir 
Monier Williams.) 

Sh6zuka-xo-Baba. See Jizo. 

SuiTEXGU, a sea-god evolved by the jwpular consciousness from 
Yaruna the Buddhist Neptune, the Shinto sea-gods of Sumiyoshi near 
Osaka, and the boy-emperor Antolai, who found a watery grave at Dan-no- 
ura, in A.D. 1185 (com. p. 70). _ 

SuKUNA-BiKOXA, a microscopic god who aided Onamuji to estabhsh 
his ride over the land of Izumo, before the descent to earth of the ancestors 
of the IMikados. 

SusA-No-o, lit. "the Impetuous Male." The name of this deity is 
explained by the violent conduct which he exhibited towards his sister, 
the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, whom he alarmed so terribly by his mad 
freaks that she retired into a cavern. Born from the nose of the Creator 
Izanagi, Susa-no-o is considered by some to be the Grod of the Sea, by 
others the God of the Moon. He was the ancestor of the gods or mon- 
archs of the province of Izumo, who finally renounced their claims to 
sovereignty over any part of Japan in favour of the descendjxnts of the 
Sun-Goddess, Inada-Hime, one of his many wives, is often associated 
with him as an object of worship. Susa-no-o is also styled Gozu Tenno, 
" the Ox-headed Emperor," — a name apparently derived from that of a 
certain mountain in Korea where he is supposed to have been worshipped. 
The temples dedicated to Susa-no-o are called Gion or Yasaka. The former 
are Buddhist or Eydbu Shinto ; the latter are pure Shinto shrines. 

Taishaku, the Brahminical god Indra. 

Tamon. See Ax an. 

Ten, a title suffixed to the names of many Buddhist deities, and 
equivalent to the Sanskrit Deva. 

Tenjin is the name under which is apotheosised the great minister 
and scholar Sugawara-no-Michizane, who, having fallen a victim to 
calumny in A.D. 901, was degraded to the post of Yice-President of the 
Dazaifu, or Governor-Generalship of the island of Kyushu, at that time a 
usual form of banishment for illustrious criminals. He died in exile two 
years later, his death being followed by many portents and disasters to his 
enemies. He is worshipped as the God of Calhgraphy, other names for 
him being Kan Sh5j5 and Temmangti. He is represented in the robes of 



Gods and Goddesses. 



55 




TENGXJ. 



J 




an ancient court noble, and the temples dedicated 
to him bear in several places his crest of a conven- 
tional plum-blossom, — five circles grouped rotmd a 
smaller one. A recumbent image of a bull frequently 
adorns the temple grounds, because Michizane was 
wont to ride about on a bull in the land of his exile. 
A plum-tree is also often planted near the temple, 
that having been his favourite tree. Indeed, tradition 
avers that the most beautiful plum-tree in his garden 
at Kyoto flew after him through the air to Dazaifu, 
where it is still shown. 

Tengu, a long-nosed goblin, often represented 
with wings, and supposed to inhabit the mountains. 

Tennin (Sanskrit, Apsa- 
ras), Buddhist angels — always 
of the female sex. They are 
represented floating in the 
air, clothed in bright-coloured 
robes that often end in long 
feathers like the tail of the 
bird of paradise, and playing 
on musical instruments. 

TosHOGfr, the name under 
which the great ShSgun le- 
yasu, also called Gongen 
Sama, is worshipped. It sig- 
nifies " the Temple (or Prince) 
Illuminating the East," in 
TENNIN allusion to the fact that le- 

yasu's glory centred in East- 
ern Japan. 
ToYO-UKE-BiME, also Called Uke-mochi-no-Kami, the Shinto Goddess 
of Food or of the Earth. The XUiongl, one of the two principal sources of 
Japanese mythology and early history, says that the Sun-Goddess sent 
the Moon-God down from heaven to visit Uke-mochi-no-Kami, who, 
turning her face successively towards the earth, the sea, and the mountains, 
produced from her mouth rice, fish, and game, Avhich she served up to 
him at a banquet. - The Moon-God took offence at her feeding him with 
unclean viands, and drawing his sword, cut off her head. On his report- 
ing this act to the Sun-Goddess, the latter was very angry, and secluded 
herself from him for the space of a d^iy and night. From the body of 
the murdered Earth sprang cattle and horses, millet, silkworms, rice, 
barley, and beans, which the Sun-Goddess decreed should thenceforth be 
the food of the human race. In the Kojiki 
version of the myth, it is Susa-no-o who slays 
the Goddess of Food, and there are other differ- 
ences of detail. 

UzuME-NO-MiKOTO, a goddess whose riotous 
dancing helped to lure the Sun-Groddess from 
her cavern (conf. p. 43). She is jxjpularly 
known as Okame, and depicted with the ludi- 
crous countenance here illustrated. 

Yakushi Nyoeai (Sanskrit, Bhuishajyaguru), 
lit. " the Healing Buddha." His name is ex- 
plained by reference to a prayer, in which he is uzume-no-mikoto. 




56 Introduction : — Art. 

called npon to heal in the next life the miserable condition of man's 
present existence. The images of this deity aie scarcely to be distin- 
guished from those of Shjikii. 

22.— Art. 

!Painting'. — The earliest painter mentioned in the national records 
■\vas a Chinese immigrant named Nanryu or Shinki, 'oho settled in Japan 
in the second half of the fifth century, and -oas followed by many 
generations of descendants. From the latter part of the fifth to the middle 
of the ninth centnry may be considered the first or educational period of 
Japanese painting. During this era, both pictorial and glyptic art were 
almost entirely in the hands of foreigners, — Koreans or Chinese. 
Unfortunately little is known of the quality of the pictorial art of that 
remote age. One of the least dotibtful of the remains of it still in 
existence is the mural decoration in the Kondo of the temple of Horyiiji, 
(described in Eonte 40), which is said to date from a.d. 607. This work 
will compare not nnfavoiirably with the best of the later productions of 
the Bndiiist school, and both in composition and colouring bears not a 
little resemblance to the works of the early Italian masters. 

The second period in the history of Japanese painting dates from 
the middle of the ninth century, an era in which the arts of refinement 
had reached a high state of cultiTation. At this time appeared the first 
great painter of native origin, Kose-no-Kanaoka, who rose into notice in 
the second half of the ninth century. He v.-as a court noble of ancient 
lineage. He does not appear to have been indebted to any contemporary 
teacher, but is said to have acquired his knowledge of the laws of painting 
by a close study of the works of Wu Taotzu and other great Chinese 
masters of the T'ang dynasty, whose manner he followed without any 
noteworthy modification. Almost all the works of his brush referred to in 
history have perished ; but a number of quaint legends testify to the effect 
which he made on the minds of his contemporaries. 

Kanaoka's skill was inherited by a long line of descendants down to 
the sixteenth century. They were known chiefly as painters of Buddhist 
pictures ; but it is probable that the foundations of the Yaniato Byu, or 
"Native School," were laid by the earlier members of the Kose family. 
This school was estabUshed in the eleventh century by a court noble 
named Motomitsu, who had studied under Kose-no-Kimmochi. The 
subjects it most favoured were portraits of Court personages, official 
ceremonies, records of temples, and illustrations of the early native ro- 
mances varied by careful drawings of falcons and horses taken from life, 
sketches of birds and flowers in the graphic Chinese style, with oc- 
casional burlesques in which the routine of human life was mimicked by 
frogs and other animals or by goblins of comic aspect. Landscape does 
not appear to have held as important a position in the list of motives as 
was the case in later times. It is seldom met with as the subject of a 
picture, and when appearing as an accessory is always extremely con- 
ventional in treatment. The drawing was careful and traced with a fine 
brush, but more formal in style and less vigorous in execution than that 
of the older Chinese artists. Despite the lavish use of gold and of bright 
pigments, the colouring possessed little breadth of effect. The perspective 
was isometrical, brrt often relieved by the curious practice of omitting the 
roofs of buildings in order better to display the incidents of the interior. 
ThiB school is less forcible in style than those that followed. 



Art. 57 

In the thirteenth centiiiy Tsunetaka, head of the Yamato Eyu, as- 
sumed the family name of Tosa. Hence the title of Tosa E-yu, or " Tosa 
School," retained to the present diiy. These painters monopoHsed the 
patronage of the CoiTrt until the renaissance of the fifteenth century. 
Speaking generally, the styles joractised during the middle ages showed 
the effects of two divergent spirits, — the Chinese proper, simple and 
vigorous, and the decorative but conventional Buddhist style, ^A'hich, 
though also transmitted through China, was of Indian origin with traces 
of remote Greek influence. Painting held a place amongst the refined 
accomplishments by the side of literature and calhgraphy, and was ex- 
clusively in the hands of men and women of noble birth. 

Late in the thirteenth century, a school of caricature was founded by 
a Buddhist priest named Toba S5j6. The works in his manner, still 
known as Toba-e, or " Toba pictures," were often marked by Rabelaisian 
humour. 

The third period was ushered in by an energetic renaissance of the 
Chinese influence. Encouraged by the active patronage of the Ashikaga 
dynasty, the Medici of mediasval Japan, a new school arose. 

The Cimabue of classical art was a priest named Jdsetsu, who, 
according to some authorities, came from Korea about A. D. 1400, but by 
others is claimed as a native of Kyushu in Japan. He was great chiefly 
as a teacher. Cho Densu (died 1427) was the best and most original 
painter of Buddhist pictures, a splendid series of which still survives. He 
was worthily imitated by his pupil Kan Densu. 

The greatest of Josetsu's ptipils was Sesshu (1421-1507). This artist, 
after acquiring all that could be learnt in his own country, went to 
China, where he remained several years and earned in the Imperial capital 
a reputation of which the Japanese are justly proud. On his return to 
Japan he founded a school, and left many noted pupils. Anderson says 
of him : " It is difficult for a European to estimate Sesshu at his true value. 
...Notwithstanding the boast of the artist that the scenery of China was 
his only teacher, and the credit bestowed upon him by his admirers of 
having invented a new style, he has in no respect departed from the 
artificial rules accepted by his fellow painters. He was, however, an 
original and pow^erful artist, and his renderings of Chinese scenery bear 
evidences of local study that we look for in vain in the works of his 
successors. The grand simplicity of his landscape compositions, their 
extraordinary breadth of design, the illusive suggestions of atmosphere 
and distance, and the all-pervadiug sense of poetry, demonstrate a genius 
that could rise above all defects of theory in the principles of his art." 

Sesshu's contemporary, Shubun, lacked the advantage of stfidy in 
China, but his genius and influence were scarcely inferior. 

Kano Masanobu, the nominal founder of the Kano School, was 
unequal to the painters characterised above. The real founder was his son 
Kano Motonobu, ahas Ko-hogen (1477-1559). This great artist is held 
here in the same veneration as is felt in Europe for his contemporary 
Raphael. For many years he worked in relative poverty and obscurity, 
but at length rose into notice, and achieved a reputation unsurpassed 
even by that of Kose-no-Kanaoka. He was an avowed imitator of certain 
Chinese masters of the Sung and Yuan dynasties, and like Sesshu and 
Shubun, borrowed his motives almost entirely from Chinese sources, 
expending extraordinary jDowers of composition and drawing in the 
dehneation of scenery and personages known to him only through the 
imagination or in the works of others. His school nevertheless became 
the most important in Japan, retmning its pre-eminence for nearly three 



58 Introduction : — Art. 

centuries after bis death. The most eminent of its members was Tan-yu, 
■u'ho floiirished in the seventeenth century. 

The Sesshii, Kano, and "Chinese" schools must all be classed as 
Chinese ; for although distinguished by minor points of technique, their 
style was essentially one. It was characterised by a quiet and harmonious 
colouring, and by bold calligraphic drawing in which little attention was 
paid to naturalistic details. The favourite motives were portraits of 
Chinese sages or Buddhist saints, Chinese landscape, sketches of birds and 
flowers after the manner and often from the works of the Chinese masters. 
Fuji was one of the few native subjects exceptionally admitted. 

Iwasa Matahei (16th century) a Tosa artist, originated the " Popular 
School," which, abandoning prescribed subjects and conventional man- 
nerisms, undertook to paint life as it is. But he found no following for 
over a hundred years, unless some rough caricatures known as Oisu-e, be 
deemed worthy of mention in this connection. Korin, also of the Tosa 
hne, founded a new school in the seventeenth century. His dashing grace 
and wonderful colouring place him in the foremost rank of Japan's artists, 
despite an abnormally accentuated mannerism. The decoration of lac- 
quer objects engaged much of his skill. Other noteworthy names belong- 
ing to this third period are : — 

Tosa School : — Mitsunobu and Mitsushige (15th century), Mitsuoki 
(17th century). 

Sesshu ScJiool : — Shugetsu, Sesson, Do-an (16th century). 

Chinese ScJiool : — Oguri Sotan (loth century), Kyu-rikvo, Taigado 
(18th century). 

Kano ScJiool : — Sh5-ei, Eitoku, Sanraku (16th century), Naonobu, Yasu- 
nobu, Tsunenobu, Masunobu (17th century). 

The fourth and latest period of Japanese art begf^n about 1780 with 
the rise of the Shijo Scb.ool under Maruyama Okyo. Starting from a 
naturalistic theory, this artist and his numerous jrapils nevertheless 
retained the faulty Chinese perspective and continued to ignore the laws 
of chiaroscuro, the result_being a compromise between truth to nature and 
inherited conventions, Okyo's flowers, birds, and fish were astonishingly 
life-like, as were the monkeys of his pupil Sosen. Other famous followers 
were Kdsetsu, Ipj)5 and Keibun both noted for their birds, Ho-en (flourished 
circa 1810), and Yosai, who survived till 1878 at the great age of 91. The 
Ganku Ryu was a contemporary school derived from the Chinese, but 
modified through the influence of Shijo naturalism. Ganku and Bunrin 
are its best-known representatives. 

The most interesting phase in the art history of the period was, how- 
ever, the prominence attained by the "Popular School" (Ukiyo-e Ryu), 
which was now recruited from the artisan class. Iwasa Matahei had 
foreshadowed this development in the sixteenth century, as already men- 
tioned. At the end of the seventeenth century, Hishigawa Moronobu, 
Hanabusa Itcho, Nishigawa Sulvcnobu, and other artists of gentle birth 
took up the tradition, the first of these being the originator of artistic 
book illustration. But the culminating period of this school did not come 
till the eighteenth century, when the profession of drawing for engravers 
fell into the hands of commoners, of whom the earliest to win fame for their 
colour prints of actors and profession;il beauties were the Torii and 
Katsugawa families. The best artists in nlshiki-e, as these colour imnts 
are termed, were Utamaro, Torii Kiyonaga, Suzuki Harunobu, and 
Koryusai, together with their more popular successor Holaisai (1760- 
1849), whose ceaseless activity in illustrating books, drawing broadsides, 
and producing the more delicate little comxx)sitions called surimono, 



Art. 59 

coyered an immense range of subjects quaint, humorous, and homely. Of 
Hokusai's fellow-workers the name is legion. Pre-eminent among them 
were Toyokuni, Kuniyoshi, and Kunisada of the Utagawa family, who 
succeeded the Katsugawas as theatrical draughtsmen, and such guide- 
book {Meisho) illustrators as Shuncho-sai and Settan. In addition to 
these were Hokkei, Keisai, Eisen, Kyusen, Shigenobu, Hiroshige, and many 
more of lesser note. 

Among the most eminent artists who carried on the traditions of the 
older schools during the latest period were : — 

Chinese School : — Buson (died 1783), also noted as a poet, Keisai, and 
Tani Bunchd (early 19th century). 

Korin School : — H6-itsu (early 19th century). 

The shock of contact with Europe after 1850 paralysed native effort. 
The second Hiroshige, Isai, and Kyosai were for some time the only colour- 
print artists to rise above mediocrity. Quite recently Geldco and Kogyo 
together with Watanabe Seitei, Kiyosai, and Kansai, have led a revival. 
The native style of painting, too, though not without traces of European 
infliience, is again assiduously cultivated, Hashimoto Gaho being its best 
exjxDnent. The government has lent its aid by establishing an Art 
Academy at Tokyo. 

Sculpture. — The history of this art being less well-known than that 
of painting, the briefest notice must suffice. Sculpture long remained 
exclusively in Buddhist hands, — at first in those of Korean jjriests or of 
descendants of Korean and Chinese craftsmen, — whence it not unnaturally 
exhibits Indian influence. Critics still hesitate as to the share to be 
attributed to native Japanese in a series of large wood and bronze images 
adorning the temples of Kyoto and Nara, many of which are now collected 
together in the museums of those cities. Whatever their origin and date 
(some are attributed to the sixth and seventh centuries), these figures, by 
virtue of their passionate vitality of exiwession and of their truth to 
anatomical detail, may claim a place among the world's masterpieces. 
The ideal they embodied has not again been a^jproached on Japanese soil. 
Japan also possesses some early stone images and a few remarkable stone 
carvings in relief ; but this branch of the art has remained comparatively 
unimportant. Keverting to wood, the names of the following carvers of 
Buddhist images call for mention : — Tori Busshi (7th century), Keibunkai 
and Kasuga (8th century), the abbot Eshin (942-1017), Jdcho, founder of 
the important Nara school which included K5kei and Unkei (all three in 
the 11th century), and Tankei and Kwaikei (Tith century). In bronze, the 
Daibutsu (lit. "big Buddha") at Kamakura and Nara are notable legacies 
from mediasval times. 

The end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries 
witnessed a new development in the carved and painted wooden decora- 
tions of temples, especially at Ky5to, Tokyo, and Nikkd. These beautiful 
works represent flowers, birds, angels, dragons, etc., being for the most 
part executed from designs by famous living painters or old masters. 
They are applied with splendid effect to every portion of a building, 
notably to the adornment of gateways, pillars, ceilings, palisades, and of 
what are termed ramma, a kind of ventilating panels between rooms. The 
greatest carver in this style was Hidari Jingoro (1584-1634). Originally 
a simple carpenter, as all the previous carvers of geometrical designs and 
conventional flowers had been, he raised the craft to the status of a 
separate art. His nickname of Hidari arose from his being left-handed. 
Many works currently attributed to him are not accepted as such by 
modern critics. Portraiture was attempted by some artists, occasionally 



60 Introduction : — Art. 

with good results. Many images, especially of gods and saints, "\yere 
painted ; others were lacquered. 

Besides the large images mentioned above, schools of workers in metal 
devoted themselves to the adornment of temple furniture, such as incense- 
burners, bells, bronze lanterns, and plaques of various alloys nailed to 
doors and pillars ; others decorated sword furniture and armour, the 
application of ait industry coming to cover almost the whole field of life 
among the upper classes from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries 
inclusive. 

Lacquer Work, originally introduced fiom China, like all else, 
flourished during the same period. As with carving, so here also, the 
designs were often supplied by painters. In some cases, as that of Korin 
referred to above, the same individual achieved triumphs in both arts. 
Among the most ornamental kinds of lacquer, mention may be made of 
maki-e, or " gold lacquer," produced in many varieties, e. g., nashiji, in 
which the gold is powdered over the surface. Togi-dashi is a soft style, the 
outline being brought out by a series of rubbings. In tsuishu there is a 
very thick coat of red lacquer which is afterwaids carved ; fsuikoku is 
the same in black. Aogai is a variety producing an iridescent effect like 
mother-of-pearl. The complicated process involved in the manufacture 
even of the simpler kinds will be foimd described in Things Japanese. 

With regard to Porcelain, various notices will be found scattered 
throughout this voliime. 

The following names of Japanese art-forms not yet mentioned should 
be remembered, for most of which no Enghsh equivalents exist : — 

The fusumn, sliding doors betv/een rooms, often beautifully painted. 

The iywo, a small medicine-box in segments, generally made of 
lacquer. The segments are held together by means of a cord, to^one 
extremity of which a netsuke is often attached. 

The kakemono, or hanging scroll, generally painted, sometimes em- 
broidered. 

The korb, or incense-burner, generally of bronze or porcelain. 

The makimono, or scroll, not meant to be hung up. It is used chiefly 
for manuscripts, which are often beautifully illuminated. 

The netsuke, originally a kind of button for the medicine box, pipe- 
case, or tobacco-pouch, carved out of wood or ivory. These httle articles 
have since developed into gems of art. 

The okimono, a general name for various small ornaments having no 
definite use, but intended to be placed in an alcove or a cabinet. 

Mention may also be made of various gear appertaining to the Japanese 
sword {katana) and often cunningly wrought in metals and alloys, of 
which latter the best-known are sJiibu-ichi and shakudb, both formed of a 
basis of copper with varying admixtures of silver and gold. Specially 
noteworthy among these articles are the isuha, or guard, and the menuki, — 
small ornaments fixed one on each side of the hilt, and held in place by 
the silk cord which binds together the various parts of the handle. 

The best books on Japanese art are very expensive. Anderson's 
Pictorial Arts of Japan (£ 8) is splendidly illustrated. Brinkley's Japan 
and China (£ 8) has one volume — the eighth — entirely devoted to keramics. 
Strange's Japanese Illustration and Dick's Arts and Crafts of Old Japan are 
handy compendiums, each one small volume octavo. The Kokkwa (a 
serial) and the Shimhi Sho-in's iwbhcations are beautiful, but costly. 



Outline of Japanese History. 61 

23. — Outline of Japanese History. 

Nothing is known concerning the origin of the Japanese people, or 
the period at which they reached their present habitat. The dawn of 
trustworthy history, in the 5th century after Christ, finds the Mikados 
— Emperors claiming descent from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu — 
already governing all Japan except the North, which was still occupied 
by the Aino aborigines, and Chinese civihzation beginning to filter into 
what had apparently hitherto been a semi-barbarous land. The chief 
pioneers of this civilization were Buddhist priests from Korea. From 
that time onward Japanese history consists, broadly spealdng, in the 
rise of successive great families and chiefs, who, while always pro- 
fessing a nominal respect for the divine authority of the Mikado, 
practically usurp his ])OAver and are the de facto rulers of the country. 
By the end of the 12th century, the old absolutism had been converted 
into a feudalism, or which Yoritomo, the successful chieftain of the 
house of Minamoto, became the acknovrledged head under the title of 
Shogun, which closely corresponds in etymology and in signification 
to the Latin Imperator. Thus was inaugurated the dual system of 
government which lasted down to the year 1868, — the Milcado supreme 
in name, but powerless and dwelling in a gilded captivity at the old 
capital Kyoto ; the Shogun with his great feudatories, his armed re- 
tainers, and his well-filled exchequer, ruling the whole empire from 
his new capital in Eastern Japan, — first Kamakura, then Yedo. During 
the latter period of the nominal supremacy of the Minamoto family of 
Shoguns, the real power was in the hands of their chief retainers, the 
H5jo family, — the political arrangement thus becoming a triple one. 
The rule of the H5j6 was rendered memorable by the repulse of the 
Mongol fleet sent by Kublai lihan to conquer Japan, since which time 
Japan has never been invaded by any foreign foe. The Ashikaga 
line of Shdguns grasped the power which had fallen from the Hojo's 
hands, and distinguished themselves by their patronage of the arts. 
The second half of the 16th century was a period of anarchy, during 
which two great soldiers of fortune who were not 8h5guns — Nobunaga 
and Hideyoshi — successively rose to supreme power. Hideyoshi even went 
so far as to conquer Korea and to meditate the conquest of China, an 
enterprise which was, however, interrupted by his death in A.D. 1598. 
Tokiigawa leyasu, Hideyoshi's greatest general, then succeeded in making 
Japan his own, by the_great victory of Seki-ga-hara in 1600. Finally over- 
throwing all rivals at Osabi in 1615, he founded a dynasty of Shoguns that 
ruled the land in profound peace for two and a half centuries, namely, till 
1868. Among the means resorted to for securing this end, were the 
ejection of the Catholic missionaries and the closing of the country to 
foreign trade. Nagasaki was the only place in the empire at M^hich any 
communication with the outer world was permitted ; no European nation 
but the Dutch was allowed to trade there, and even Dutch commerce was 
restricted within narrow limits. At last, in 1853, the government of the 
United States sent a fleet under the command of Commodore Perry to 
insist on the abandonment of the Japanese policy of isolation. This act 
of interference from the outside gave the coup de grace to the Shogunate, 
which had previously been weakened by internal discontent. It fell, and 
in its fall dragged down the whole fabric of medieeval Japanese civihsation 
On the one hand, the Mikado was restored to the absolute power which 



62 



Introduction: — Outline of Jajjanese History. 



had belonged to his ancestors centuries before. On the other, Europeanism 
(if one may so phrase it) became supreme in every branch of thought and 
activity. The natural outcome of this has been the Europeanisation of the 
monarchy itself. Not only has the Court adopted foreign manners and 
etiquette, — it has granted a Constitution modelled on that of Prussia ; and 
the Diet, as it is termed, meets yearly. The tendency of this body has 
always been towards radicalism. Japanese trade and industry have devel- 
oped enormously under the new regime, while the reconstruction of the 
army and the creation of a navy, both of which have won laurels in recent 
w^ars, have placed Japan among the great powers of the world. 



The following are the chief dates of Japanese history 
/Accession of the first Mikado, Jimmu Tenno 






Prince Yamato-take conquers S.W. and E. Jajjan 
Conquest of Korea by the Empress Jingo . 
First Chinese books brought to Japan... . 

Buddhism introduced from Korea 

Shotoku Taishi patronises Buddhism 

Grovernment remodelled on Chinese bureaucratic plan 

Chinese calendar introduced 

Fuji wara family predominant 

The Court resides at Kara 

First extant Japanese book published {Kojiki) 

Printing introduced 

Kyoto made the capital 

Invention of the Hiragana syllabary 

Struggle between the houses of Taira and Minamoto.. 

Yoritomo establishes the Shogunate at Kamakura 

Hojo family predominant 

Eepulse of the ]\Iongols 

Two rival lines of Milmdos, the Northern and Southern Courts 

Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns 

The Portuguese discover Japan 

St. Francis Xavier arrives in Japan 

First persecution of the Christians 

Yedo founded by leyasu 

Hideyoshi invades Korea 

Battle of Seld-ga-hara 

Tokugawa dynasty of Shoguns 

Japan closed and Christianity prohibited . . . 

The Dutch relegated to Deshima 

Kaempfer visits Japan 

Last eruption of Fuji 

Arrival of Commodore Perry 

First treaty signed with the United States . . . 

(xreat earthquake at Yedo 

First treaties with European Powers 

Yokohama opened to foreign trade 

First Japanese embassy sent abroad 

Bombardment of Shimonoseki 

Civil war at Kyoto 

The Shogunate abolished and the ]\'likado restored 

Civil war between Imperialists and partisans of the Shogun 



B.C. 

660 
A.D. 

97-113 

200 

285 

552 

593-621 

600-800 

602 

670-1050 

709-781 

712 

770 

794 

809 
1156-1185 
1192 

1205-1333 
1271-1281 
1332-1392 
1338-1565 
1542 
1549 
1587 
1590 

1592-1598 
1600 

1603-1868 
1624 
1639 

1690-1692 
1708 
1853 
1854 
1855 

1857-1859 
1858 
1860 
1864 

1864-1865 
1868 
1868-1869 



Chronological Tables. 



m 



The Mikado remoYes to Yedo (Tdkyd) 1869 

Abolition of feudal system 1871 

Tolryo- Yokohama railway opened 1872 

Adoption of Gregorian calendar 1873 

Expedition to Formosa 1874 

Wearing of swords interdicted 1876 

Satsuma rebellion 1877 

New Codes published 1880-190G 

Constitution promulgated 1889 

First Diet met ]890 

Victorious war M-ith China 1894-1895 

Formosa added to the emp'ire 1895 

Gold standard adopted 1897 

New treaties come into operation, whereby all foreigners are 

brought under Japanese law 1899 

Japan joined European powers in relief of Peking 1900 

Anglo-Japanese alliance 1902 

Victorious war with Eussia ; protectorate over Korea 1904-5 



24. — Japanese Chronological Tables. 

The Japanese, instead of calculating from the Christian era, employ 
what are called " year-names :" — thus, 1907 is the 40th year of " Meiji." 
Formerly, also, the year began about six weeks later than ours, and the 
calendar was lunar, making all dates variable from year to year. This is 
what is occasionally referred to in the present volume under festivals, etc., 
as " Old Style." 

The foUoAving tables, adai:»ted by permission from a little work 
compiled many years ago by Sir Ernest Satow for private circulation, 
will facilitate reference to Japanese historical dates. 

Table I. gives the Japanese Kengo or "year-names,"* arranged 
alphabetically, with the equivalent of each according to the Christian 
calendar, the first number being the year in which the " year- name " 
commenced, the second that in which it ended. Some few may appear 
to be repetitions of each other, for instance, El-reki and Yo-ryaku, both 
representing the period 1160-1. The reason of this is that the Chinese 
characters tK®, with which this " year-name " is written, admit of being 
read in two ways, much as, among ourselves, some persons pronounce 
the word " lieutenant " lyootenant, others lefienani. The remaining tables 
are self-explanatory, giving as they do, in alphabetical order, the names 
of the Mikados, Shdguns, and Regents, with the dates of their reigns. 
Note only that the alternative name of each Shogun is that conferred on 
him posthumously. For instance, the ruler known to history as leyasu, 
was, so to say, canonised under the title of Tbsho'ju. 

Another system, in concurrent use with the " year-names," is that of 
the era [Kujen] of the first Emperor, Jimmu Tenno, who, according to the 
accepted chronology, ascended the throne in 660 B. C, as mentioned 
above. By this reckoning, the year 1907, for instance, becomes 2567. 
This method of dating is, however, but little emx:)loyed, except by certain 
historiographers and in school text-books. 



For details, see "Things Japanese," articles Time and Festivals. 



64 



Introduction : — Chronological Tables. 



TABLE J. 

The Japanese "Year-names. 



An-ei 


'^77c 1772-81 


Clioji 1 

1 


^Y^ 1104-06 


Einin 


^ct: 1293-99 


Angeii l^TC 1175-77 


Choko 


^^1 1487-89 


EireM 


77c^ 1160-61 


Ansei ^i^' 1854-60 

1 i 1 


Ch5kwan 

1 


^iC'i 1163-65 


Eiroku 


7Tc^' 1558-70 

1 


Antei !^^' 1227-29 


Cli5kyu 


^X\ 1040-44 


Eisho 


77c^ 1045-53 


Anwa 


^^': 968-70 

1 


ChoreM 


^a^l 1037-40 


Eisho 


77CJE 1504-21 j 

1 1 


Bummei 


■Xm] 1469-87 


Clioroku 


:g,.Ct! 1457-60 

I 


Eiso 


mff^ 989-90 


Bumpo 


^^' 1317-19 


Ch6sh5 


^^j 1132-35 


Eitoku 


^m 1381-84 


Bnn-an 


3t^ 


1444-49 


Chotoku 


;^:^j 995-99 

1 


Eiwa 


y%U 1375-79 

1 


Bimcliu 


^r{i! 1372-75 


Clidwa 


^^ 1012-17 

1 


Embun 


m^ 


1356-61 


Bun-ei 


^^cj 1264-75 


Daido 


:;^|^j 806-10 

1 


Empo 


U^, 1673-81 

i 


Bunji 


^'d 1185-90 


Dai-ei 


:;c77cl 1521-28 

1 


Encho 


5id 923-31 


Bunld k^ 


1501-04 


Daiho 


^% 701-04 


Engen 


5i7c! 1336-40 


Bnn'kwa 


■j^iit^ 1804-18 


Daiji 


X?^j 1126-31 


Engi 


mm\ 801-23 


Bunkyu 


!J: ^11861-64 


Daikwa 


:^fti 645-50 

1 


Enkei 

1 


lig: 1308-11 


Biin-o 


^^ 1260-61 


Eicho 


7ic^ 1098-97 


1 Enky^o 


m^ 174^48 


Bunroku 


^r^l 1592-96 


Ei-en 


7K5i' 987-89 


Enkyu 


mx 


1069-74 

1 


Bunryakii JSCM 


1234-35 


Eili5 


77cfsJ 1081-84 


En-o 


lum 1239-40 


Bunsei 


l^i^! 1818-30 
1 1 


Eiji 


yk^ 1141-42 


Enryaku ImmI 782-806 


Bunslio 


^iE 


1466-67 


Eikyo 


7W 1429-41 

1 1 


Entokn 


^^! 1489-92 


Bun-wa 


1^^' 1352-56 

1 1 


Eikyti 


fkx\ 1113-18 


Gembnii 


Tt^j 1736-41 


Chogen j^^Tt 1028-37 


Eik%yan 


^ct? 983-85 


Gencliu 


TC 41 j 1384-93 


Choho 


gf^'999-1004 


Eiman 


7i<K| 1165-66 


Gen-ei 


Jtc^J 1118-20 



Chronological Tables. 



65 



Genji 


jt^4^ 1864-65 


Jinka 


mm 


724-29 


Kei-6 ^,ifffij 1865-68 


Genkei 


itm 


877-85 


Jireki 


'i^m 1065-69 


Kei-un 


Kg 704r-08 


Genki tC^ 


1570-73 


Jisho t-^^ 1177-81 


Kemmu 


^•^1334-38 


Genko 


7C^ 


1321-24 


J6-ei I^^Tc' 1232-33 


Kempo 


^i?^J 1213-19 


Genko 


7C^ 1331-34 


Jogen 


Mjt\ 976-78 


Kencho 


m& 


1249-56 


Genkyti \ytX 1204-06 


Jokwan 


^llj 859-77 


Ken-ei 


^7k\ 1206-07 


Gennin TCfi: 1224-25 


Joji 


M.l4 1362-68 


Kengen 


S^Tt 1302-03 


Gen-6 


7i:!i 


1319-21 


J6-ky6 


Jt$ 1684-88 


Kenji 


m^ 1275-78 


Genroku 


^J 1688- 
TCfMj 1704 


J6-6 


MM 1222-24 


Kenkyu \^X 1190-99 


Genryaku'Tclf 1184^85 


Jowa 


^in 1345-50 


Kennin 


md, 1201-04 


Gentoku 


Tcd 1329-31 


Ju-ei 


^•7Tc 1182-85 


Kenryakii^^ 


1211-13 


Genwa 


Tcfn 1615-24 


Ka-ei 


Mfk 


1848-54 


Kentoku 


m^. 


1370-72 


Hakuchi 


l^^i 650-55 


Kagen 


MTt 


1303-06 


Ko-an 


^^ 


1278-88 


Hakuho 


em 


673-86 


Kaho 


Mi^l 1094-96 


Ko-an 


m^ 


1361-62 


Heiji 


^t^^' 1159-60 


Kajo 


mm\ 848-51 


Kocho 


^l& 


1261-64 


Ho-an 


fS-gel 1120-24 

1 


Kakei ^g 


1387-89 


K6-ei 


m7}<} 1342-45 


H5-ei 


tt^Tc 


1704-11 


Kakitsu 


m^\ 1441-44 


Kogen 


mjt 


1256-57 


H6-en 


^5i 


1135-41 


Ka-o 


^fg! 1169-71 


Kohei 


^^ 1058-65 


Hogen 


f^TC 1156-59 


Kareki 


^^ 


1326-29 


Koho 


m^ 


964-68 


Hoji 


«f^ 


1247-49 


Karoku 


m^ 1225-27 


Koji 


m^\ 1142-44 


H5ki 


«fe 


770-81 


Kasho 


^# 


848-51 


Koji 


m^ 


1555-58 


HoreM 


K^ 1751-64 


Kasho 


^7^1106-08 


Kokoku \mW 


1340-46 


Hdtoku 


Rt#J 1449-52 


Katei j^iji^' 1235-38 


Kokwa 


^lit 


1844-48 


Ji-an 


•?^^ 1021-24 


Kei-an 


fl^ 1648-52 


Konin 


^f- 810-24 


Jingo- 
Keiun 




767-70 


Keicho |K^|''^^i6i5 


K6-6 


mm 


1389-90 



66 



Introduction : — Chronological Tables. 



Kdreki WM 1379-81 ': Kyuju 


^« 115^56 


Shitoku 


g^; 1384-87 


Kdroku l:f:^ 1528-32 


Man-en 


^m\ 1860-61 


Sho-an 


fi^' 1171-75 


K6sh5 ^JE 1455-57 


Manji 


^f^l 1658-61 


Sho-an jiESi 123^1302 


Kotoku 


f ^ 1452-55 j 


Manju j 


ii« 1024-28 


Shdcho 


iE:g, 1428-29 


Ko™ !««i^"^^noJ 


Meiji 


5gf^|l868-- 


Shochu ! 

1 


IE cfj' 1324-26 j 


K5wa 


51^ 1381-841 


Mei-5 


„a^.!l492- 

rnm^i 1501 


Shogen i 


iEtc'i 1259-60 


Kwam- 
bun 


l:^j 1661-73 j 


Meireld 


H^^l 1655-58 


Sliogen 


7|C7CJ 1207-11 


Kwanipeii:^!^, 889-98 


Meitokn 


m'€\ 1390-94 


Shohei 


^^ 


931-38 1 


Kwampo ^^ 


1741-44 


Meiwa 


B^^n 1764-72 


Shdiiei 


jE^ 1346-70 


Kwan-ei 


^^j 1624-44 


Mmpei 


t:^ 1151-54 


Shdho 


^^j 1074-77 

1 


Kwan-en'^Ji! 1748-51 


Nin-an 


f-^ 1166-69 


Sh51i6 


lE^ 1644-48 


Kwangenj^Tcj 1243-47 


Mnji 


tl'd 1240-43 


Shoji 


-^.^1 1199- ! 
^^"1 1201 


Kwanji 


^'^^^ 1087-94 


Ninju 


f:^« 


851-54 


Shoka 


iE^ 1257-59 


KwanM 


^i:| 1229-32 

1 


Mnwa 


i.m 


885-89 


Shokei 


lEg' 1332-33 


Kwanko ^?l! 1004r-12 


0-an 


m^ 


1368-75 


Shdkyii 


mx\ 1219-22 


Kwannin'lSf:^' 1017-24 


Och5 


« 


1311-12 


Sh6-5 


jE,^. 1288-93 


Kwan-o j|||?i] 1350-52 


0-ei 


M<r^t428 


Sh6-5 


H^m 1652-55 i 

1 1 


Kwansei ^|^i& l^S9-^0^ 


Oho 


\m^ 


1161-63 


Slioreki 


lE^j 990-95 


Kwanshol'^jEl 1460-66 


Onin 


^i- 1467-69 


Slioreki 


^m\ 1077-81 


Kwan- 
toku 


^B 1044-46 


Otoku 


0.^1084-87 


Shotai 


^^'898-904 


Kwanwa j^^' 985-87 


Owa 


\mm\ 961-64 


Shdtokii 


^^ 1097-99 


Ky6h5 


^^' 1716-36 


Reiki 


pte 


715-17 


Shotokti 


JE^' 1711-16 1 


Kyotoku 


$^ 1452-55 


Eekinin 


^t: 


1238-39 

1 


Shdwa 


^^ 834-48 


Kyowa 


k^fn' 1801-04 


; Eeki-6 


\mml 1338-42 
1 ■ i 


Showa 


iE^ 1312-17 


Kyti-an 


^^ 1145-51 11 Saiko 


\mm\ 854-57 


Shucho 


^,^686-701 



Chronological Tables. 



67 



Shujaku 


^m 


672-72 


Tencbo 


X^^ 824-34 1! Tensho \^1^ 1131-32 


Taiji 


^^■^^. 1126-31 


Ten-ei 


?C77C 


1110-13 


Tensba 


^iE 1573-92 


Tembun 


^^ 1532-55 


Ten-en 


^m 


973-76 


Tentokti 


^#.| 957-61 


Temmei 


^H^l 1781-89 


Tengen 


^7C 


978-83 


Tenwa 


^^n 1681-84 


Tempei- |^^ 

i Hoji ;k^ 


757-65 


Tenji 


^V'^ 1124-26 


Tenyo 


^^j 1144-45 


Tempei- ^^ 
Jingo $4^^ 


765-67 


Tenju 


^gj 1375-81 


Tokuji b.f^ 1306-08 


Tempei- 1^^ 

shobo \mm 


749-57 


Tenld 


^^ 1053-58 


Wado 


m9\ 708-15 


Tempo 


J^^ 


1830-44 


Tennin 


^ti 1108-10 


Y5ro 


m^ 


717-24 


Tempiiku'^^ifg' 1233-34 


Teii-5 


%m 


781-82 


Yoryaku !77<.ltj 1160-61 


Tempyo 


^¥ 


729-49 


Tenroku 


^r^l 970-73 


Yoso 


^t\^\ 989-80 


Ten-an ":^^ 


857-59 


Tenryaku'^^^j 947-57 


Yowa \%m\ 1181-82 



TABLE n. 

List of Mikados. f 



Ankan 534-535 


Fushimi 


1288-98 


Go-Icbij5 


1017-36 


Ank5 


454 456 


Gemmyd 


708-715 


Go-Kame- 

yama 


1368-92 


^-- '1nB,c, 


Gensho 


715-723 


Go-Kasbiwa- 
bara 


1501-62 


Antokii 1181-85 


Go-Daigo 


1319-39 


Go-K6gon* 


1352-71 


Bidatsu 


572-585 


Go-Enyii* 


1372-82 


Go-Komatsu* 


1383-92 


CMai 


192-200 


Go-Fukakusa 1247-59 


Go-Komatsu 


1392- 
1412 


Chuky5 


1222-22 


Go-Fusbimi 


1299- 
1301 


Go-K6my6 


1644-54 


Daigo 


898-930 


Go-Hanazono 


1429-64 


Go-Mizuno-o 


1612-29 


Enyli 970-984 


Go-Horikawa 


1222-32 


Go-Momo- 

zono 


1771-79 



t All those not marked B. O. are subsequent to the Christian era. Female 
Mikados are printed in italics. The sovereigns whose names are marked with an 
asterisk belonged to the Northern Court (see p. 72), and are excluded by modern 
historians from the legitimate line of Bucceseion. 



68 



Introduction : — Chronological Tables. 



Gk)-Murakami 1319-68 


Jomei 1 929-641 


Kwammu 782-806 


Gro-Nara 


1527-57 


JiiTina ! 824-833 


Kwazan 


985-986 


GoNijo 


1302-08 


Junnin 


758-764 


Meisho 


1630-43 


Go-Beizei 


1046-68 


Juntokii 


1211-21 


Mommu 


697-707 


Go-Saga 


1243-46 


Kaik^va 1 l='-8^^ 


Momozono 


1747-62 


Go-Sfiiin 


1655-63 


Kameyama 


1260-74 


Montokn 


851-858 


Go-Sakura- 
machi 


1763-70 


Keito 71-130 


Miiral^ami 


947-967 


Go-Sanjd 


1069-73 


Kenso 


485-487 


Muretsu 


499-506 


Go-Sliiraliawa| 1156-58 


Keitai 507-531 


Nalai-mikado 


1710-35 


Go-Sliujaku 


1037-45 


Kimmei 


540-571 


Nijo 


1159-65 


Go-Toba 


1186-98 


K5an 


392- 
291B.C. 


Niinmy5 


834-850 


Go-Tsuclii- 
mikado 


1465- 
1500 


Kobun 


672-672 


Ninken 


488-498 


Go-Uda 


1275-87 


Kogen 


214- 
158B.C. 


Ninlv5 


1817-46 


Go-Y6zei 


1587- 
1611 


Kogyoku 


642-645 


Nintoku 


313-399 


Hanazono 


1308-18 


Kogon * 


1332-35 


Ogimachi 


1558-86 


Hansei 


406-411 


Kokaku 


1780- 
1817 


Ojin 


270-310 


Heizei 


806-809 


Roken 


749-758 


Eeigen 


1663-86 


HigasM-yama 


1687- 
1709 


Koko 


885-887 


Keizei 


968-969 


Horikawa 


1087- 
1107 


Komei 


1847-66 


Kicliii 


400-405 


Ichijo 


987-1011 


Komyo * 


1336-48 


Kokiijo 


1166-68 


Inlcyo 


412-453 


Konin 


770-781 


Saga 


810-823 


Itoku 


510- 
477B.C. 


Konoe 


1142-55 


Saimel 


655-661 


Jimmu 


660- 
585B.C. 


Korei 


290- 
215B.C. 


Sakiira-maclii 


1736-47 


Jingo Kd<jd 


201-269 


Kdslio 


475- 
393B.C. 


Sanj5 1012-15 


Jitb 


690-696 


Kotoku 


645-654 


Seimu 


131-190 



Chronological Tables. 



69 



Seinei 480-484 


Suiko 


593-628 


Tenchi 


668-671 


Seiwa 


859-876 


Sninin 


29B.C.- 

70A.D. 


Toba 


1108-23 


Sentwa 


536-539 


Suisei 


581- 
549B.C. 


Tsuchi- 

mikado 


1199- 
1210 


Shijo j 1233-42 


Sujin 


97-30B.C. 


Tsunuzashi 


484-484 


Shirakawa 


1073-83 


Sujun 


588-592 


Uda 


888-897 


Shoko 


1411-28 


Siilco * 


1349-52 


Yomei 586-587 


Shomu 724^748 


Sutolm 


1124 41 


Y5zei 


877-884 


ShotoJcu 


765-770 


Takakura i 1169-80 


Yuryakii 


457-459 


Slinjaku 


931-946 


Temmi-i 


673-686 





TABLE ni. 

List of Shogums. 



Hidetada (Taitoku-In) 


1605-1623 


Koreyasu 


1266-1289 


Hisa-akii<i 1289-1308 


JMorilmni 


1308-1333 


leharu (Shimmei-In) " 


1760-1786 


Morinaga (Oto-no-Miya) 


1333-1334 


lemitsu (Taiyu-In) 


1623-1650 


Munetaka 


1252-1266 


lemochi (Sbotoku-In) 


1858-1866 


Nariyosbi (Sbigenaga) 


1334-1338 


lenari (Bunkyo-In) 


1787-1838 


Sanetomo 


1203-1219 


lenobn (Bunsbo-In) 


1709-1713 


ITakanji (T6ji-In) 


1338-1356 


lesada (Onkyo-In) j 1853-1858 


Tsnnayosbi (Joken-ln) 


1680-1709 


leshige (Jimsbin-Iu) 1 1745-1760 

1 


Yoriie 


1202-1203 


letsugu (Yusb5-In) 


1713-1716 


Y^'oritomo 


1192-1199 


letstina (Gen-yu-In) 


1651-1080 


Y'^oritsugu 


1244-1250 


leyasTi {Tosb5-gu) 


1603-1605 


Yoritstine 


1226-1243 


leyosbi (Sbintolm-In) 


1838-1853 


Yosbiald (Reiy5-In) 


1568-1597 



70 



Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 



Yosliiharu (Manslio-In) 


1521-1546 


Yoshimochi (Sli5tei-In) 


1394-1423 


Yoshiliide (Daichi-In) 


1568-1568 


YoshiTYiune (Yutoku-In) 


1716-1745 i 

1 


Yosiiihisa (Jdtoku-In) 


1472-1489 


Yosliinobu (Keiki) 


1867-1868 

1 


Yoshikatsu (Keinn-In) 


1441-1443 


Yoshinori (Fuko-In) 


1429-1441 1 


l^'oshilvazni (Ch5to3ra-In) 


1423-1425 


Yoshinori (H5ky6-Iii) 


1358-1367 


YoshiM 


1490-1494 


Yoshitane (Keirin-In) 1508-1521 


Yoshimasu (Jisho-In) 


1449-1472 


Yosliiteru (Kogen-In) 1548-1565 

1 


Yoshimitsu (EokuoD-In) j 1368-1394 


Yosnizumi (Hoju-In) i 1494-1508 



TABLE IV. 

List of the Eegents [Shikken) of the Hojo FAMiiiV. 



ToKmasa j ^J™' 


Died. 
1216 


TokiTYiune 


Apptd. 
1-261 


Died. 
1284 


YosMtoId i -^X'- 


1227 


Sadatoki 


1284 


1311 


Yasutold 


1225 


1242 


MorotoM 


1301 1311 


Tsunetoki ! 1243 1 1263 


Talvatoki 


1312 1333 


Tokiyori 


1246 


1263 






I 

1 



25. — List of Celebrated Personages. 



The folloTdng list of celebrated personages referred to in this book, 
and likely to be mentioned by guides when explaining objects of historical 
or artistic interest, may be found useful. 

Akahito (flourished circa A.D. 700), one of the earliest poets of Japan. 
His full name was Yamabe-no-Akahito. 

Antoktj Tenn5, an ill-fated infant IMilmdo, who jDerished at sea in 
A.D. 1185, during the civil war waged between the great famihes of 
Taira and Minamoto. (See also end of Route 48). 

Asahina Sabueo (end of 12th century), one of Y^oritomo's doughtiest 
retainers, was distinguished by almost incredible i^hysical strength. He 
is depicted in art as hurling great rocks with the same ease that he 
flings stalwart rivals, and as swimming with a hve shark under each arm. 
Bakin (1767-18 tS), the greatest novelist of modern Japan. His most 
famous production is the Hakkenden, or "Story of Eight Dogs." This 
amazingly voluminous work (it fills no less than one hundred and six 



celebrated Pertonages. 



Tl 



volumes ! ) sets forth the adventures of eight heroes of semi-canine 
parentage, who represent the eight cardinal virtues. 

Benkei, or Musashi-b6 Benkei (12th century), was Yoshitsune's 
famous henchman. How many of Benkei's achievements are historical, it 
would be hard to say. According to the current version, he was eight feet 
in height, strong as a hundred men, and had even in early years performed 
so many deeds of violence as to have been nicknamed Oni-imka, " the Devil 
Youth." Having attempted to cut down Yoshitsune, then a mere stripling, 
on the Gojo bridge in Ky5to, he found in him his master in the art of 
fencing, and was made to sue for quarter. So great was the veneration 
thus inspired in his breast that he thenceforth attached himself to Yoshi- 
tsune's fortunes, and died batthng in his cause. The fight between Yoshi- 
tsune and Benkei is a favourite subject v>dth the artists of Japan. Another 
is the subterfuge by which Benkei made way for his master and their little 
band through one of the barriers where, at that time, all travellers were 
hable to be stopped. He pretended that he v/as a priest sent to collect 
subscriptions for the building of a new temple, and therefore privileged to 
travel free. The pictures represent him reading out his supposed 
ecclesiastical commission from a scroll to the barrier-keepers, who were 
too ignorant of letters to discover the feint. This story is the subject of 
a popular drama called Kanjin-cho. 

BusoN (see p. 59.) 

Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1724:) was Japan's foremost playwright. 
His dramas are still immensely popular. 

Cho Densu (see p. 57). 

Dakuma (Sanskrit, Dharma), 
an Indian Buddhist patriarch of 
the 6th century, who sat for nine 
years in profound abstraction till 
his legs rotted away and fell off. 

Date Masamune (1587-1636), 
Daimyo of Sendai, is chiefly re- 
membered for the embassy which 
he despatched to the Pope and to 
the I^ng of Spain in 1614. This 
nobleman was eminent as a war- 
rior, a diplomatist, and a patron 
of learning and art. 

Dengyo Datshi (flourished 
about A. D. 800) was the first 
Buddhist abbot of Hiei-zan, near 
Ky5to. He made a long sojourn 
in China for the purpose of esoteric 
study, and brought back with him 
the doctrines of the Tendai sect. 

En no Shokaku was a famous 
Buddhist saint and miracle- worker of the 7th century, and the first human 
being to ascend Haku-san, Daisen, Tateyama, and others of Japan's highest 
mountains, it being part of his mission to bring all such remote and 
inaccessible places under the sway of Buddha. Having been slandered as 
a magician and condemned to death, he so fortified himself by the use of 
mystic signs and formulae that the swords of the executioners sent to 
behead him snapjped in pieces ; but afterwards he flew away through the 
air, and was never again seen by mortal eyes. 

Enko Daishi (1133-1212) was born of respectable parents in the 




72 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages. 

province of Mimasaka. At the age of nine, he was entered as a pupil at a 
seminary in his native province ; but his teacher, recognising his excep- 
tional powers, sent him up to the great monastery on Kiei-zan in 1147, 
with a letter containing only these vrords : " I send you an image of the 
great sage Monju." On the letter being presented, the priest to whom it 
was addressed asked where the image was, and was much astonished when 
the child alone appeared before him. But the young novice soon justified 
the imphed estimate of his great intellectual powers, and made such rapid 
progress in his studies that at the end of the same year he was judged fit 
for initiation into the priesthood. The prospect was held out to him of 
ultimately obtaining the headship of the Tendai sect ; but he preferred to 
devote himself to the study of theology, and finally developed a special 
doctrine of salvation, or the road to the " Pure Land," from which the 
new sect v\'as named Jodo, this word having the same meaning as the 
Sanskrit Sukhavdtl or " Pure Land," the paradise of Amida. In 1207 he 
settled at Kyoto near the site of the present monastery of Chion-in, and 
there breathed his last at the age of seventy-nine. 

EsHiN (942-1017), a Buddhist abbot who is famous as a sculptor. 
Fokty-Seven Eonins. Their story, too long to be told here, will be 
found in Things Japanese. 

FuJiWAEA Family. This, the greatest of Japan's aristocratic houses, 
traces its origin back to mythological times. Already in the seventh 
century, its then head, Kamatari, was regent of the empire. Down to 
the middle of the eleventh century, its memlDers engrossed the high offices 
of state and supphed most of the Mikados' consorts. Even now, nearly 
two-thirds of the Court nobility (Kuge) are of Fujivrara descent. 

Go-Daigo Tenno (reigned 1319-1339) v.-as a Mikado celebrated for his 
misfortunes. At the beginning of his reign, the throne and the nation 
were alike trampled under foot by the Hojo " Kegents " at Kamakura ; and 
his endeavour to shake off their domination only resiilted, after much 
shedding of blood, in his being taken prisoner and banished to the Old 
Islands. 'WTaen the Hojo fell in 1333 under the sword of the loyahst warrior 
Nitta, Yoshisada, the Emperor Go-Daigo was recalled from exile. But the 
times were not ripe for the abohtion or mihtary rule, nor was Go-Daigo 
wise in his choice of counsellors after his restoration. Ashikaga Takauji, 
who had loosed as the champion of Imperial rights, desired nothing so 
much as to become Shogun himself, and bribed the Mikado's concubine 
Kado-ko to poison her lord's mind against those who had served him 
most faithfully, . and even against his own son. Prince Morinaga (also 
known as Oto-no-miya), who was declared a rebel, cast into a dungeon at 
Kamakura, and there murdered. Go-Daigo repented of his folly and 
weakness when it was too late. Takauji left Kyoto, and the army sent to 
smite him received such a crushing defeat that Go-Daigo was forced to seek 
safety in flight. Thereupon Takauji set another Mikado on the throne. 
But as Go-Daigo continued to be recognised by many as the rightful 
ruler, the sovereignty was spht into two rival branches, called the 
Southern (legitimate) and the Northern (usiu-ping) Courts. After sixty 
years of strife and misery, the Northern Court triumphed in 1392, the 
representative of the Southern dynasty handing over to it the Imperial 
regaha. Go-Daigo perished at an early period of the struggle. His Court 
—if we may so call the mountain fastness where he mostly encami^ed — 
was at Yoshino, whose position to the south of Kyoto was the origin of 
the epithet " Southern " applied to it by Japanese historians. 

Gyogt BosATSU (670-749), a Korean by birth, and a Buddhist abbot 
and saint, is the subject of many artistic fictions. He is credited not only 



Celeh^ated Personages. 73 

with the invention of the potter's wheel, wliich was certainly used in 
Japan before his time, but with a number of imx)ortant wood-carTings and 
other works of art. The ware called after him, Gyogi-yaki, is earthen- 
ware, — dark, glossy, very sohd, having v^^ave-Hnes in the interior, and on 
the outside a pattern resembhng the impression made by matting, 

Hachiman Taeo, ht. the First-Born of the God of War, was a famous 
general of the end of the 11th century, v/hose real name was Minamoto-no- 
Yoshiie, and whose vigorous jjersouality created the pre-eminence of the 
Minamoto or Genji famil3^ He it was who conquered Northern Japan (the 
region beyond Sendai), and brought those liitherto barbarous provinces into 
permanent subjection to the Imperial sway. Artists often depict an 
episode in his career which showed his sldil as a strategist, namely, his 
discovery of an ambush among the rushes, v/hich he inferred from the 
disturbed flight of the wild-geese overhead. Like many other turbulent 
spirits of that time, he forsook the v\'orld and became a Buddhist monk 
at the approach of old age, 

HiDAEI JiNGOEO (sCC p, 59), 

HiDEYosHi (1536-1598), commonly known as the Taiko Hideyoshi — 
the word Taiko being a title indicative of exalted rank — has sometimes 
been called the Napoleon of Japan, Of low birth and so ugly as to earn the 
nickname of " Monkey Face," Hideyoshi worked his way up by sheer will, 
hard fighting, and far-sighted ability, to the position of Nobunaga's most 
trusty lieutenant ; and when that rule died in 1582, Hideyoshi, having 
slain his chief enemies and captured Kyoto, became practically monarch 
of Japan with the title of Eegent {Kicampaku), which till then had never 
been accorded to any but the highest nobility. Hideyoshi carried out 
many wise measures of internal policy, suchjas financial reform, the 
improvement of the great cities of Kyoto and Osaka, and the encourage- 
ment of maritime trade. He was also more merciful to his foes and rivals 
than his predecessor Nobunaga had been. His greatest failing was the 
vulgar ambition of the parvenu. His dream was to conquer China and 
become Emperor of the whole East, As a first step towards this, he sent 
an army across the straits to Korea under command of the celebrated 
generals Kat5 Kiyomasa and Konishi Yukinaga, — the latter a Christian, 
as were many of the soldiers of the expedition. Korea was ruined, and 
Japan nowise benefited. Hideyoshi's death resulted in the withdrawal of 
the Japanese troops from the peninsula, and in the speedy overthrow of 
his own family power which he had hoped to render hereditary. 

HisHiGAWA MoKONOBU (sec p. 58). 

HiTOMARo (flourished circa A, D, 700) vras one of Japan's earliest 
great poets, and the rival of Akahito, His full name was Kakinomoto-no- 
Hitomaro, 

Hojo Family, Established first at Hojo, then at Kamalmra in Eastern 
Japan, this family governed the empire as military regents from 1205 to 
1333 under the nominal rule of Shoguns living at Kydto. H6j5 Tokimune 
made his rule (1261-1284) illustrious by the repulse of the Mongol fleet 
which Kublai Khan had sent to invade Japan. 

HoKusAi (see p. 58). 

Iemitsu (1604-1651), the third Shogun of the Tolaigawa dynasty, in- 
herited the administrative abihty of his grandfather leyasu, and devoted 
his peaceful reign to perfecting the system of government established by 
that prince, including the elaborate system of espionage, touching which 
early European writers on Japan have so much to say. To him is due the 
rule according to which all the Daimyos were obhged to reside during half 
the year in Yedo, and to leave their families there as hostages during the 



74 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages. 

other half. It was also lemitsu -who suppressed Christianity as dangeroiis 
to the state, and closed up the country against all foreigners except the 
Dutch and Chinese, who -were permitted to trade at Nagasaki under 
humiliating restrictions. In fact, it was lemitsu who consohdated what we 
call " Old Japan." His tomb is at Nilcko near that of leyasu. 

Ietasu (1512-1616), one of the greatest generals, and altogether the 
greatest ruler, that Japan has ever produced, was by birth one of the 
small Daimyds of the province of Mikawa, and a scion of the noble family 
of ]\Iinamoto. His own surname was Tokugawa. Having served under 
both Nobtinaga and the Taikd Hideyoshi, he profited by the latter's death 
in 1598 to make war on his infant son Hideyori, seized the great castle 
of Osaka, burnt the Taiko's celebrated palace of Momoyama at Fushimi, 
and finally, in the year 1600, defeated all his _enemies at the battle of 
Seki-ga-hara, a small village in the province of Omi, now a station on the 
Tdkaido Eailway. ]\Ieanwhile he had, in 1590, moved his own head- 
quarters from Shizuoka, where they had been for many years, to Yedo, 
then an unimportant fishing-village, which he chose on account of the 
strategic advantages of its position. In 1603 he obtained from ihe faineant 
Court of Kyoto the title of Shogun, which was borne by his descendants 
during two and a half centuries of unbroken peace, till Commodore Perry's 
arrival in 1853 led to the revolution of 1868, and to the break-up of 
Japanese feudalism and duahsm. The statecraft which caused so long a 
reign of peace under one dynasty to take the place of the secular struggles 
between petty warring chieftains, consisted principally in maintaining 
a balance of power whereby the rivalries of the greater Daimyds were 
played off against each other, and in the annexation to the Shogun' s own 
domain, or to those of his nearest relatives, of large strips of territory in 
all portions of the Empire. These served as coigns of vantage, whence, 
in those days of difficult communication, the actions of each Diiimyo could 
more easily be controlled. leyasu held in his own grasp all the mihtary 
resources of the country, and forced all the Daimyos to regard themselves 
as his feudatories. He likewise had the Court of Kydto strictly guarded, 
— nominally as a protection for the sacred Mikado against rebel foes, but 
in reahty to prevent His Majesty, who still retained the semblance of 
Imperial power, from endeavouring to shake off the fetters which made 
him a passive instrument in the Shogun's hands. leyasu fiirthermore 
built powerfiil strongholds, made new highways, estabhshed a system of 
posts, and promulgated laws, which — if we accept the theory of paternal 
government alike in pohtics and in the family — were very wise, and 
which were in any case far in advance of anything that Japan had 
previously known. When the government had been estabhshed on a firm 
footing in 1C05, leyasu followed the usual Japanese custom of abdicating 
in favour of his son. He retired to Shizuoka, and spent the evening of 
his life in encouraging the renaissance of Japanese Mterature which had 
just begun. To his munificence is owing the ediiio princeps of many 
an important work. His pohtical testament, known as the " Legacy of 
leyasu," embodied the niles of paterrutl government by which his suc- 
ces.sors were forever to be guided ; but (owing perhaps to the circumstance 
of its having long been kept from public knowledge) its authenticity 
has been doubted. leyasu was first buried at Kuno-zan, not far from 
Shizuoka, in a beautiful shrine on a castle-lilce eminence overlooking the 
sea. In the 3'ear 1617, his remains were removed to their present still 
grander resting-place at Nikko. The dynasty of Shdguns founded by 
leyasu is called the Tokugawa dynasty, from the surname of the family. 

IsHiKAWA GoEMON (end of 16th century), the most notorious of 



Celebrated Personages. 75 

Japanese robbers, is credited with haying possessed the physical strength 
of thirty ordinary men. Being at last captured at the age of thirty-seven, 
he and his yonng son Ichiro Avera condemned to be boiled to death in a 
cauldron of oil, which sentence was carried out in the dry bed of the 
Kamogawa at Kydto. In accordance with custom, the criminal composed 
a death-song, which ran as follows : 

Ishikawa ya 

llama no masago wa 
Tsukuru to mo 

Yo ni nusuMto no 
Tane wa tsukimaji 

which may be rendered thus, " Though the stony-bedded rivers [ishi-kaim, 
a pun on his own name) and the sand on the sea-shore come to an end, 
the line of thieves shall never come to an end." 

IwASA Matahei (see p. 58). 

JiKAKU Daishi (A.D. 794-864), a celebrated Buddhist abbot. Like 
many others of his time and profession, he visited China in quest of 
religious and magical lore. 

JiMMU Tenn5, that is, the Emperor Jimmu, is accounted by the 
Japanese annalists the first human sovereign of their country, which had 
till then been ruled over by the Shinto gods. Jimmu Tenn5 was himself 
descended from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, and consequently semi- 
divine. The orthodox account of his career is that, starting from Kyushu 
in the extreme west of Japan, he rowed up the Inland Sea with a band 
of devoted warriors, subduing the aborigines as he went along, in virtue 
of the commission which he had received from Heaven. After much 
fighting in what are now the provinces of Bizen and Yamato, and many 
miraculous occurrences, he died at the age of one hundred and thirty- 
seven, and was buried at Kashiwabara in Yamato, where his capital had 
been established after the conquest. The date assigned for his accession 
is the 11th February, G60 B.C., the anniversary of which day has been 
made a public holiday during the present reign, and was chosen for the 
promulgation of the new Constitution in 1889, evidently with the desire to 
strengthen the popular belief in the authenticity and continuity of Japa- 
nese history. Jimmu Tenn5 and his successors during many centuries 
have, however, been condemned as myths by competent European in- 
vestigators, though it is allowed that the Jimmu legend may possibly be 
an echo of some actual invasion of Central Japan by western tribes of 
adventurers in very early days. 

Jing5 K5g5, that is, the Empress Jingo, ruled over Japan, according 
to the native annalists, from A.D. 201 to 269, when she died at the age 
of one hvmdred ; but Mr. Aston, the leading authority on early Japanese 
history, w^hile not denying the existence of this Japanese Semiramis, 
relegates most of her mighty deeds to the realm of faljle. The chief legend 
connected with her is that of the conquest of Korea, to which country 
she crossed over with a gallant fleet, aided by the fishes both great and 
small and by a miraculous wave, and whence she returned only after 
receiving the abject submission of the king. During the three years of 
her absence in Korea, she held in her womb her son Ojin, who is worship- 
ped as Hachiman, the God of War. Next she turned her attention east- 
wards, and going in her fleet up the Inland Sea, smote the rebels of 
Y'^amato, as Jimmu Tenn5 is said to have done before her. Indeed, it has 
been suspected that the two legends are but varying versions of the same 
story. 



76 Introduction: — Celebrated Fersonages. 

Joch5, the most original of Japan's mediaeval sciilptors, flourislied 
during the reign of the Emj^eror Go-Ichij5 (A.D. 1017-1036). He caryed 
Buddhist subjects. 

JosETsu, (see p. 57). 

Kagekiyo (second half of 12th century) was a famous ■o'urrior of the 
Taira family, to -whom Tarious picturesque legends attach. On one occa- 
sion he disguised himself as a Buddhist priest, and took part in a grand 
temple service as an opportunity for attempting the life of Yoritomo. 
After the ruin of his party, he put out his own eyes, in order not to see the 
triumph of the rival house of Minamoto. 

Xaxo, the family name of a celebrated school of painters (see p. 57). 
The Japanese custom of adoption is the key to the apjDarent mystery of so 
many men similarly gifted arising in one family. 

Kato Kjyomasa Vwas one of Hideyoshi's generals in the invasion of 
Korea at the end of the IGth century, and a fierce enemy of the Christians. 
He is one of the most poi^ular Japanese heroes, and is worshipped — 
chiefly by the Nichiren sect of Buddhists — under the name of Seish5 Ko. 

Kesa Gozen (12th centiiry) is the subject of a celebrated story. 
Though she was already wedded to another, her beauty inspired an 
amorous passion in the breast of a cousin only seventeen years of age, 
who did not hesitate to demand her of her mother. Alarmed for her 
mother's safety, Kesa Gozen feigned consent to his adulterous wishes, but 
on condition that he would first kill her husband. Then taking her 
husband's place in bed, she awaited the assassin. The cousin accordingly 
entered the room at midnight, and carried into effect his murderous 
intent, but was so horrified on discovering who his victim vras that he 
forsook the world and became a monk, and finfilly a saint under the name 
of Mongaku Shonin. 

KiYo:vioRi (1118-1181) was head of the great house of Taira during its 
struggles with the rival house of ]\Iinamoto, and during the brief period 
of triumph which preceded its final overthrow at Dan-no-ura. From the 
year 1156 until his death, Kiyomori was all-ix)werful, engrossing all the 
highest offices of state for his own kinsmen, and governing the palace 
through his kinswomen, where boy Llikados succeeded each other like 
shadows on the throne. To suit his own convenience, he changed the 
capital for a time from Kydto to Fukuwara near the site of modern K5be, 
— an act of high-handed autocracy which was bitterly resented by the 
courtiers and the nobility, whose habits were interfered with and their 
resources taxed by the double move. "\Miile irritating the upper classes 
by his nepoiism and overbearing demeanour, he ground down the common 
people by his exactions, and endeavoured utterly to exterminate the 
Minamoto family. The famous beauty Tokiwa Gozen, handmaiden to 
Yoshitomo, was forced to yield to his embraces in order to save the life 
of her infant, the future hero Yoshitsune ; and every woman that pleased 
his fancy had to minister to his lust. His eldest son Shigemori re- 
monstrated with him in vain. But the storm did not break in his time. 
He died in his bed, leaving his whole house to perish four years later in a 
sea of blood. 

Kob5 Daishi (771-834), the most famous of all Japanese Buddhist 
saints, was noted equally as preacher, painter, sculptor, calligraphist, and 
traveller. Had his life lasted six hundred years instead of sixty, he 
could hardly have graven all the images, scaled all the mountain x)eaks, 
confounded all the sceptics, wrought all the miracles, and performed all 
the other feats with which he is ix)pularly credited. By5bu-ga-ura, near 
the modern shrine of Kompira in Shikoku, was his birth-jDlace. His 



Celebr^ated Personages. 



77 




KOBO DAISHI. 



conception was miraculous, and lie came into the world with his hands 
folded as if in prayer. He entered the priesthood in A.D. 793. Various 
legends are told of the trials to which he was subjected by evil spirits 
during his novitiate. At Cape Muroto in Tosa, dragons and other mon- 
sters appeared out of the sea, and disturbed him in his devotions. These 
he drove away by repeating mystic formulre called Darani, and by spitting 
at them the rays of the evening star which 
had flown from heaven into his mouth. 
At a temple built by him on this spot, he 
was constantly annoyed by hobgobhns 
who forced him to enter into conversation ; 
but he finally got rid of them by surround- 
ing himself with a consecrated enclosure 
into which they were unable to enter 
against his will. Having been sent to 
China as a student in 80i, much as 
promising Jaj)anese youths are sent to 
Europe or America to-day, he became the 
favourite disciple of the great abbot Hui- 
kwo (Jap. Hei-kwa), b}'^ whom he was 
charged to carry back to Japan the tenets 
of the Yogacharya, or, as it is called in 
Japan, Shingon sect, which occupies itself 
greatly with mystic formulae, magic spells, 
and incantations. Kobo Daishi returned 
home in 806, bringing with him a large 
quantity of Buddhist books and devotional 
objects, and in 810 was installed as abbot 

of Toji in Kyoto. A few years later he founded the great monastery of 
K5ya-san in Kishu, where he spent the closing days of a life of incessant 
toil. It is asserted that he did not die, but merely retired into a vaulted 
tomb, where he still awaits the coming of Miroku, the Buddhist Messiah. 
Among the innumerable great deeds with which this saint is credited, is 
the invention of the Hiragana syllabary. It should be noted that the name 
Kobo Daishi (lit. the Great Teacher Spreading Abroad the Law) is a 
posthumous title conferred on him by the Emperor Daigo in the year 921. 
His name while alive was Kukai. 

KoBORi, lord of Enshu (1577-1645), courtier to Hideyoshi and leyasu, 
was the highest authority of his age on the tea ceremonies {cha-no-yu) and 
all the cognate esthetic pursuits which that term sums up to the Japanese 
mind, — curio-collecting, for instance, and the laying out of landscape 
gardens. The still existing school of flov\-er arrangement [Enshu-ryu] 
derived from him distinguishes itself from others by its greater elaborate- 
ness and artificiahty. 

KojiMA Takanobi, also called Bingo-no-Saburo, was a high-born 
warrior of the 14:th century, celebrated for his romantic loyalty to the 
Emperor Go-Daigo. AVhen that ill-fated monarch was being carried off to 
exile by the minions of the usurping house of Hojo, the faithful young 
soldier endeavoured to rescue him on the road. Having failed not only 
in this, but even in gaining access for a moment to his master's person, 
Takanori hit on a method of communication characteristically esthetic and 
Japanese. Stealing at night into the garden of the inn where the Imjjerial 
party had halted, he scraped part of the bark of a cherry-tree bare, and on 
it wrote the following hne of poetry : 



78 Mroduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

whicli, being interj^reted, signifies 

" Heaven ! destroy not Kosen, 
For lie is not without a Hanrei ! " 

the allusion being to an ancient Chinese Idng, who, after twenty years of 
Avarfare, was at length helped to victory by the prowess of a faithful 
vassal. "When d;iy broke, the soldiers, seeing the writing, but being too 
ignorant to decipher it, showed it to their Imperial captive, who at once 
understood that it referred to himself and was meant to intimate that 
faithful friends were at hand. The choice of a cherry-tree was not the 
least significant part of the deed ; for that tree is in Japan the emblem 
of patriotism and loyalty. Later on, Takanori died fighting for his sover- 
eign, and artists still love to reproduce that scene of his life in which 
loyalty and delicacy were so well combined. 

KoMACHi (full name Ono-no-Komachi), the most famous of Japan's 
many jxDetesses, seems to have flourished in the second half of the 9th 
century, and left a lasting impression on the national mind by her beauty, 
her talents, and the miserable old age which was the reward of her pride 
and frailty ; but nothing certain is known of her career. Every branch 
of art borrows motives from Komachi's life. "She is shown," says 
Anderson, " in her days of pride and luxury, drawing rain down upon 
the parched earth by the numbers of her magic verse, bringing to shame 
the rival who sought to fasten upon her the stigma of plagiarism and 
falsehood ; courted by the noblest of the briluant band that surrounded the 
throne, — and again, without a step of transition, old, enfeebled, clad in 
unclean rags, begging her way from door to door until she died, rotted, and 
became the food of dogs on the highway — a moral illustration of the 
Buddhistic text, 'All is vanity,' that the artist never tires of repeating, 
and sometimes elaborates with sickening detail." 

K5EIN (see p. 53). 

Kose-no-Kanaoka (see p. 56). 

KuMAGAi Naozane, a warrior of the latter half of the 12th centui-y, 
took his surname from the town of Kumagai in the province of ]\Iusashi, 
which he received as a fief from Yoritomo. The most striking incident in 
his life was his encounter with Atsumori at the battle of Ichi-no-tani not 
far from Kobe, in the year 1184. Atsumori was a delicate young nobleman 
of the Taira family, scarcely sixteen years of age, who, when the city of 
Fukuwara had been taken by the Minamoto, sought safety like the rest of 
his kindred in flight on board a junk, but being pursued by Kumagai 
Naozane, had to fight for his life. He succumbed to the veteran, who, 
tearing off his helmet the better to sever his head, beheld the youthful face 
and was struck with pity and sympathy, his own son having fallen earlier 
in the day. He reflected, however, that to spare the boy's life might only 
cause him to fall into more ruthless hands. So partly out of compassion, 
and partly for the sake of his own reputation, he resolved to carry out his 
first jmrpose. Atsumori submitted to his fate with heroic courage, while 
Naozane, overwhelmed \Aith bitter remorse, vowed never more to bear 
arms, but to forsake the world and spend the remainder of his dsiys in 
praying for the soul of the fair youth whose life he had so unwillingly 
taken. He restored to Atsumori's father the head and the other spoils 
which he had gained, and after the conclusion of the war went to Kyoto 
and entered the cloister of Kurodani, where numerous relics of him are 
shown to this dtiy. The story has been dramatised under the title of 
Atsumori. 



Celebrated Personages. 79 

KusuNOKi Masashigb, also called Nank5 (first half of 14:tli century), 
is celebrated for his courage and for his unswerving loyalty to the throne. 
Had the Emperor Go-Daigo hstened to his advice, the rising power of the 
house of Ashikaga might have been crushed. As it was, Masashige was 
unequally pitted against a siiperior foe ; and when his army had been 
annihilated at the battle of Minato-gawa near the modern city of K5be, 
in 1336, he and a little band of personal followers committed harakiri 
rather than surrender. A scene which painters often delineate is Masa- 
shige, about to die, presenting to his young son a scroll containing the 
Imperial acknowledgment of his doughty deeds. 

KxosAi (1831-1890), an artist noted for vigorous drawing and for 
caricature. 

Masakabo (killed A. D. 940) was the most celebrated of Japanese 
rebels, and the only one who ever went so far as to arrogate to himself 
the title of Mikado, For details, see under Narita (Route 5, Sect. 11), and 
the temple of Karula Mybjin in Tokyo. 

Masamune, the name of a celebrated family of swordsmiths, of whom 
the most eminent was Masamune Goro Nyudd, who flourished circa A.D. 
1300. 

MicHizANE (see Tenjin). 

MiNAMOTo or Genji Family. Sprung from a Milcado of the 9th 
century, this family produced an exceptional number of eminent men. 
It fought with and triumphed over its rivals, the Taira, in the 12th century, 
when its head, Yoritomo, was made Sh5gun. Apart from two or three 
Imperial princes, no other family ever claimed that office ; the Ashikaga 
and Toloigawa lines of Shoguns v/ere all of Minamoto blood. 

j\IiTO KoMON (1622-1700), second Daimy5 of Mito, a near relative 
of the Tokugawa Shoguns, helped greatly though unwittingly to the 
final overthrow of their house, and of the whole feudal system a century 
and a half later, by means of his celebrated historical work, the Dai Nihon 
Shi, which first reminded thoughtful men that the Shoguns were usurpers, 
and the Mikados the only rightful rulers of Japan. He also patronised the 
new school of Shintd literati, whose studies led them, and finally the 
majority of the educated public, to endeavour to bring back the state of 
things supposed to have existed in pre-Buddhistic and pre-feudal days. 
Popular tradition ascribes to this prince many fanciful undertakings, such 
as the endeavour to raise the great bell from the river at Konodai, and to 
find the bottom of the kaname-ishi at Kashima, which is supposed to be 
the pivot of the world. 

The succeeding Daimyos of the house of Mito inherited the literary 
and political views of their great ancestor. As late as 1840, the then 
prince, " tired of preaching Shinto and of persuading the Shogun to hand 
over his authority to the Mikado, resolved to take up arms and to try 
the wager of battle. To provide the sinews of war, he seized the Buddhist 
monasteries, and melted down their enormous bronze bells, and cast them 
into cannon. By prompt measures the Shdgun suppressed his preixira- 
tions for war, and imprisoned him for twelve years, releasing him only in 
the excitement consequent upon the arrival of Perry."* The son of this 
stout old imperialist became the last of the Shdguns, and accomplished 
what his ancestors had laboured for, by the voluntary surrender of his 
rank and power to the Mikado. 

MoNGAKU Shonin (scc Kesa Gozen). 

MoTOOEi NoBiNAGA (1730-1801) was the prince of Japanese literati. 

* GrifiBs's Mikado's Empire. 



80 



Introduction : — Celebrated Persona/jes. 



A pupil of the scarcely less distinguished scholar Mabuchi, he continued 
Mabuchi's Avork of investigatinp; Japanese antiquity, bringing back into 
literary use the pure ancient Japanese language, restonng the Shinto 
religion to the supremacy of which Buddhism had robbed it, — in a word, 
emphasising and exalting everything native as against that part of 
Japanese civilization which was new and of extraneous origin. The resto- 
ration of the Mikado to the absolute authority which centuries before had 
been usurped by the Shoguns, was naturally a prime object of the endeav- 
ours of a man to whom antiquity and perfection were convertible terms, 
and in whose behef the ]\Iikado was really and truly a descendant of the 
Groddess of the Sun. Motoori and his school thus became to some extent 
the authors of the revolution which, half a centurj'' later, overturned the 
Shogunate and brought the ]Mikado forth from seclusion to govern as well 
as reign. In recognition of these services, divine honours have been 
conferred both on Motoori and Mabuchi by the present Emperor. Moto- 
ori's works M'ere very numerous. The greatest is his elaborate com- 
mentary on the Kojiki, called Kojiki Den, which is practically an encyclo- 
paedia of ancient Japanese lore, written in a style as clear as it is elegant. 
The printing of the forty-four volumes of which it consists was not 
concluded till 1822, long after the author's death. 

MuKASAKi Shikibu (flourished 
circa AD. 1000) was a Court lady, 
and the most celebrated of Japanese 
romance-writers. Her chief work is 
the Genji Monogatari. 

Naeihiba (A.D. 825-880), the 
Don Juan of ancient Japan. His 
adventures are recounted in the Ise 
Monogatari. 

NiCHiEEN was born at Ko- 
minato in the province of Awa, 
not far from modern Tokyd in A.D. 
1222. At the age of twelve, he 
became an acolyte of the Shingon 
sect of Buddhists, and was admitted 
to the priesthood three years later. 
Shortly afterwards, he adopted the 
name by which he is known to his- 
tory. It signifies " Lotus of the 
Sun," and is derived from a dream 
which came to his mother of the 
sun on a lotus-flower, in conse- 
quence of which she became preg- 
nant. He acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the whole Buddhist 
canon by means of a miracle, and 
met in the course of his studies 
with words which he converted into 
the formula Xamu Jlyoho Benge 
Kyo, " Oh, the Scripture of the Lotus 
of the Wonderful Law ! " — a formula 
used by his followers as an invocation, and 
on stones all over the country in the 
the accompanying 




^^^SjtTj 




HIGS-DAIMOKU. 

which is still constantly 

which is to be seen carved 

eccentric calligraphy (hige<laimoku) represented in 



illustration. 



Celebrated Personages. 81 

Having excited the wrath of the Eegent H6j5 Toldyori by the unspar- 
ing manner in which he attacked other sects, he was banished to the 
peninsula of Izu in 1261, but pardoned soon after. Ten years later, his 
enemies persuaded the E^^gent Tokimune thrut Nichiren's doctrines tended 
to subvert the state. He was seized and thrown into a cave with his six 
chief disciples, and condemned to be beheaded the same night, but when 
brought to the i^lace of execution, was saved by a miracle, the executioner's 
sword failing to act on the head of so holy a man ; and Tokimune, warned 
in a dream, spared his life. Nichiren was, however, banished to the island 
of Sado in the north, but was permitted in 1274 to return to Kamakura, 
then the military capital of Eastern Japan. He next retired to live among 
the mountains of Minobu in a hut, which he quitted in order to take up 
his abode with the lord of the manor, Nambu Rokuro, a devotee so zealous 
that he bestowed on the saint and his sect forever all the lands in his pos- 
session. As crov/ds of disciples flocked to Nichiren for instruction in the 
faith, he erected a small shrine, which became the nucleus of the now 
famous monastery of Minobu. In 1282, feeling that death was approach- 
ing, he removed from Minobu to Ikegami, near the modern city of Tokyo, 
and there died. His body was cremated on the spot, and the bones were 
conveyed to Minobu, only a small portion being retained at Ikegami as a 
precious relic. His zeal and his intoler.mce appear to have been inherited 
by his spiritual children ; — the Nichiren-shu, or Hokke-shu as the sect 
derived from him is also called, having pushed the odium theologicMm to a 
degree otherwise rare in Japan. The chief outward and visible — or rather 
audible — sign of their temples is the drum, which the fsdthful beat for 
hours together to keep time to their ch.anting of the sacred formiila Namii 
Mydho Benge Kyo. Nichiren's crest is the orange-blossom [tachihana). 

NiTTA YosHisADA, a warrior of the 14th century, famed for his courage 
and for his devotion to the Mil^ado's cause against the usurping families 
of H6j5 and Ashikaga. An incident in his life which artists love to depict 
is that related at the end of the description of Kamalaira, in Route 2. 

NoBUNAGA,* proi^erly Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582), was a warrior who, in 
the general scramble for land and power which went on in the latter half 
of the 16th century, gained possession of the provinces of Suruga, Mino, 
Omi, Miliawa, Ise, and Echizen. Having next taken Kyoto, he built the 
stronghold of Nijo, and sided with Ashil^aga Yoshiaki, who by his influence 
was made Shdgun in 1558. Six years later, the two quarrelled. Nobunaga 
arrested and deposed Yoshiaki ; and the power of the Ashikaga family, 
which had lasted two hundred and thirty-eight years, came to an end. 
By the aid of his generals Hideyoshi and leyasu, he brought large portions 
of the empire under his sway, but never obtained the title of Shdgun, 
whicth custom had limited to members of the Minamoto family, whereas 
Nobunaga was of Taira descent. Though a great soldier, Nobunaga lacked 
the administrative ability to follow up and consolidate the advantages 
gained in war. Consequently, when he was assassinated by an ofliended 
subordinate named Akechi, his power died with him. Nobunaga was a 
bitter foe to Buddhism. Among his many acts of violence, was the 
destruction ofjthe great monastery of Hiei-zan near Kydto and of the 
Hongwanji at Osaka, on both which occasions frightful scenes of massacre 
ensued. On the other hand, he encouraged the Christians ; but it is not to 
be supposed that a man of his sbimp did so out of any appreciation of 
their theological tenets. He is now worshipped as a Shint5 god. 

* ThlB article is borrowed almost verbatim from Griffls'e Mikado's Empire, Cliap. 
XXTII. 



82 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages. 

Oda Nobunaga. See Nobunaga. 

Oguki Haxgwan (15tli century) and his faitliftd wife or mistress, 
Tenite Hime, belong rather to romance than to sober history. Bobbers 
having plotted to drag him with sake and murder him during the night, 
she — at that time one of the courtesans of the village, who had been 
invited to assist in the revels — informed him of the plot. Vaulting upon 
the back of a wild horse found in a thicket close by, he escaped to 
Fujisawa on the Tckaido, where his tomb and Terutc Hime's are still 
shown. On another occasion, his enemies decoj'ed him into a poisonous 
bath which produced leprosy ; but Terute Hime wheeled him in a barrow 
from Kamakura all the way to the hot springs of Yunomine in Kishu, 
where a single week's bathing restored him to health and strength, 

Okyo (see p. 58). 

Eai Sax-y6 (1780-1832) was an excellent ix)et in the Chinese style and 
a great traveller, but above all a historian. His chief work, the Nihon 
Gicaishi, which treats in detail the period from the middle of the twelfth 
to the beginning of the eighteenth century, was j)ublished in 1827, and is 
still widely read. Its strongly pronounced imperialism has contributed 
more than anything else to mould the opinions of the governing class 
during the last two generations. 

Saigo Takamoki (1827-1877), a samurai of Satsuma, whose youth coin- 
cided Avith the closing years of the Japanese ancien regime, conspicuously 
distinguished himself on the Imperiahst side. Before the triumph of the 
latter he was thrice exiled to Oshima in Luchu, as a political suspect ; 
but after the revolution of 1868, to the success of which he contributed 
so materially as to earn the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial 
forces, he became one of the most imix)rtant personages in the state. 
His programme, however, was no radical one. "WTien his colleagues in 
the government showed that their aim was not, as had at first been 
asserted, a return to the Japan of early historic days, but the complete 
Europeanisation of the country and the abandonment of national usages 
and traditions, Siiig5 broke with them, and retired to the city of Kagoshima 
in Satsuma, where he founded a mihtary school, to which all the ardent 
Aouth of Satsuma and Osumi soon began to flock. The influence of this 
school precipitated the inevitable conflict between the old and the new 
order of ideas. It broke out in 1877, and is known to history as the 
Satsuma Bebelhon. After a struggle of several months, the Imperiahsts 
triumphed, and Saigo himself fell on the 21th September, as did the whole 
of the little band of five hundred that had remained faithful to him till 
the end. Saigd's reputation never suffered in public esteem ; and even 
the Imperial Court now respects his memory, the ban of degradation 
having been removed in 1890, and the dead Commander-in-Chief re- 
instated posthumously in all his honours. The visit of the Czarevitch 
(the present Czar) to Japan in 1891 helped to give credence to a wild 
notion according to which Saigd had, like YosMtsune centuries before, 
escaped to Siberia. 

Saigyo Hoshi (died A.D. 1198) was an eccentric monk and famous 
poet. 

The San-jG-eok-ka-sex, or Thirty-six Poetical Geniuses, flourished 
during the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries. The grouping of their names in 
a galaxy is attribiited to a court noble of the 11th century, named Kinto 
Dainagon. Their portraits, which were first painted by Fujiwara-no- 
Nobuzane about A.D. 1200, frequently adorn the walls of Byobu Shinto 
temples. A complete list of their names wiU be found in Anderson's 
interesting Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese Paintings. 



Celebrated Personages. 83 

Ski Shonagon (circa A.D. 1000), a Court lady celebrated in Japanese 
literature for her volume of miscellanies, entitled Makura no Soshi. 

Sen-no-KikytI (1521-1591) is revered as a legislator of taste, especially 
in such thoroughly Japanese arts as flower arrangement and the tea 
ceremonies.* He began his esthetic career at the age of seventeen, and 
became a great favourite with Hideyoshi, accompanying that general in 
his campaigns to preside at tea jmrties in the intervals of battle. As a 
connoisseur in articles of virtu, he amassed a large fortune by dishonest 
means, passing o£f new things as old, spurious as genuine. Ilideyoshi at 
last grew tired of him, and matters were brought to a climax "v^hen Sen- 
no-Eikyu refused to give up to this all-powerful patron his lovely daughter, 
who was already betrothed to another. Orders were sent to him to commit 
harakiri, which he did in his tea-room after maldng tea, arranging a 
bouquet, and composing a Buddhist stanza. 

Sesshu (see p. 57). 

Shinran Shonin (1173-1262) was the founder of the powerful Ddio 
sect of Buddhists, also called Shinshu or Monto, whose splendid temples, 
known by the name of Hongwanji or Monzeki, are among the finest 
specimens of Japanese architecture. Ilon-gwan-ji means " the Monastery of 
the Real Vow," in allusion to the vow made by Amida that he would not 
accept Buddhahood unless salvation were made attainable by all who 
should sincerely desire to be born into his kingdom, and signify that 
desire by invoking his name ten times. It is upon a passage in a 
Buddhist scripture where this vow is recorded that the peculiar doctrine 
of the sect is based, its central idea being that man is to be saved by 
faith in the merciful power of Amida, and not by works or by vain repeti- 
tion of prayers. For this reason, and also because its priests are permitted 
to marry, this sect has sometimes been called the Protestantism of Japan. 
In the year 1602 political reasons caused a split in the sect, which since 
that time has been divided into a Western and an Eastern branch — 
Xishl IfoiKjicanji and Higashi Hongicanji, — each branch owning a temple 
in every considerable city. Shinran Shonin was descended from the 
Imperial family. The abbots of this sect therefore bear the title of 
Monzeki, or Imperial Offspring, while the walls enclosing its temples are 
allowed the suji-kdbe or siiji-bei, — striped plaster ornamentation otherwise 
reserved for buildings inhabited by Imperial princes (see illustration on 
p. 95). During the present reign, Shinran Shonin has been honoured by 
the bestowal of the posthumous title of Kenshin Daishi, that is, "the 
Great Teacher who Sees the Truth." 

Sh6d5 Sh5nin. See under Niliko, Route 10. 

Shotoku Taishi (572-621), the Constantine of Japanese Buddhism, 
was son of the Emperor Yomei and Regent under the Empress Suiko, 
but never himself actually ascended the throne. He founded a large 
number of monasteries, framed a code of laws, and is said to have 
introduced the use of the calendar into Japan. He is also the reputed 
author of numerous paintings and sculptures, which Anderson, however, 
inclines to consider apocryphal. A favourite art-motive is the victory of 
Shdtoku Taishi over Mononobe-no-Moriya, who championed the old native 
Shint5 religion as against the Buddhist innovators. He even went so far, 
on the Emperor Yomei's death, as to set up a candidate for the Imperial 
crown, of whom Shdtoku Taishi, and his minister Soga-no-Umako disap- 
proved. An appeal to arms having been made, the Shintoists were beaten 
and Mononobe-no-Moriya was killed. 

* See Things Japanese. 



84 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages . 

Snt^BUN (see p. 57), 

SoAMi (second half of the 15th century), a celebrated dilettante and 
favourite of the Shogun Yoshimasa. Many of the noted landscape gardens 
of Kyoto were designed by him. 

SoGA Kyodai, that is, the Soga Brethren Jur5 and Goro, have re- 
mained national heroes on account of the pious A'endetta which they 
executed in the hunting-camp of the Shogun Yoritomo at the base of Fuji, 
in the year 1193, on Kudo Suketsune, the murderer of their father. Jtiro 
perished in the attempt, while Goro was captured, brought before 
Yoritomo, and condemned to have his head hacked off with a blunt sword. 
Together with their names_has been preserved that of Tora Gozen, a 
courtesan of the town of Oiso on the T5kaid5, who was the younger 
brother's mistress, and who, no less faithful than fair, aided him in his 
revenge and became a nun after his death. 

SosEN (see p. 58). 

The Taiea or Heike famtly, descended from a ]\Iik:ido of the 9th 
century, vrere all-powerful during a portion of the 12th century, v.'hen 
they succumbed to their rivals the Minamoto. This feud is as celebrated 
in Japanese history as the Wars of the Eoses are in that of England. See 
also Kiyomori p. 76 and end of Eoute 48. 

Takauji (1305-1356), founder of the Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns 
(see Go-Daigo Tenno, p. 72). 

Takeda Shf^tgen (1521-1573) was one of the fiercest feudal chieftains 
of the lawless times that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa 
dynasty of Shoguns. The eldest son of his father, lord of Koshu, it was 
his fate to be unjustly passed over by that father in favour of his second 
brother; and he was obliged to feign stupidity as a boy, in order to 
live in safety. When, hov.'ever, both youths had reached man's estate, 
Takeda Shingen's superiority in sldll and courage gained all the warriors 
over to his side, and he succeeded his father without demur. His 
whole time was spent in waging Y,-ar against the barons of the neighbour- 
ing provinces of Central and Eastern Japan, especially against Uesugi 
Kenshin, lord of Echigo. Their most famous battle was that of Kawa- 
naka-jima. In middle life he became converted to the doctrines of the 
Tendai sect of Buddhism, built a temple to the god Bishamon ; did public 
penance, abjured the eating of fish, and all female comj^anionship ; and 
went so far as to have himself decorated with the title of archbishop ; — for 
what ecclesiastical authorities were going to refuse anything to a zealot 
who disposed of so many soldiers ? He did not, however, renounce his 
grand passion, vrar, but kept on fighting till the end, his latter years being 
much disturbed by the consciousness of the growing power of leyasu, and 
being divided between quarrels and reconciliations with that great captain. 
"When mortally wounded, he left orders with his successor to hold no 
funeral service in his honour, but to keep his death a profound secret 
for three years, and then to sink his body privately in Lake Suwa, enclosed 
in a stone coffin. This was in order to prevent his numerous foes from 
taking heart at the nevvs of his decease. His last will and testament was 
only partially obeyed ; for though his death was kept secret as long as 
possible, the body was not sunk in the lake, but buried at the temple of 
Eirinji at Matsuzato, a few miles from Kofu. The place still exists, the 
temple garden being a tastefiil specimen of rockery on a large scale. 
Brave but superstitious, Taked^x Shingen was also an adept at governing 
men. His people loved and respected him, as was shown by the fact that 
none ever rebelled against him, even in that turbulent age when every 
man'B hand was against every man. 



Celebrated Personages. 



85 



Tase-no-uchi no Sukune, the Methusekh of Japan, is said to have 
lived two hundred and fifty-five 3^ears (according to others, three hundred 
and sixty years), and to have served six successive Mikados. His birth is 
supposed to have taken place about 200 B. C. 

Tametomo, a legendary hero of the 12th century, mighty with the 
bovN\ Being taken captive, he was exiled to Oshima (Vries Island), and 
the sinews of his arm were cut. Nevertheless, his prowess remained un- 
impaired, and his last exploit was to send the enemy's ship to the bottom 
with a single shaft. This incident forms a favourite art motive. 

Tamuka Maro (died A. D. 811) was the bravest and most successful 
generalissimo [Shogun] of his time. He subdued the Ainos, who then 
inhabited the northern ix)rtion of the Main Island almost as far south as 
Sendai. 

ToBA Sojo (see p. 57), 

ToEi BussHi (see p. 59). 

Toeh Family (see p. 58). 

ToYOKUNi (see p. 59). 

TsuEAYUKi (834-946), a Court noble who was one of Japan's greatest 
classic poets. He was also her first prose writer ; the works by which he 
is best known being the Tosa Kiki, a charmingly simple and life-like 
account of his voyage home to Kyoto by junk from Tosa, where he had 
been governor, and the extremely elegant Preface to the Kokinshu, or 
" Odes Ancient and Modern," of which he was one of the editors. 

Uesugi Kenshin (1530-1578) was one of the representative men 
of his turbulent and superstitious century. A cadet of an ancient and 
powerful family, he had been entered as an acolyte in a Buddhist temple, 
but emerged from retirement to seize the paternal inheritance from the 
feeble grasp of an elder brother. To the family domain of Echigo, he 
added Etchu, Noto, and Sado, together with portions of several other 
provinces, rivalling not only Takeda Shingen, the famous lord of Koshu, 
but the great Nobunaga himself. He was as noted for high principle as 
for prowess in v%'ar, and, regarding himself as a priest to the end, never 
married and so left no successor. He is represented in art holding in his 
hand a bamboo stick with which he was wont to direct his men in the field, 
instead of with the war-fan then usual. 

Unkei, a famous mediaeval sculptor of Buddhist images. 

Urashima Taro, the Japanese Eip Van "Winkle, is said by the national 
historians to have left Japan in A. D. 477, and to have returned in 825. 
His legend takes a hundred forms. The following is not only the simplest, 
but the most ancient, being translated as literally as possible from a 
balLid contained in the Man-yd-shu, an anthology which dates from A.D. 
760. The poem itself is probably far older : — 



THE FISHEE-BOY URASHIMA. 



Tis Spi'ing, and the mist comes stealing 

O'er Suminoye'a shore. 
And T stand by the sea-side mu.oing 
On the days that are no more. 

I muse on the old-world story, 
A.S the boats glide to and fro, 

Of the fisher-boy Urashima, 
"Who a-lishing loved to go, — 



How he came not back to the village 

Though sev'n suns had risen and set. 

Eat rowed on past the bounds of ocean, 
And the Sea-God's daughter met ; 

How they pledged their faith to each 
other. 

And came to the Evergreen Land, 
And entered the Sea-God's palace 

So lovingly hand in hand, 



86 



Jniroductlon :—Celehraied Personages. 



To dwell for aye in that country, 
The Ocean-maiden and he, — 

The country where youth and beauty 
Abide eternally. 

But the foolish boy said, ' To-morrow 
I'll come back with thee to dwell : 

But I have a word to my father, 
A word to my mother to tell. ' 

The maiden answered, 'A casket 

I give into thine hand ; 
And if that thou hopest truly 

To come back to the Evergreen Land, 

■ Then open it not, I charge thee ; 

Open it not, I beseech ! '— 
So the boy rowed home o'er the billows 

To Suminoye's beach. 

But where is his native hamlet ? 

Strange hamlets line the strand. 
■\Miere is his mother's cottage? 

Strange cots rise on either hand. 

' "UTiat 1 in three short years since I left 
it,' 
He cries in his wonder sore. 



' Has the home of my childhood vanished ? 
Is the bamboo fence no more? 

• Perchance if I open the casket 
Which the maiden gave to me, 

My home and the dear old village 

Will come back as they used to be.' 

And he lifts the lid, and there rises 

A fleecy, silvery cloud. 
That floats oft' to the Evergreen Country— 

And the fisher-boy cries aloud. 

He waves the sleeve of his tunic, 
He rolls over on the ground, 

He dances with fury and horror. 

Running wildly round and round. 

But a sudden chill comes o'er him 
That bleaches his raven hair. 

And furrows with rugged wrinkles 
The form erst so young and fair. 

His breath grows fainter and fainter, 

Till at last he sinks dead on the 
shore ; 

And I gaze on the spot where his cottage 
Once stood, but now stands no more. 



Yamato-take no Mikoto, one of tlie eighty children of the Emperor 
Keiko, was a mighty hero of the j^rehistoric age. "\Miile yet a stripling, he 
was sent by his father to destroy the rebels of Western Japan. In order 
to accomi:»lish this end, he borrowed the gown of his aunt who was high- 
priestess of Ise, and, thus disguised, made the rebel chieftains fall in love 
■wdth him while carousing in the cave where they dwelt. Then suddenly 
drawing a sword from his bosom, he smote them to death. He next 
subdued the province of Izumo, and finally conquered Eastern Japan, 
which was at that time a barbarous waste. After many adventures both 
warlike and amorous, he died on the homeward march to Yamato, where 
the Emperor his father held Court, and his tumulus is shown at Noboro 
in the province of Ise. 

Y''oRiTOMO (1147-1199) was the founder of the Shogunate, — the first 
Japanese Mayor of the Palace, if one may so phr;\se it. A scion of the 
great house of Minamoto, as shrewd and ambitious as he was unscrupulous 
and inhuman, he was left an orphan at an early age, and barely escaped 
death as a lad at the hands of Kiyomori, the then all-powerful minister, 
who belonged to the rival house of Taira. Kiyomori's exactions having 
roused the indignation of the whole empire, Yoritomo saw that the 
moment had come to essay the restoration of his own "fortunes. All the 
malcontents eagerly flocked to his standard ; and first in Eastern Japan, 
then at Kyoto, and lastly at the great sea-fight of Dan-no-ura near 
Shimonoseki at the S.W. end of the Inland Sea, Y'oritomo defeated the 
Taira and utterly exterminated them, putting even women and children 
to the sword. Y^oritomo established his capital at Kamakura, which soon 
grew into a great city, thoroughly reorganised the administration by the 
appointment of military governors chosen from among his dependjxnts 
to act conjointly with the civil governors who received their nominations 
from the Mikado ; by the levy of taxes for military purposes payable 
into his own treasury, and by other far-sighted innovations made in the 
interests of a military feudalism. At last in 1192, he obtained — in other 
words forced — from the Court of Kyoto the title of Sei-i Tai Shogun, that 



Population of the Chief Cities. 87 

is '• Barbarian-snbcluing Generalissimo," which soon came to denote the 
military or actual ruler of the country, as distinguised from its theoretical 
head, the heaven-descended Mikado. Yoritomo, whose life had been spent 
fighting, died peacefully in his bed. Among the many on whom he 
trampled to satisfy the dictates of personal ambition, was his brother 
Yoshitsune, a far nobler character. Though l''oritomo's system of govern- 
ment remained in vigour for well-nigh seven centuries, the sceptre dropped 
from his OAvn family in the generation following his death, his sons Y'oriie 
and Sanetomo being weaklings who both j)erished by assassination at an 
early age. 

YosHiMASA (14:36-1490), eighth Shogun of the Ashikaga dynasty, was a 
munificent patron of the arts. 

I'osHiTSUNE (b. 1159), also called Ushi-waka, was younger half-brother 
to the first Shdgun l^oritomo, being the son of Yoshitomo by a beautiful 
concubine named Tokiwa Gozen. By yielding to the wicked desires of the 
tyrant Kiyomori, Toldwa obtained pardon for her son on condition that 
he shaved his head and became a monk. Accordingly he was placed in 
the Buddhist monastery of Kurama-yama near Kyoto. But theological 
exercises were so little to his taste that he ran away to Northern Japan 
in company with a friendly merchant, and at once distinguished himself 
by the valour with which he repelled the assaults of the brigands, slaying 
several with his own hand, though then himself but sixteen years of 
age. When Y^oritomo rose in arms against the Taira family, Yoshitsune 
naturally joined him, and became his greatest general. Indeed, the real 
guerdon belonged rightfully to the younger rather than to the elder 
brother. Y'"oritomo, far from feeling any gratitude, began to burn with 
jealousy and to detest Y^'oshitsune as a ix)ssible rival. He even went so 
far as to compass his death. But Y'oshitsune escaped again to Northern 
Japan, where, according to one account, he was discovered by spies, and 
killed after a desperate fight on the banlvs of the Koromo-gawa, his head 
being sent to Y^'oritomo at Kamakura, preserved in sake. Others say that 
he committed harakiri when he saw that all was lost, having jDrcviously 
slain his wife and children. A more fanciful account is that he 
escaped to Yezo, and then re-ai)peared on the mainkind of Asia as 
G-enghis Khan. This fable probably originated in an accidental similarity 
between the Chinese characters used to write the names of these two 
famous men ; but it is a remarkable fact that to this day Yoshitsune 
remains an object of worship among the Ainos of Yezo. Probably in his 
time, some of their race still lingered in the extreme north of the main is- 
land, where he may actually have come in contact with them. To the 
Japanese his name is a synonym for single-minded bravery and devotion. 
The traveller will often hear mentioned in connection wdth the name of 
Yoshitsune those of Benkei (p. 71) his faithful retainer, and Yasuhira. the 
tniitor suborned by Yoritomo to slay him. 



26. — Population of the Chief Cities. 



Akita 
Aomori .. 
Ashio .. 
Fukui . . 
Fukuoka 
Gifu 



34,000 


Hakodiite 


85,000 


35,000 


Himeji 


37,000 


31,000 


Hirosaki 


36,000 


50,000 


Hiroshima 


121,090 


71,000 


Kagoshima 


... ... 59,000 


40,000 


Kanazawa 


100.000 



Introduction: — Population. Christian 3Iissions. 



Kiryii 


. . 30,000 


Osaka 


996,000 


Kobe 


.. 285,i.OO 


Otaru 


70,000 


K5chi 


.. 3G,00U 


Otsu 


40,000 


E5fii 


.. 44,(;00 


Saga 


35,000 


Kokura 


.. 37,0)0 


Sakai 


54,000 


Kmnamoto 


.. 60,000 


Sapporo 


55,000 


Kuie 


.. C6,0U0 


Sasebo 


68,000 


Kiirnme 


.. 33,000 


Sendai 


. ... 100,000 


Kyoto 


.. 381,000 


Sliimonoseld 


46,000 


Maebashi 


.. 42,(00 


Shiznoka 


49,000 


Matsne 


. . 35,000 


Takamatsu .. 


37,000 


Matsumoto 


.. 33,000 


Takaoka 


31,000 


Matsuyama 


.. 38,000 


Takasaki 


35,000 


Mito 


.. 37,000 


Tokushima .. 


64,000 


Moji 


. . 38,000 


Tokyd 


1,819,000 


Morioka 


.. 32,000 


Toyama 


56,000 


Naia 


.. 43,000 


Tsu 


36,000 


Nagano 


.. 37,000 


Utsnnomiya 


36,000 


Nagaoka 


.. 31,000 


Wakamatsu .. 


33,000 


Nagasaki 


.. 153,000 


Wakjiyama .. 


69,000 


Nagoya 


.. 2^9,000 


Yamada 


34,000 


Nara 


.. £4,01-0 


Yamagata .. 


40,000 


Niigata 


.. 60,000 


Yokkaiclii . . 


30,000 


Okayama 


. . 81,000 


Yokohama . . 


326,000 


Omuta 


.. 30,000 


Yokosnlia 


37,000 


Onomichi 


.. 31,000 


Yonezavra . . 


33,000 


Total population 


of Japan 




49,000,000 



The census is quinquennial ; the above figures are from the latest. 
taken in 1903. The increase of population is continuous and rapid. 



27. — Christian Missions. 



The Boman Catholic Mission in Japan dates from the time of Saint 
Francis Xavier, and though Christianity was sternly repressed during the 
I7th and 18th centuries and down to 1873, small communities of believers 
surviyed in secret, especially in the island of Kyushih The Catholic 
Church now has an Archbishop at Toky5, Bishops at Osaka, Nagasald, 
and Sendai, and an Apostolic Prefect at Kdchi. The total number of 
converts is over 60,000. 

The labours of the Protestant Missionaries commenced in 1859, and a 
network of mission stations now covers the whole empire. The following 
are the latest statistics : — 44 missionary societies, chiefly American and 
English ; 889 missionaries (including wives) ; 403 Japanese ordained 
ministers ; 48,087 communicants ; 529 organised churches ; 857 Sundziy 
schools, v.ith 64,910 teachers and scholars ; 165 other schools and kinder- 
gartens with 11,402 scholars ; 13 hospitals and dispensaries. Estimated 
value of mission property (excluding schools and churches) yen 975,958 ; 
ditto of churches, land, and parsonages, yen 395,821. 

The Orthodox liussian Church has a mission whose headquarters are 
at Tokyo, claiming a following of over 29,000. 



Outline lourg. 



89 



28. — Outline Tours. 



1. — One Month's Tour from Yokohama: — 

Tokyo 

Kamakara and Enoshima 

Miyanoshita (yisit Hakone) 

From Miyanoshita to Nagoya by Tokaido Railway 

Nagoya 

From Nagoya to Kyoto 

Kyoto 

Lake Biwa and back to Kyoto 

From Kyoto to Nara and K5be 

From Kobe to Yokohama by steamer (by rail J day less) 

From Yokohama to NiklvO by rail 

Niklio and Chuzenji 

From Nikko to Ikao via Ashio and the Watarase-gawa . . . 

Ikao (visit Ha runa) 

From Ikao to Kusatsu 

Kusatsu 

From Kusatsu to Kariiizawa 

From Karuizawa via My5gi-san to Tokj'^o 

Spare day 

Total 

With this tour may be combined the ascent of Fuji from Yokohama 
(Eoute 8). Those who object to purely Japanese accommodation should 
omit the journey from Nikko to Ilcao via Ashio, taking train instead, and 
also the visit to Kusatsu. 





days 
3 




1 




3 




1 




1 




4 




1 




1 




1^ 
1 




3 




2 




2 




1 




1 




1 









31 



2. — One Month's Tour from Kobe: — 

K5be 

Osaka, Nara, Kyoto, and Lake Biwa 

Train from Kydto to Gifu ; along the Nakasendo to 

Shinonoi to Karuizawa ; Asama-yama 

From Karuizawa to Ikao 

Ikao 

From Ikao to Nikko via the Watarase-gawa . . . 

Nikko and Chuzenji 

By rail to Tokyo 

Tokyo 

Yokohama, Kamakura, and Miyanoshita 

By Tokaido Railway to Nagoya 

Rail to Kobe 

Spare day 

Total 



Shiojiri ; rail via 



days 
1 

5 

6 
1 

1 
2 
4 

3 

4J 

1 

1 

1 

31 



If coming up the Tokaidd instead of the Nakasendo, the journey may 
be broken either at Nagoya or else at Shizuoka, from which latter place 
by jinxiMsha via Kuno-zan to Okitsu, and on by rail to Kozu. 



90 



Inlroduction : — Outline Tours. 



3. — One Month's Tour frrym Xagasaki : — 

Nagasaki and Onsen (Unzen) 

From Nagasaki to KolDe by steamer * 

Nara, Ky5to, and Lake Biwa 

From Kyoto to Nagoya by Tolvaido Railway . . . 

From Nagoya to Miyanoshita 

Miyanoshita 

From MiyanosMta to Kamaknra and Yokohama 

Yokohama 

Tokyo 

From Tokyo to Nikko and back 

Steamer from Yokohama to Nagasaki 

Spare days 

Total 



djiys 
4 
2 
5 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 

31 



4. — It frequently happens that travellers from America, en route to 
Europe via India, have only a fortnight to devote to Japan between the 
steamer that drops them at I'okohama and the next one that picks them 
up at Kobe. To such the following outline is suggested ; it entails no 
sleeping at native inns : — 

days 

Y'okohama (shopping, travelling arrangements) 2 

Tokyo (sights and the theatre) 2 

T5ky6 to Nikkd and back to Yokohama 3 

By Tdkaidd Railway to Miyanoshita, visiting Kamakurn and 

Enoshima en route 1 

Miyanoshita 1 

By rail to Ky5to 1 

Kyoto, Nara, and K5be 4 



Total 

All the above tours are practicable for ladies, 
be arranged by omitting certain x)ortions of them. 



14 

Shorter trips can easily 



5. Yokohama to Miyanoshita, Hakone, and Atami. Three or four 
days. (Routes 6 and 7.) 

6. From Y'okohama to Gotemba, and round Fuji via the Lakes to 
Shoji. Thence down the Fujikawa rapids (visiting Minobu) to Iwabuchi. 
Or from Shoji to K5fu, Kajika-zawa, and thence down the rapids. One 
week. (Routes 9 and 31.) The rapids alone may be done in two days by 
taking train direct to Kofu. 

7. From Y^okohama to Nikk5,_the copper mines of Ashio, down the 
valley of the Watarase-gawa to Omama, and back to Y'okohama by rail. 
Five days. One day extra for Koshin-zan. (Routes 16 and 18.) 

8. From Yokohama to Niklco, Chuzenji, and Y'umoto ; thence over the 
Konsei-t5ge to Shibukawa for Ikao, and back to Y'okohama by rail. One 
week. (Routes 16, 17, and 13.) 

9. From Y^okohama to Ilcao, 1st day ; Ikao to Kusatsu, 2nd day ; 
Kusatsu to Shibu, 3rd day ; Shibu to Toyono and Nagano, 4th day ; from 



* Or else by the Kyushii and Sanyo Railwaj-s (Rtes. 
at Miyajima. 



and 48), stopping one night 



Outline Tourx. 91 

Nagano to Myogi-san via Karuizawa, 5tli day ; rail from ]\Iatsuida to 
Yokohama in 5^ hrs., 6tli day. One day extra for ascent of Asama-yama 
from Karuizawa. (Routes 13, 11, and 12.) 

10. From Yokohama to Nagano by rail, back to Shinonoi and rail to 
Shiojiri, whence along the Nakasendd to Gifu, and by rail to Kyoto. Or 
else rejoin the Tokaido at Nagoya. One week. (Routes 27, 2y, 24, and 
23.) 

11. From Yokohama to Shimo Suwa via Kofu or by the Nakasendo as 
in No. lU ; and down the rapids of the Tenryu-gawa to the Tokaidd Rail- 
way. Five or six days. (Routes 31, 24, and 31.) 

12. The shrines of Ise. Four days from Yokohama, or three days 
from Kobe. (Routes 23 and 35.) 

13. From Kyoto through Yamato to Koya-san, and back by Waka- 
yama. Four days. (Routes 38, 40, 41, and 37.) 

14. From Kyoto via Lake Biwa to Ama-no-Hashidate, and back via 
the silver mines of Ikuno to the Sanyo Railway at Himeji. One week. 
(Route 4'i.) — Ama-no-Hashidate may be reached direct by train from Osaka 
in one short day. (Route 45.) 

15. Rough mountain tour through Hida and Etchu from Matsumoto 
to Hirayu and Tcikayama ; thence down the valley of the Hidagawa to 
Gifu on the Tokaidd Railwa3^ Eight or ten days. (Route 30.) 

16. From K5be by rail to Okayama v.'hence Sanyo Co.'s river and sea 
steamers to Takamatsu in Shikoku, train to shrines of Kompira, steamer 
down Inland Sea to Onomichi and Miyajima. Back by rail. 3 days. 
(Routes 48, 52-53.) 

17. Island of Shikoku : — land at Mitsu-ga-hama for Matsuyama and 
Dogo ; across country to Kochi ; across country to Halaichi, whence either 
E. down rapids of Yoshino-gawa to Tokushima, or N. to shrines of 
Kompira ; Tadotsu, Takamatsu, Kobe. Ten days. (Routes 52-56.) 

18. From Nagasaki to the soKataras of Unzen and back. Three days. 
(Route 58.) 

19. From Nagasaki to Kumamoto, and across Kyushu via Aso-san and 
Takeda to Beppu. Thence to Nakatsu and Moji, visiting the Yabakei 
Valley. Ten or twelve days. (Routes 60-62.) 

20. By steamer from Nagasaki to Kagoshima (or else Route 67 re- 
versed). Back to Nagasaki via Kirishima-yama and the rapids of the 
Kumagawa. Eight or ten days. (Routes 65-67.) 

21. From Tokyo by rail to Sendai, by boat to Matsushima, and back. 
Three days. Two extra days to visit Bandai-san. (Routes 69, 73 and 70.) 

22. By Northern Railway from Tokyo to Aomori, whence steamer to 
Hakodate ; r.iil to Sapporo and Muroran ; steamer to Hakodate and Aomori ; 
back to Tokyo by rail. Nilcko, Bancixi-san, and Matsushima may be 
visited on the way north. The return from Aomori should be varied by 
taking the East Coast RaHway^ A fortnight. (Routes 69, 78, 80, and 22.) 

23. By steamers of the Osalca Shosen Kwaisha and Nippon Yusen 
Kwaisha right round Japan, including Korean ports. Time about one 
month. 



n 



Introduction : — Glossary. 



29. — Glossaey of Japanese Vv'oeds. 




Ai (see ayu). 

Ai-dono, a secondary deity to 
^vhom, in addition to the prin- 
cipal object of %vorship, a Shinto 
temple is dedicated. 

Ama-inu and Koma-inn, one open- 
mouthed, 
the other 
vrith month 
closed ; bnt 
opinions 
differ as to 
which is 
which (comp. p. 38). 

Asemi, a flowering shrnb, — the 
Andromeda japonica. 

Ayu (often pronounced ai), a spe- 
cies of trout, — the Salmo altivalis. 

Bampei, a screen oi)posite a temple 
gate. 

Basha, a carriage. 

Bashi (for hashi in compounds), a 
bridge. 

Bosatsu, a Buddhist saint (see p. 
44). 

Bugaku, an ancient pantomimic 
dance : bugaku-dai, a stage for 
the performance of this dance. 

Buyu, a species of sand-fly, whose 
sting is very painful. 

Cha, tea : cka-dai, tea-money (see 
p. 6) ; cha-no-yu, " tea ceremo- 
nies" (see "Things Japanese"); 
cha-ya, a tea-house (see p. 7). 

Gho, a measure of distance (see 
p. 5) ; a street. 

Dai, big, great. 

Daibutsu, a colossal image of a 
Buddha. 

Daimon, the large outer gate of the 
grounds of a Buddhist temple. 

Daishi, a great Buddhist abbot or 
saint. 

Darani, a mystic Buddhist formula 
or incantation. 

Do, a hall, a temple. 

Dori (for tori in compounds), a 
street. 



Ema, an ex-voto picture : ema-do, 
a temple building hung with 
such pictures. 

Eta, a pariah. 

Gaica (for kaica in compounds), a 
river, a stream. 

Gejin, the outer chamber or nave of 
a Buddhist temple. 

Gin-zan, a silver mine. 

Go, an honori- 
fic prefix. 

Go, a measure 
of capacity 
(see p. 5), and 
of distance 
(see Boute 8, 
Sect. 1.). 

Gohei, the em- 
blems in a 
Shinto tem- 
ple of the an- 
cient offer- 
ings or cloth. 
They are now 
usually strips 
of white 
paper, very 
rarely of metal. 

Go-honsha, a Shinto shrine on the 
summit of a mountain. _^ 

Goma, a Buddhist rite in 
which a fire of cedar- 
wood is burnt, and 
prayers are offered : 
goma-do, a shrine for 
the performance of this 
rite. 

Gongen, an avatar (see p. 
46). 

Gorei-ya, a mausoleum 
(of a Shogun). 

Gosho-guruma, a praying- 
wheel (see Rte. 4, under 
Asakusa Kicannon). 

Guncho, the chief ofiicial 
of a rural district. 

Gyogi-yaki, a kind of ancient 
earthenware (see p. 73). 




(GOHEI) 






(PKAYING- 
WHEEL) 



Glossary. 



98 



HaMen, an oratory (see p. 37). 

Hakkei, eight yiews (see Ete. 39, 
Sect. 1). 

Ilakubutsu-kwan, a museum. 

Hashi, a bridge. 

Hoiamoto, a vassal of the Shogiin 
having a fief assessed at less than 
lij,000 koku. 

Ilafoba, a landing-place. 

Heiden, a building in which (johel 
are set up. 

Higashi, east. 

Ilinoki, a conifer, — the Ghamcecy- 
paris dbtusa. 

Hojo, the apartments of the high- 
priest of a Buddhist temple. 

Hoke-kyo, the name of a Buddhist 
scripture (Sanskrit, Saddharma 
Pandarika Sutra). 

lloko, a kind of mythological car 
drawn through the streets in 
religious processions. 

Ilombo, the chief building of a 
temple, and residence of the 
abbot. 

Honden, see Honsha. 

Ilomlo, the principal building of a 
Buddhist temple. 

Honqwanji, a temple of the Bud- 
dhist Monto sect (see p. 83). 

Honsha, the main shrine of a Shin- 
to temple. 

llbshu-no-tama, a Buddhist emblem 
of uncertain 
significance, 
perhaps best /J 

identified with /^f f J U M \ ^ 
the nyo-i-rin 
mentioned on ly- 
p. 50. f/' 

Elonzon, the i^rin- 
cipal deity or 
image of a Bud- 
dhist temple, 

Uozo, the treasure- (h6shu-no-tama) 
house of a temple. 

Icho, the name of a tree whose 
leaves turn gold in autumn, — the 
Sodisburla adiamtl folia, also call- 
ed Gingko h'doha. 

Ihai, a funeral tablet. 

Ita-gaki, see p. 37. 

Iwa-goya, a cave used for sleeping 
in ; iwa-ya, a cavern. 

J% (in temple names), see p. 41. 




Jigoku, lit. hell, hence a solfatara. 

Jlkido, see p. 41. 

Jlvja, a Shinto temple. 

Kaeru-maia (lit. frog's thighs), 
pieces of timber shaped like the 
section of an inverted cup, sup- 
porting a horizontal beam. 

Kago, a kind of small palanquin. 

Kagura, a Shinto religious dance 
(comp. p. 43). 

Kaido, a highway. 

Kakemono, a hanging scroll — gen- 
erally painted. 

Kami, above, upper. 

Kami, a Shinto god or goddess. 

Kara, China ; Kara-mon, a gate in 
the Chinese style ; Kara-shishi, 
stone lions used to adorn temple 
grounds. They were originally 
set up at cemeteries in order to 
frighten avv'ay wild beasts, and 
prevent them from tearing up 
the dead. 

Kama, a river, a stream. 

Kawara, a stony river-bed. 

Keyaki, a tree whose 
very hard wood is 
much prized, — the 
Zelkowa keaki. 

Kiku-no-mon, the 
Imperial crest 
of the chrys 
anthemum. (kiku-no-mon) 

Kiri-no-mon, the Imperial crest of 

the leaf and flower 

of the Paulloicnia 

imperialis. 
Kita, north. 
Ko, a child; (in com.- 

pounds) small. 
Kbenchi, a public 

garden. 
Koku, the standard measure of 

cai3acity (see p. 5), Incomes 

were formerly estimated in koku 

of rice. 
Koma-inu (see ama-inu). 
Ku, an urban district : kucho, the 

chief ofl&cial of a district. 
Kuda-iama, a small hollow tube 

formerly used as 

an ornament (see \o) 

Bte. 4. under Ueiio 

Musmm). 





(KIRI-NO-MON) 



94 



Introduction : — Glossary. 



Kuro-shio, (lit. black brine), the 

Japanese Gnlf Stream. 
Knruma, a jinrildsha. 
Kicaisha, a company, a society. 
Kican, an important building, — 
used chietly in names of hotels, 
public halls, etc. 
Kminkoba, an industrial bazaar. 
Kybzo, a library of Buddhist sutras. 
Kyiidd, an old road. 
yiacki, a street, a town. 
Maga-tama, an an- 
cient form of or- 
nament (see Ete. 
4. under Ueno 
Museum). 
Makimono, a scroll (see p. GO). 
Mandara, a Buddhist i:»icture — 
generally on a large scale and 
depicting one half of the mytho- 
logical universe. 
Manji (Sanskrit, svasHka), a mystic 
diagram, ex- 
plained by 
some as the 
symbol of luck, 
by others as the 
symbol of Bud- 
dhist esoterics. 

It has been traced back/ to the 
Greek gammadion in Troas ante- 
rior to the 13th century B.C., and 
is supposed to have passed west- 
ward to Iceland, eastward to 
Thibet and Japan, producing the 
key pattern and other well-known 
decorative types. 
Masu, a salmon-trout {Salmo japo- 

nicus). See p. 13, 
Matsuri, a religious festival. 
Meibutsu, the specialty for which a 

place is noted. 
Mikoshi, a sacred palanquin. 
Mikoto, a title applied to Shinto 

deities. 
Minami, south. 
Minato, a harbour. 
Mine, a mountain peak. 
Jii7sM-aoi, three leaves 
of the kamo-aoi or 
asarum, — the crest 
of the great Toku- 
gawa family. 
Mitsu-domoe, a figure 
like that here re- 



1" 





presented. Its origin and sym- 
bohc import are 
ahke matters of 
debate. Besides 
the treble form 
here given, 
there also exist 
a double form 
{futatsu-dornoe) 
and a single one {iornoe). 
Miya, a Shinto temple, an Imperial 

prince or princess. 

Mokusei, the Oka fragrans, — a tree 

having smaU, deliciously scented 

flowers of a reddish yellow colour. 

Mura, a village. 

Murodo, a hut for pilgrims on ii 

mountain side. 
Myojin, a Shinto deit} . 
yada, a stretch of sea. 
Xaijin, the inner part or chancel of 

a Buddhist temple. 
Xaka, middle. 

Xamu Amida Butsu, an invocation 
of the god Amida, used chiefly by 
the Monto sect. 
Xemlndsu, a prayer to Buddha. 
Xippon, Japan. 
Xishl, west. 

Xo, a species of lyric drama. 
Xorimono, a palanquin. 
Xuma, a marsh, a tarn. 
Xyorai, a Buddha (see p. 51). 
(J, an honorific prefix. 
(in compounds), big. 
Oku, the innermost recess, behind : 

oku-no-in, see p. 41. 
Onsen, a hot spring. 
0-Tabisho, see j). 41. 
Bakan, a class of Buddhist saints 

(see p. 51). 
Bamma, ventilating panels near 
the ceiling of a room, — often 
beautifully carved. 
Bi, a Japanese league 
Bimbo, the wheel 
of the law, used 
chiefly as an 
ornament in 
temples dedi- 
cated to Fudo. 
Binzo, a revolving 
library (see p. 
45). 
Byohn Shinio, see p. 38. (mmb6) 




Glossary. 



95 



:Sak:a, an ascent, a bill. 

Sakaki, the Cleyera japonica, — tlie 

sacred tree of the Shintoists. 
Saki, a promontory. 
Sammon, a large two-storied gate 

leading to a Buddhist temple. 
San (in compoimds), a mountain, 

sometimes a temx)le. 
Sarugaku, a classical semi-religious 

dance. 
Sen, a Japanese cent, worth half of 

an American cent, one farthing. 
Shichi-do-garan, a complete set of 

Buddhist temple biiildings. 
Shima, an island. 
Shimo, lower. 
Shindo, a new road. 
Shinto, the aboriginal religion of the 

Japanese 

(see p. 35). 
Shippo-no- 

mon — (lit. 

"enamel 

crest"), the 

name of a 

Japanese 

crest. 
Sotetsu, the Cycas revoluta, — a tree 

resembling the 

sago-palm. 
Sotoha, see p. 42. 
Suji-bei, or Suji- 

kabe, a species 

of striped wall 

ornamentation 

(see p. 83.) 
Surimono, small 

colour prints of 

delicate design 

which are dis- 
tributed to friends or customers 

on various festal occasions. 




(suji-bei) 




quaint coarse 



Tal, a kind of sea-bream, — the Ser- 
ranus marginalis. 

Take, a peak. 

Tamagaki (see i?. 37). 

Tenno, an emperor. 

Toha-e, a kind of 
l^icture (see p. 57). 

Toge, a pass over mountains, 

Tokko (Sanskrit vajrd), a Buddhist 
symbol, for 
whose ex- 
planation 
see p. 50. ^::;:;^f 
It has three ^ 
forms in Japan, of which the sim- 
plest resembles one spoke of the 
"wheel of the law" (see i?im?>o). 
The other forms of it are the three- 
pronged, or sanko here figured, 
and the five-pronged, or goko. 

Tori, a street. 

Torii, a Shinto gateway (see j). 37). 





The left-hand illus- 
tration gives the 
Pure Shinto, that 
on the right hand the Ryobu 
Shinto, form of this structure. 

Ya (in compounds), a house. 

Yama, a mountain, a hill, also a 
sort of religious car borne in 
certain processions. 

Zan (for san in compounds), a 
mountain, a hill. 

Zashiki, a room, an apartment. 






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EASTIKH -JJAiPAM 



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SECTION I. 
EASTERN JAPAN 

(Routes I — 22. 



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■A 

J. f YOKOHAMA 



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NEgGHBOURHO®B» 
OF 

YOKOHAMA 



^ 



Handbook for Travellers 



JAPAN. 



ROUTES. 



ROUTE 1. 



Yokohama. 

Yokohama, the place Avhere 
most visitors first touch Japanese 
soil, is the largest of the Treaty 
Ports and practically the ]3ort of 
Toky5. The landing-place [Hatoha) 
and the Custom-house [Zei-kimn) 
are ^yithin 5 min. drive of the 
hotels, and 10 min. of the princiiml 
Eailway Station. 

Hotels. — Oriental Palace Hotel, 
No. 11 ; Grand Hotel, No. 20 ; Club 
Hotel, No. 5-B, all on the Bund, 
facing the sea ; Hotel de Geneve, 
No. 26; Wright's Hotel, No. 40; 
Hotel Phcenix, No. 87 ; Bluff Hotel, 
No. 2, Bluff. 

liailicay Stations and Trams. — 
Chief railway station in the native 
toM^n, 10 min. l)y jinrikisha from 
the Foreign Settlement ; another at 
Ifiranuina, a suburb 20 min. distant, 
for certain Tokaido trains only. — 
Electric cars run constantly through 
the town and on to Kanagawa. 

Bestaurants.—{Europ.foo<l), at the 
principal Railway Stiition (up- 
^^tairs) ; {Jap. food), Chitose. in 
Humiyoshi-cho Eoku-chome ; Yao- 
masa, in Aioi-cho S;iu-ch6me. 



Japanese Inns. — Fukui, in Benten- 
dori ; Takano-ya, in Honch5-dori. 

Banks. — Hongkong and Shanghai 
Bank, No. 2; ^Chartered Bank of 
India, Australia, and China, No. 58 ; 
International Banl^, No. 74 ; 
Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, No. 180 ; 
Y''okohama Specie Bank {Shokin 
Ginko), near Eailway Station. 

Consulates. — American, No. 234 ; 
British, No. 172; French, No. 84; 
German, No. 17, Bund. 

Post and Tele(jraph Office. — This, 
together with the Telephone Ex- 
change, the Cixstom-house, and the 
Prefecture [Eenchb), stands near the 
British and American Consulates, 
on the ground between the Foreign 
Settlement and the native town. 

Steam Communication. — Japan 
Mail Steamship Company [Nippon 
Yusen Kwalsha), close to the Eail- 
way Station ; Peninsular and Orien- 
tal, No. 15 ; Messageries Maritimes, 
No. 9 ; Norddeutscher Lloyd, No. 
29 ; Pacific Mail, Occidental and 
Oriental, and Toyo Kisen Kwaisha, 
No. 4-A ; Canadian Pacific, No. 14 ; 
Great Northern, No. 10 ; Northern 
Pacific, Dodwell and Co. Ltd., No. 
50-B. 

TMndinq and Shlpplnq Af/ents.— 
A. Weston, No. 40-a ; MacArthur A- 
Co., No. 10 ; Helm Bros., No. 43. 



100 



Boute 1. — Yokohama, 



Churches — Christ Church (Angli- 
can), No. 335, B]nff ; Union Church 
(Protestant), No. 167 : Eoman 
CathoHc, No. 44 Blufi. 

Clubs. — Yokohama United Club, 
No. 4-B ; Club Germania, No. 235 ; 
IVIasonic Temple, No. 78. 

Photographs of Japanese Scenery 
and Costumes ; Lantern-sl'uUs, etc. — 
Tamamura, 2, Benten-dori ; Kimbei, 
in Honch5-d6ri ; Farsari, near Yato- 
bashi ; Ogawa, Enami, both in 
Benten-dori. 

Books and Maps. — Kelly and 
Walsh, No. 60; Nossler, No. 77; 
Maruya, in Benten-dori. 

Foreign Stores for Japanese 
Works of Art. — Arthur & Bond's 
Fine Art Gallery, No. 38 ; Kuhn & 
Komor, No. 37. 

Japanese Ciirio Dealers. — Samurai 
Shdkwai, in Honcho-dori ; End5 
Art Furniture Co., 25 Uchida-cho, 
roku-chome, for carvings and 
other fine works of art ; Mizorokd, 
Mihara, & Co. No. 32 ; Bon Marche, 
in Honcho-dori ; Musashi-ya, Bisan- 
sha, and Konoike, in Honcho-dori, 
for jewellery, ivories, silver-ware, 
etc. ; Matsuishi-ya, in Honcho-dori, 
for porcelain in European shapes ; 
and numerous others, especially in 
Benten-dori. (Makuzn Kozan's 
porcelain factory, outside the native 
town at Ota-miu^, is shown to 
visitors.) 

Silk Stoi-es. — Tanabe, Shobei, 
Ewata, and Shieno, all in Honcho- 
dori; also, for cheaper articles, 
Yamaguchi, in Ota-machi ; Got5, in 
Benten-dori Ni-ch5me. 

Embroideries, Silk and Cotton- 
Crapes, Japanese Cottons, etc. — 
Nozawa-ya, Yamamoto, Yamato, 
all in Benten-dori ; Tsuru-ya, in 
Ishikawa-machi. 

Cloisonne. — Goto, in Uchida-cho 
(visitors are shown over the factory); 
Kawano, in Honcho-dori. 

Bronze, — Kakuha, in Benten-dori. 

Japanese Stationery. — Tanikawa- 
ya, in Minami Naka-^ori Itchome. 

Toy^, etc. — Kitamura, in Benten- 
dori, Itchdme. 

Bamhoo and Bmd Blinds, Cabinets, 



Artificial Jioicers, Lanterns, etc. — 
Morishima, in Aioi-cho, Itchome. 

Japanese 2 heatres, etc. — Kiraku- 
za, in Nigiwai-cho ; Hagoromo-za, 
in Hagoromo-ch5. A sort of fair is 
held at night in Basha-michi-dori 
and Isezaki-cho. 

Public Garden and Cricket 
Ground. — At the back of the Settle- 
ment, behind the American Con- 
sulate ; Bluff Gardens, with Tennis 
Club ; Golf links, on the Eace-course. 

JS'eicspapers. — "Japan Daily Ad- 
vertiser," "Japan Gtizette," "Japan 
Herald," "Japan Mail," daily; 
"Japan Times," daily (pubhshed 
in Tokyo) ; " Box of Curios," 
"Eastern World," and '■'Deutsche 
Japan-post," weekly. 

HisTOPvT.— Ancient shell-heaps and pot- 
tery, dug up near the race-course and at 
Kanagawa, show that this neighbourhood 
was inhabited at an extremely remote 
date ; but Yokohama owes its commer- 
cial importance to the foreigners who 
have settled there It was an insignificaL t 
fishing village when Commodore Perry 
anchored off it in ISol, and gave American 
names to several points in the neighbour- 
hood. When it was agreed to open a 
Treaty Port in this part of Japan, the 
choice naturally fell, not on Yokohama, 
but on the thriving town of Kanagawa, 
on the opposite side of the small bay, 
now partially filled in. But the Japanese 
Government, finding Kanagawa incon- 
venient because of its situation on the 
Tokaido, at a time when collisions be- 
tween foreigners and the armed retainers 
of the Daimyos passing to and from the 
capital were to be apprehended, gave 
facilities for leasing ground at Yokohama 
instead. Thither, accordingly, the mer- 
chants, eager to open up trade, repaired 
in 1858. The consuls protested against 
the change ; but the only lasting result of 
their protest is the retention of the name 
Kanagawa in certain oflBcial documents. 
The superiority of the Yokohama an- 
chorage doubtless reconciled the foreign 
community to the inferior position of the 
place on a mud flat facing north. The 
greater portion of the Settlement, as it 
now exists, dates from after the fire of 
1886 ; and the " Bluff," on which most of 
the well-to-do residents have their dwell- 
ings, was first leased for building purposes 
in 1867. A large and rapidly growing 
native town has sprung up outside the 
Foreign Settlement. Waterworks, open- 
ed in 1887, Bupply Yokohama from the 
Sagami-gawa, 38 miles distant. Harbour- 
TvorkB were complfeted in 1891 ; 8l«Gtri« 



Route 2. — E.rcursions from Yokohama. 



101 



trams were Btarted in 1905.— In 1006, the 
foreign population of Yokohama, ex- 
clusive of Chinese, amounted to 2,358, 
of whom 1,084 were British and 486 
American. 



It should be explained that al- 
though the streets have names, 
these are comparatively little used, 
as the numbering of the whole 
Settlement (Jap. Yamashita-cM) m 
continuous, irrespective of street 
names. A similar remark applies 
to the Bluff {Yaniate-cho). 

Though Yokohama boasts but 
few sights properly so called, the 
curio-lover wall here find himself 
in his element ; and to one newly 
landed, the native town, with its 
street-stftlls and its theatrical and 
other shows, will afford an interest- 
ing spectacle. A visit should be 
paid to Koge-yama, close behind the 
Railway Station, for the sake of the 
general view of the town and har- 
bour. Here stand some small, but 
popular and representative, shrines 
dedicated to the Shinto god of Akiha, 
to Doryo, a Buddhist saint, to Fud5, 
the great Buddliist god whose chief 
shrine is at Narita (see Eoute 5), 
and to the Sun-Goddess of Ise (see 
Route 35). This last, which crowns 
the hill, is generally known as 
Daijingii. Festivals are held at 
Noge-yaina on the 1st, 15th, and 
28th of every month. The temple 
of Zotoku-in, dedicated to Yakushi 
Nyorai and situated in Moto-machi 
close to the Grand Hotel, celebrates 
its festivals on the 8th and 12th of 
the month. Near it are the Hundred 
Steps, with a small tea-house at the 
top. 

Yokohama ix)ssesses a Public 
Hall, M'here English theatrical and 
other entertainments are given ; 
also a Bace-course where meetings, 
sometimes attended by His Majesty 
the Emperor, are held in spring and 
autumn. The race-course overlooks 
Mississippi Bay whose shore affords 
a charming drive through the vill. of 
Xegishl and past the Makado Hotel. 
Indeed, the whole neighbourhood 
abounds in fine landscapes. Fuji 



shows out well from the race-course, 
I from the harbour, and from many 
I other points. The flora of Japan 
I may best be studied and specimens 
j obtained at Messrs. Boehmer & Co.'s 
I Horticultural Gardens, Nos. 5 and 
i 28 Bliiff, or at the Yokohama 
i Nursery Co., 21-35, Nakamura Bluff. 
1 Students of zoology can procure 
si^ecimens at Mr. Alan Owston's 
store, No. 224 Yamashita-ch5. 

The best places to view the 

; cherry-blossom (early April) are the 

i Cricket Ground {Ko-enchi), Noge- 

j Yama, Sakura-michi behind the 

' Bluff, and the more distant temple 

grounds of Bukenji. Permission 

to visit the plum and landscape 

garden belonging to Mr. Hara, at 

San-no-tani, may be obtained 

through the Rjimurai Shokwai curio 

store. 



ROUTE 2. 



Excursions prom Yokohama. 

1. kamakuea and the daibutsu. 
2. enoshima. 3. dzushi, toko- 
suka, ueaga, and misaki. 4. 
sugita and tomioka. 5. kana- 

ZAWA. [mine.] 6. THE CAVES OF 
TOTSUKA. 7. OYAMA. 

1. — Kamakura is reached from 
Yokohama in 50 min. by the T5kai- 
do Railway, changing carriages (by 
some trains) at Ofuna Junction. 
This branch line continues on to 
Dzushi and Yokosuka, being altoge- 
ther 21^ miles in length.* 

Kamakura, once the populous 
capital of Eastern Japan, has now 
shrunk into a quiet sea-side village 
which is a favourite resort of the 

* It is proposed to connect Kamakura 
I with Yokohama direct by electric tram. 



102 



lloide 2. — E.wursions from Yokohama. 



Yokohama residents. The Kaihin- 
in Hotel (Enrop. style), situated 
under a pine-grove near that jjortion 
of the shore known as Yui-ga-hama, 
stands \ hr. by jinrikisha from the 
station. The Japanese inn, Mitsu- 
hashi, may also be recommended. 
Both provide hot and cold salt-water 
baths. 

Kamakura was the seat of government 
in Eastern Japan from the end of the 
12th to the middle of the 15th century. 
Yoritomo. who established the Shognnate 
in 1192, chose this place as his capital, 
and here was laid the foundation of the 
feudal system of government which 
prevailed up to the year 1868. The city 
of Kamakura, in the time of Yoritomo'a 
immediate successors, extended all over 
the plain and into the recesses of the 
ditt'erent yatsu, or dells, which branch off 
from it among the hills. Its population 
is believed to have exceeded one million 
in the days of its glory. Kamakura was 
the scene of innumerable contests be- 
tween rival military factions, and of 
many bloody deeds. Here, on the sea- 
shore, were beheaded the Mongol ambas- 
sadors of Kublai Khan {Jap. Kop-pitsu- 
retsu), who had imi^eiiously sent to 
demand the submis.sion of Japan to his 
sway. The city was repeatedly sacked 
and laid in ashes, and seems never to 
have fully recovered from the disasters 
of the year 14.>5. The neighbouring city 
of Odawara, which next rose into im- 
portance as the seat of the powerful Hojo 
family, attracted to itself large numbers 
of the inhabitants of Kamakura, the ruin 
of which town was completed In- the 
founding of Yedo in A.D. 1603. 

The chief sights of Kamakura 
are the Temple of Hachiman, the 
Daibutsu, or colossal bronze Bud- 
dha, and the great image of the 
goddess Kwannon. They all lie 
Mdthin a mile of the hotel. 

The Temple of Jlachiman, the 
God of War, dating from the end 
of the 12th century, occupies a com- 
manding position on a hill called 
Tsuru-ga-oka, and is reached by an 
avenue of pine-trees, vrhich leads 
up the whole way from the sea- 
shore. Though both avenue and 
temple have suffered from the rav- 
ages of time, enough still remains 
to remind one of the ancient glories 
of the place. Three stone torii 
mark the approach to the temple. 



which stands at the head of a 
broad flight of stone steps. Notice 
the magnificent icho tree, nearly 20 
ft. in circumference, said to be over 
a thousand years old. 

In A.D. 1218, the Young Shogun Sane- 
tomo, having received an additional title 
from the Mikado, was about to go in 
solemn procession to return thanks at the 
temple of Hachiman. He seems to have 
had some foreboding of evil ; for, before 
leaving the palace, he composed a stanza 
which may be thus rendered : 

What time its lord, hence issuing. 
All tenantless this dwelling leaves, 
l>e thou still mindful of the spring, 
Dear plum-tree standing by the eaves ! 
The same morning, while he was being 
dressed, he pulled out a hair and gave it 
to his attendant, saying. " Keep this in 
memory of me." He had been advised 
to don armour under his robes, but failed 
to adopt the precaution. The ceremonial 
was i)rotracted till a late hour. As Sane- 
tomo descended the steps in the dark, a 
man sprang upon him from behind the 
tree, cut him down, and carried off his 
head. Though the assassin, who proved 
to be the high-priest of the temple and 
Sanetomo's own nephew, was soon dis- 
covered and despatched, the head was 
never found. So the hair which Sane- 
tomo had given to his faithful retainer 
was buried in its stead. 

Before ascending the flight of 
steps, the minor shrines to the r. 
deserve ixissing notice. The nearer 
one, painted red and called Waka- 
miya, is dedicated_to the Emj^eror 
Nintokn, son of Ojin, the Grod of 
War. The further one is called 
Hhirahata Jinja, and is dedicated to 
Yoritomo. The style and structure 
are unusiml, black and gold being 
the only colours employed, and iron 
being the material of the four main 
pillars. The interior holds a small 
wooden image of Yoritomo. 

A side path leads up hence to the 
main temi^le, which is enclosed in 
a square colonnade painted red. 
The temple, which was re-erected 
in 1828, after having been destroy- 
ed by fire is in the Eyobu Shinto 
style, with red pillars, beams, and 
rafters, and is decorated with small 
painted carvings chiefly of birds 
and beasts. In the colonnade are 
several religious palanquins {mi- 



Kamahvra. 



103 



kosM) used on the occasion of the 
semi-annual festivals (15th April 
and 15th Sejitember), a wooden 
image of Snmiyoshi by Unkei (see 
p. 85), and various relics, including 
Yoritomo's armour and his skull 
ichen a youth. (/) 

Immediately behind the temple 
of Hachiman is a small hill, called 
Shirahaia-yama, whence Yoritomo 
is said to hive often admired the 
prospect. 

The Daibutsu, or Great Buddha, 
stands alone among Japanese 
works of art. 

" R, statue solid-set. 
And moulded in colossal calm." 

No other gives such an impression 
of majesty, or so truly symbolises 
the central idea of Budtlhism, — the 
spiritual peace which comes of 
perfected knowledge and the sub- 
jugation of all passion. But to be 
fully appreciated, the Daibutsu 
must be visited many times. 

Tradition says that Yoritomo, when 
taking part in the dedication of the 
Daibutsu at Na7'a, conceived the desire of 
having a similar object of worship at his 
own capital, but died before he could 
put the plan into execution. The ex- 
isting image, which represents Amida, 
apparently dates from A.D. 1252. It w-as 
originally enclosed in a building 50 yds. 
square, whose roof was supported on 
63 massive wooden pillars. Many of 
the stone ba.«es on which they rested 
are still in situ. The temple buildings 
were twice destroyed by tidal waves, in 
13G9 and 1494, since which they have not 
been re-erected, and the image has ever 
since remained exposed to the elements. 

The Daibutsu is best seen from 
about half-way up the approach. 
Its dimensions are approximately 
as follows : — 

FT. IN. 

Height 49 7 

Circumference 97 2 

Length of face 8 5 

Width from ear to ear 17 9 

Round white boss on fore- 
head 1 3 

Length of eye 3 11 

„ of eyebrow 4 2 

of ear 6 6 



Length of nose 3 9 

Width of mouth 3 2 

Height of bump of wisdom. 9 

Diameter of bump of wisdom 2 4 
Curls (of which there are 

I 830): Height 9 

,, Diameter 1 

Length from knee to knee. . . 35 8 

Circumference of thumb ... 3 

The eyes are of pure gold, and 
the silver boss weighs 30 lbs. 
avoirdupois. The image is formed 
of sheets of bronze cast sejDarately, 
brazed together, and finished off on 
the outside with the chisel. The 
hollow interior of the image con- 
tains a small shrine, and a ladder 
leads up into the head. 

The Temple of Ewannon, known 
as Hase no Kwannon, stands not far 
from the Daibutsu on an eminence 
commanding a beautiful view of the 
sea-shore towards Misaki, and over 
the Kamakura plain. The great 
image of the Goddess of Mercy, for 
which this temple is celebrated, 
stands behind folding-doors which 
a small fee to the attendant priest 
will suffice to open ; but the figure 
can only be indistinctly seen by the 
dim light of a fev/ candles. It is of 
brown lacquer gilded over, and its 
height is 30 ft. 5^ in. The ad- 
mirable bronze seated figure of 
Dainichi Nyorai on the 1. was pre- 
sented by the Shdgun Ashikaga 
Yoshimasa (see j:). 87). 

Close to this temple is a bold cliff 
c ailed Inam ura-ga-saki. 

In 1333, when the city of Kamakura 
was attacked by the partisans of the 
Emperor Go-Daigo, part of the force led 
by Nitta Yoshisada advanced along the 
strand from the W. of this hill, but were 
unable to pass under the cliff owing to 
chevaux-de-frisc. being placed against it 
down to the water's edge, while their 
passage in boats was prevented by a long 
row of war-junks lying some 500 or 600 
yards off the shore. Yoshisada therefore, 
climbed the cliff", and after praying to the 
Sea-God, flung his sword into the water, 
whereuijon the tide miraculously re- 
treated, leaving a space a mile and a 
half wide at the foot of the cliff', along 
which he marched his army into Kama- 
kura. 



104 



Route 2. — Excursioiw from Yokohama. 



Lovers of early vsculpture and 
of Japanese historical and anti- 
quarian lore, will find scattered over 
Kamakura many minor temples and 
other objects to arrest their atten- 
tion. Amongst these, the following 
may be enumerated : — 

Enndji, small and dilapidated, but 
containing the celebrated image of 
Emma-0, Eegent of Hell called 
Arai-no-Einma, and carved by 
Unkei. 

Legend says that Unkei, having died, 
appeared in due course before this re- 
doubtable deity, who thus accosted him : 
"Thou hast carved many images of me, 
but never a true one. Now that thou hast 
seen my face, return to earth and show me 
as I am." So Unkei, coming to life again, 
carved this image, which is, therefore, 
said to be Unket Yomiji-gaeri no saku, that 
is, "the work of Unkei redivivus." 

The image is only shown on 
application to the custodian. Other 
large images line the walls, one of 
Shozuka-no-Baba (see p. 47), also by 
Unkei, being specially powerful. 

Kenchojl is situated in beautiful 
but now mostly deserted grounds, 
amidst magnificent trees, of which 
the rugged byakushin {Juniperus 
chinensis) is the most prominent 
species, and a favourite material 
with the carvers of Buddhist images. 
The gate is a huge structure. The 
main temple contains a large image 
of Jiz5, and four hundred small gilt 
ones of the same divinity carved 
by Eshin. 

A very popular little shrine was 
erected in 1890 on Shojoken, the 
hill behind Kenchoji, and attracts 
such crowds of pilgrims that a 
special train is run on the 17th day 
of the month for their benefit. The 
shrine is dedicated to a goblin 
called Hanzdbo, to whom enormous 
quantities of small paper flags are 
offered up. These line both sides 
of the pathway that leads up the 
hill for a distance of 5 cho. A tea- 
house near the shrine commands a 
splendid view of Fuji and the sea. 
The Oku-no-in at the very top 



overlooks a maze of small hills and 
valleys in the direction of Yoko- 
hama. 

The ancient Temple of Kokuonji 
I contains images of the Ju-ni-ten, 
nearly life-size, and very large ones 
of Yakushi Nyorai, Nikko Bosatsu, 
and Gwakko Bosatsu, all attributed 
to the chisel of Unkei. 

The TowJj of Yorltomo is a modest 
monument covered with creepers. 

The Kamakura-no-Miya was 
erected in 1869 in honour of a son 
of the Emperor Go-daigo, called 
Ot5-no-Miya, who, having failed in 
his attemptto overthrow the feudal 
government, was captured, confined 
in a cave, and finally assassinated 
in A.D. 1335. The temple, which is 
in "Pure Shinto" style (see p. 38), 
stands directly in front of the cave. 

Enkakvji jx^ssesses the largest 
bell in Kamakura. This bell, dat- 
ing from A.D. 1201, is 6 in. thick, 
4 ft. 7 in. in diameter, and about 
8 ft. high. 

Komybji, Eishoji, and Ji'i-roku-ido, 
or the Sixteen Pools, in which, 
according to an apocryphal tradi- 
tion, Kobo Daishi performed his 
ablutions, are also noted. 



2. — Enoshima. 

This picturesque sjx)t, though 
called an isLand, is sometimes a 
peninsuLx for years at a time, ac- 
cording as tides and currents heap 
up or wash away a neck of sand 
connecting it with the mainland. 

The most direct approach from 
Yokohama is by the Tdki^ido Railway 
to Fujisaim station (50 min.), whence 
electric tram to the vill. of Katase 
in 10 min., and on foot across the 
sands in 15 min. more. But time 
can be saved by combining Kama- 
kura and Enoshima in one trip. 
After seeing the sights of Kamakura 
and lunching at the hotel there, the 
traveller takes the electric tram 
along a stretch of shore called 



Unoshhna. Dzutihi. Yokosuka. 



105 



Shichi-ri-ga-hama* to Kataao, as 
above. 

Half-way is tlio Yttki-ai-gawa. which, 
though a mere rill, deserves mention on 
account of the following incident :— 

When Nichiren was miraculously deliv- 
ered from the hands of the executioner 
at the neighbouring village of Koshigoe, 
a messenger was at once despatched to 
Kamakura to ask for further orders, 
while at the same moment a reprieve 
was sent from the palace of the Regent j 
Tokiyori. The two messengers happen- I 
ed to meet at this stream, whence the I 
name of Vuki-ai-gaiva, which means "the { 
River of Meeting." A stone now marks I 
the spot. I 

Enoshima, being a popular holi- 
day resort, is fiill of excellent inns. 
The best are the Iwamoto-in and 
Ebisu-ya in the vill., and the Kin- 
ki-ro higher wp. There is fair sea- 
bathing. The shops of Enoshima 
are full of shells, coral, and marine 
curiosities generally, many of which 
are brought for sale from other parts 
of the coast. The beautiful glass- 
rope sponge {Hyalonema sieboldi), 
called hosugai by the Japanese, is 
said to be gathered from a reef deep 
below the surface of the sea not^far j 
from the island of Oshima, whose i 
smoking summit is visible to the 
south on a clear day. 

From the earliest ages the island 
v,-as sacred to Benten, the Buddhist 
G-oddess of Luck. 

Before the existence of Enoshima, so 
says the ancient legend, the site of the 
present cave was the abode of a dragon, 
which used to devour the children of the 
village of Koshigoe. In the 6th century, 
on the occasion of a violent earthquake, 
the goddess Benten appeared in the 
clouds over the spot inhabited by that 
monster ; and the island of Enoshima 
suddenly emerging from the waters, she 
descended to it, married the dragon, and 
put an end to his ravages. The natives 
believe that a subterranean passage con- 
nects the cave with Fuji. 

This ciilt has now been exchanged 
for that of three Shinto goddesses, 



♦Literally, the "seven ri shore," the j 

ri in early times in eastern Japan having l 

consisted of only 6 cko instead of 36 cho, ! 
thus resembling the original Chinese li. 



to whom several of the temples 
have been re-dedicated. But the 
spot considered most sacred af all 
is the large Cave on the far side 
of the island. It is 124 yds, in 
depth, the height at the entrance 
being at least 30 ft., but diminish- 
ing gradually towards the interior. 
The rocks near the cave are 
frequented by divers, who for a 
few cents bring up shell-fish from 
the deep, which, however, they may 
be suspected of having previously 
concealed about their persons. 

Opposite the tram station at Kata- 
se stands the temple of Byilkoji, 
founded after Nichiren's death by 
his disciples, and built on the spot 
where his execution was to have 
taken place. It possesses some fine 
wood-carvings. 

The return to Yokohama should be 
varied by taking the tram on to 
Fujisawa, as indicated above. The 
midway station of Kugenuma is so 
called from a small bathing resort 
about J mile distant. 



3. — D.ZTTSHI, Yokosuka, Uraga, 

AND MiSAKI. 

__ Yokosuka is the terminus of the 
Ofuna branch line, and is reached 
from Yokohama in 1| hr. The Httle 
line of railway passes through 
characteristically Japanese scenery, 
— wooded hills rising up abruptly 
from valleys laid out in rice-fields, 
with here and there a cottage or a 
tiny shrine half-hidden in a rustic 
bower. Kamakura is passed ; also 

Dzushi {Inn, Yoshin-tei), the sta- 
tion for a popular sea-side resort 
called Hayama, 1^ m. distant by 
good road. Here the Crown Prince 
and members of the Japanese no- 
bility, as well as the wealthier 
foreign residents of Yokohama, have 
villas, and enjoy sea-bathing and 
lovely views of Fuji. The train 
darts in and out of short tunnels 
under some of these hills, before 
reaching the sea-shore at Y'okosuka. 

Yokosuka {Inn, Mitomi-ya ; 



lOG 



PiOiite 2. — Excursions from Yokohama. 



Forehjn resti., Kaiyo-ken, near the 
wharf), which biit thirty years ago 
was a poor Tillage, has rapicll;f 
risen into importance, on account 
of the Government Dockyard estab- 
lished there. Visitors are not 
admitted, unless furnished with 
an introduction from the naval 
authorities. The town is prettily 
situated on a land-locked bay ; but 
the surrounding wooded heights 
are being cut away vertically to 
afford more flat space for the rapid- 
ly growing streets. Its chief interest 
for Anglo-Saxons lies in the fact that 
here lived and died Will Adams, 
the first Englishman that ever 
landed on the shores of Japan. 

Will Adams, a native of Gillingliam in 
Kent, was chief pilot to a fleet of Dutch 
ships which reached the southern coast 
of Japan on the 19th April, AD. 1600. 
Brought as a prisoner into the presence 
of leyasu, Adams soon won the favour 
of that astute ruler, who employed him 
both as a shipbuilder and as a kind of 
diplomatic agent when other English and 
Dutch traders began to arrive. Adams's 
constantly reiterated desire to behold his 
native land again and the vrife and child- 
ren whom he had left behind, was to the 
last frustrated by adverse circumstances. 
He consoled himself by taking another 
wife, a Japanese, with whom he lived 
until his death in 1620 at Henii, a suburb 
of Yokosuka, where the railway station 
now stands. 

His grave and that of his Japa- 
nese wife are situated on the top of 
a hill, ^ hr. walk from the railway 
station. The Ja^Danese call the place 
Anjin-zuka, from anjln which means 
" pilot," that having been the ap- 
pellation by which Adams was 
commonly known. The tombs are 
of stone, in the ordinary Japanese 
style. Will Adams's monument is 
without an inscription, while that 
of his wife bears the posthumous 
title which every Buddhist receives 
from the priest of the i:)arish tem- 
ple. Not only is the situation of 
the graves picturesque, but the 
eminence on which they stand 
affords a lovely view of land and 
sea. 

Azuma-yama, a wooded height 



h hr. from Yokosiika V)y boat, has 
been cut through in order to afford 
a short water passage to the Torpedo 
Station of Xaga-ura. Another van- 
tage-point just outside the opposite 
or E. end of Yokosulm, is Koine-no- 
yama, a cliff on which stands a 
temjDle of the Nichiren sect. 

The distance from Yokosuka to 
Uraga is 1 ri 32 cho m m.) 
along an excellent road. A little 
more than half-way lies the hamlet 
of Otsu, where there is an inn, good 
of its kind, but apt to be noisy, 
with a fine beach for bathing, 

Urag-a {Inn, Tokuda-ya, in 
Higashi-Uraga) is built on both 
sides of a very narrow fiord-like 
harbour ; and the tv>'0 divisions thus 
•formed are called respectively 
Higashi-Uraga and Nishi-Uraga, 
i.e., East and West Uraga. Two 
large drv docks were opened here 
in 189 . 

In former times all junks entering the 
Bay of Yedo were detained at Uraga for 
inspection, and it was here that Com- 
modore Perry anchored on the 8th July, 
1853, bearing with him the letter of Presi- 
dent Fillmore to the Shogun, the result 
of which was to open Japan to foreign 
intercourse. The spot (Kuri-ga-hama) 
where he landed is marked by a stone 
monument erected in 1901. 

It is worth while devoting ^ hr. 
to the climb up Atago-yama, a hill 
at the back of Nishi-Uraga, com- 
manding a fine view of the town 
and harbour. 

Misaki [Inn, Aoyagi) lies at the 
S. tip of the i^eninsula of S:igami, 
4 7-i 3 eJ(d (10 m.) from Uraga by 
jinrikisha. At Eo-Ajiro, on a small 
bay 1 rl to the N., stands 
the ]\Iarine Biological Laboratory 
[MisaM Pdnkal Jikken-jo), connect- 
ed with the Science College of the 
Imperial University of Tokyo. The 
marine fauna of this district being 
excei)tionally rich in rare forms, 
dredging has produced highly inter- 
esting results. A hghthouse stands 
on the island of Jo-ga-shima, 1 m. 
from the mainland, vdth which it 
is connected bv ferrv. 



Sugiia. Kanozawa. 



107 



One ma}'" complete the tour of 
the Sagami Peninsula, by a walk of 
7 77 (17 m.) along the coast to 
Dznshi. 

4. — SUGITA AND TOMIOKA. 

It is a pleasant walk or jinrilcisha 
ride of about 2 ri from. Yokohama 
to Sugita {Inns, Azuma-ya and 
others), famous for its jDlum- 
blossoms ; and 1 ri further on to 
Tomioka {Inn, Kimpa-ro), a 
favourite run for Yokohama j^achts- 
men, also affording good sea- 
bathing. Tomioka may also be 
easily reached by boat from the 
Cutting at the back of the Settle- 
ment in about 40 min., the distance 
from the Settlement to the point 
where the boat is taken being ap- 
proTvimately 1 ri. 

5. — Kanazawa. [Mine.] 

Jinrikishas may be taken the 
whole way, two men being requir- 
ed. The total distance is 4 ri 30 
rho (11| m.), the road being flat for 
the first 6 miles as far as the hamlet 
oC Sekl, and after that, hilly. 

[At the hamlet of Tanaka, 10 cho 
beyond Seki, a road i^racticable 
for jinrikishas, turns off r. to 
the Buddliist temple of Enkaiji 
at Mine, much frequented by 
Japanese patients for the ap- 
plication of the moxa. The hill 
just beyond commands an 
extensive view. The finest 
prospect is towards the N., 
looking down on a multitude 
of furrowed ridges that stretch 
away to the mountains of 
Chichibu. To the W., the sea 
is visible, and beyond it Fuji, 
with the Oyama and Hakone 
ranges. The distance from 
Tanaka to Mine is 28 cho, or 
nearly 2 m.] 

On reaching the crest of the 
ridge, the beauty which has led 
the foreign residents to bestow 



on this neighbourhood the name 
of the Plains of Heaven, suddenly 
reveals itself. A scene of perfect 
loveliness may be enjoyed from a 
spot called Kokendo, where stands 
a i^ine-tree known as the Fade- 
sute-matsu, because a Japanese 
artist of olden times here flung 
away his pencil in despair. At the 
spectator's feet is a wide, cultivated, 
valley bordered by pine-clad hills, 
and opening out to the shores of an 
inlet, whose still waters are pai'tly 
hemmed in by small peninsulas 
and islands, with to the 1. the pro- 
montory of- Kwannon-saki, and on 
the opposite side of Tokyo Bay the 
long crest of Nokogiri-yama. The 
most conspicuous of the islands 
are Natsushima (Webster Island), 
v.'ith Saru.shima (Perry Island) 
beyond it, and Eboshi-jima which 
is much smaller and recognisable 
by its triangular shape. But a 
mere catalogue of names can avail 
nothing towards conveying an idea 
of the scene y*-hich might be the 
original that inspired the Japanese 
landscape-painter' s art. 

Kanazawa {Inns, Chiyo-moto, 
Azuma-ya), on the shores of the 
Mutsura Inlet, is chiefly noted for 
its Ilakkel, — a characteristically 
Japanese view from a small height 
just outside the village. Close to 
the ferry, at the foot of a vrooded 
hill called Xojirna-yama (8 did from 
Kanazawa), is a celebrated peony 
garden, which attracts many visitors 
during the season of flov/ering. 
Some of the plants are said to be 
over 300 years old. — Kanaza\s'a 
may also be reached by the coast 
road via Tomioka on foot in 3 hrs. 
The way back to Yokohama can be 
pleasantly varied by taking the 
jinrilvisha road across the neck of 
the little peninsula of Misaki to 
Dzushi station on the Yokosuka 
branch of the Tokaido Railway, a 
distance of 2J ri (6 m.). 

This trip may be advantageously 
combined with a visit to Kamakura, 
the station beyond Dzushi, or to 
Yokosuka, via Will Adams's tomb. 



108 



Route 2. — E.i'cnrsiom from Yokolmna. 



The whole neighbourhood affords 
delightful walks, as paths leading 
to the top of every hill command 
exquisite views. 

G. — The Caves or Totsuka. 

[Taya no Ana,.) 

Though known to foreigners as 
the Caves of Totsuka, these 
eaves, or rather galleries cut in the 
soft sandstone, are really nearer to 
Ofuna, the next station beyond 
Totsuka on the Tokaidd Railway, 
40 min. run from Yokohama. They 
lie at a distance of 17 ch.d (a little 
over 1 m.) from Ofuna station, but 
almost 1^ ri from Totsiilca station. 
Whichever station one decides to 
alight at, the trip on thence can 
be done by jinrikisha. The best 
time to choose is the spring, as 
the cherry-trees in the grounds 
will then be seen to advantage. 
Candles are provided at the temple 
of Josenji near the entrance, also 
cloaks to ward off any wet that 
may drip from the walls ; and a 
local guide will point out the 
Buddhist carvings with which the 
walls and ceilings are adorned. 

TheRG caves, with their carvings, are a 
monument of modern Buddhist piety. 
Existing in embryo since the Middle 
Ages (tradition asserts them to have been 
resorted to for the concealment both 
of troops and of treasure in the 14th 
century), they have only been excavated 
to their present extent during the last 
sixty years. In the year 1851, a man 
called Sato Shichizaemon, whose family 
had for generations been rich peasants in 
this locality was urged in a dream to 
devote his life to making these caves into 
an imperishable shrine to various Bud- 
dhist divinities, and especially to the 
goddess Benten. This he accordingly did 
until his death in 1892, at the age of 81, 
employing his own patrimony for the 
enterprise and local talent for the 
carvings. 

Among the subjects pourtrayed, 
may be distinguished angels, drag- 
ons, lions, birds both natural and 
mythical, the Twelve Signs of the 
Zodiac, the Eighteen Eakan, the 
Thirty-Three Kwannon of the dis- 



trict of Chichibu,' and other Bud- 
dhas innumerable. To explore the 
caves properly takes alx)ut 1 hr. 

7.— Oyama. 

This mountain, 4,100 ft. high, is 
most easily reached from Yokohama 
by alighting at Hiraisuka station 
on the Tokaido Eailway, a run of a 
little over 1 hr.; thence by jinrikisha 
to the vill. of Koyasu on the lower 
slope, whence about 1^ m. on to the 
vill. of Oyama, the total distance 
from Hiratsuka to Oyama being 4A- 
ri (11 m.). It is a favourite goal of 
pilgrims, who continue to be at- 
tracted to its shrine, although the 
old Buddhist objects of worship 
have here, as in so many other 
parts of the country, been replaced 
by comparatively obscure Shinto 
deities. 

Indeed, according to Sir Ernest Satow, 
it is uncertain who these gods are ; but 
the best authority asserts that the chief 
deity is Iwanaga-hime, sister to the god- 
dess of Mount Fuji. The people of the 
neighbouring countryside often call the 
mountain by the name of Sekison-mn. 
Yet another name \a\Afuri-yo.ma. 

Koyasu {Inn, Kami-ya) is a long 
street of steps, whichiat its upper 
end^ changes^ its name to Oyama 
{Inns, Koma-ya, Izu-ya). Such of 
the inhabitants as do not keep 
houses of entertainment for the 
pilgrims, busy themselves with the 
manufacture of rosaries, toys, and 
domestic utensils. Festivals are 
held; on April 21-30, July 28, Aug. 
17, and Sept. 8-10. 

The ascent and' descent of the 
mountain take from i4^ to 5 hrs., 
but are more fatiguing than 
most climbs of ^the same length, 
owing to the multitude of steps. 
A little way beyond the inns, a 
stream gushes out of the mouth of 
a bronze dragon 'i^laced 'in a rocky 
wall 'some 20 '_ft. high* and falls 
into a; pool, in which it is con- 
sidered highly meritorious to bathe. 
Ten cho further up, the entrance 
to the sacred domain is indicated 



Ho ate 3. — Yokohama lo Tokyo by HaU. 



109 



Ijy a iorll perched ou the top of a 
flight of Btops. Here the traveller 
has to choose between the Oloko- 
zaka (man's ascent), and Onna,- 
zaka (woman's ascent), — the former 
a continuous series of steep flights 
of high steps, the latter longer but 
less arduous. Both jjaths unite 
higher up. Numbers of small 
shrines, sacred stones, rest-houses, 
etc., are passed, and views are 
obtained from time to time of the 
plains of Sagami and Musashi, with 
the river ]3anyu, capes Misaki and 
Sunosaki at the entrance of Tokyo 
Bay, the sea, and the mountains of 
Kazusa. The main t<imple stands 
28 cho below the summit, where 
there is another shrine, which so 
covers all of the small avaiLxble 
standing room that only on one 
side can any view be obtained. It 
includes Fuji, the wooded tojj of 
Tanxjiwa, the mountains of Nikko, 
Enoshima, etc. 

{Tanzav'M is a small range situ- 
ated close to Oyama on the west. 
it includes Sobutsu-yama, Tanzawa 
j)r(jper, and Jiodai-yama, but offers 
little interest.) 



ROUTE 13. 



Yokohama to Tokyo by Rail. 



Hi 


Names 

of 
Rtationo 


Itoinarke 


1 jm. 
8 

n 

IQ 


YOKOHAMA .. 

1< anaj^awa 

THurumi 

Kawafiaki 

Kainata 

Ouiori 


, ( "haugo for 
Suburban and 
Northern 
Railways. 


Rhinagawa 

t5kY0 (Shirn- 
baehl).... 



This railway, built by British 
engineers and finished in the 
autumn of 1872, was the first lino 
opened to traffic in Japan. The 
journey from Yokohama to Tokyo 
occupies 50 min., by express 27 
min. The line skirts the shores of 
Tokyo Bay, with the old Tokaido 
h'ujhway recognisable at intervals 
on the r. by its avenue of pines, 
(jlirapses are caught of the hills of 
Kazusa beyond the bay. 

[An Electric Tram, running 
parallel to the r.iilway from 
Yokobima to Toky5, affords a 
cheaper alternative means of 
reaching the capital, but is apt 
to be overcrowded. Change 
cars at Kaniigawa and Hhina- 
gawa.] 

Soon after leaving Yokohama, tlie 
Tokixido Railway branches off 1. 
Observe the fine view of Fuji near 
the first station. 

Kanag'awa, once a noted post- 
town on tlie Tolaiido, and intimate- 
ly connected with the early settle- 
ment of foreigners in this part ol 
Ja])an (se<i p. 100). 

On the T6kai(l6 hij^hway near Nama- 
muyi, between this ntation and the next, 
occurred the murder of Mr. llichardson, 
wlio, with two other l-nnlishmeu and a 
lady, got entant:;led in the armed pro- 
ccfiHiou of Shimazu Saburfl, prince of 
Hatsuma, on the 14th September, 1802, 
— an outrage which ultimately led to 
the bombardment of KagoHhima. The 
whole story will be found in Black 'n 
Vouwj Japan, Chap. XIII. 

Kawasaki {Inn, Asada-ya) is 
noted for a temple situated If m. 
from the station, dedicated to Kobo 
Daishi, and commonly known as 
Daishi Sanm. An electric tramway, 
running through an avenue of 
cherry trees, connects the two 
pljices. 

Local legend attributon the eauctity of 
the Bpot to an imago of KObrt DaiHhi 
carved by that Buint himself while in 
China, and consigned by him to th« 
waves. It floated to this coaflt, where it 
was caught in a fleherman'e net, and 
being conveyed ashore, performed numer- 



110 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



ous miracles. The trees in the temple- 
grounds, trained in the shape of junks 
under sail, attest the devotion paid to 
this holy image by sea-faring folk.— 
The chief festival takes place on the 21st 
March. 

So great is tlie popularity of the 
temple that special trains are run 
on the 21st of each month to accom- 
modate the crowds that visit it. It 
ix)ssesses some excellent carvings 
and a handsome gateway erected in 
1897. The grounds are laid out 
M-ith flowering trees, monuments, a 
pond with hve storks, etc., in the 
style of the great temple of Asakusa 
at Tokyo. Cheap stalls and itiner- 
ant shows make the place lively on 
festival days. A Plum Garden 
(Bai-en), with pleasant tea-houses 
attached, adjoins the grounds. 

The river crossed just beyond 
Kawasaki is the Tamagaica or 
Rokvj/d, the upper course of which 
is romantically beautiful, and is 
described in Ete. 31, Sect. 3. Ex- 
tensive pear orchards stretch on 
either side of the line. To the 1. of 
Kamata is seen the grand-stand 
on the new race course of the 
T5ky6 Eace Club, while to its r. 
rises the wooded bluff on which 
stands the noted temple of Ikegami 
(see Ete. 5. Sect. 2). Kamata has 
plum and iris_ gardens. Between 
Kamata and Omori, the cone of 
Fuji, the whole Hakone range, 
Buko-zan, and the other mountains 
of Chichibu come in jiev/ to the 1. 

Immediately above Omori he the 
grounds of a tea-house surrounded 
V)y plum-trees, and the range of the 
Imperial Japanese Eifle Club. 
Approaching 

Shinag-awa, we see the forts 
built in Tokj'o Bay during the latter 
days of the Shogunate, to impede 
hostile access to the great city, but 
now dismantled because useless in 
modern warfare. Owing to the 
rapid silting up of the bay and of 
the mouth of the river Sumida, only 
vessels of light burthen can proceed 
beyond this point. 

The numerous factory chimneys 



seen on nearing Toky5 are an 
innovation of the last fifteen years. 
INIany, it will be noticed, are of thin 
iron tubing instead of the usual 
brick. This plan is adopted as 
a safeguard against earthquakes, 
which natural visitation affects the 
Tokyo-Yokohama district wdth 
special frequency, owing to the fact 
that (as demonstrated by Prof. John 
Milne) two lines of seismic activity 
here intersect. 

Just beyond some gas-works, the 
hne skirts r. the prettily laid out 
garden of the Shiha Bikyil, one of 
the minor Imperial palaces. A 
little further on, the noble trees in 
the grounds of the summer palace 
called Hama Bikyu are seen also 
to the r.; and soon after, the train 
enters the Shimbashi terminus, 
and the traveller is in T5lr\^5. 



ROUTE 4. 



T6ky5. 

Tokyo, formely Yedo. 

Hotels. — Imperial (Teikokii) Hotel, 
centrally situated ; Hotel Metropole, 
in Tsukiji ; Toky5 Hotel, on Atago- 
3'ama. 

Japanese Inns. — Taizan-kwan and 
Tori-kwan, near the Imperial Hotel. 

Bestaurants . — ( Europ. food ) 
Shimbashi Terminus (upstairs); Sei- 
yo-ken, in Ueno Park ; Kwagetsu 
Kwadan, at far end of Mukdjima ; 
San-en-tei, in Shiba Park ; Fujimi- 
ken, near the British Embassy. — 
{Japanese food) Yaozen, at San-ya, 
Asakusa ; Tokiwa-ya, in Hama-cho. 

Tea-houses (for entertainments 

in Japanese style). — Koyo-kwau 

(Maple Club), in Shiba Park (visitors 

are shown over for a trifling fee); 

j Nakamura-r5, at Eyogoku ; Ume- 

i gawa-ro, in Ueno Park. 



11 

ng 



•at, 
hi- 
^hi, 
lil- 

lil- 
of 

in 
•uii 
res 



act! 
ijaelail 



•m- 
sen 
to 
Ki- 
the 
ca- 
her 
fclie 
mi, 
m- 

ily 

the 

ne, 

sM- 

aor 

or 

E. 

no- 

to 

md 

on. 



Fai'ka. Museums. Steamer.^. 



Ill 



Club. — The Tokyo Clulj, at Saiwai- 
hashi, with mixed foreign and Japa- 
nese membership. 

Welcome Society. — Headquarters 
in the Tokyd Chamber of Commerce 
BuiMing, Kojimachi-ku, Yaesu-ch5. 
It obtains introductions, permits, 
and other facilities for travellers. 

Foreign Embassies. — Great Britain, 
1, Koji-machi Go-banch5 ; United 
States, 1, Akasaka Enoki-zaka ; 
France, 1, lida-machi Itchdme ; 
Germany, 14, Nagata-cho ; Russia, 
1, Ura-Kasumi-ga-seki. 

General Fost Office & Central Tele- 
graph Office. — ^At Yedo-bashi. Sub- 
offices in various districts of the 
city. 

Parks. — Shiba, Ueno, Asakusa, 
Hibiya. 

• Muaeums. — The Hakubutsu-kwan, 
in Ueno Park ; Commercial Museum 
{Sho-hin Chinretsu-kwan), nearShim- 
bashi terminus ; Museum of Arms 
(Yushii-kican), in the grounds of 
the Shokonsha temple at Kudan. 
Mr. Okura's Private Collection, 3, 
Akasaka, Aoi-cho, is open to visitors 
on Mondays and Thursdays. 

Public Library. — The Tosho- 
kwan, in Ueno Park. 

Uourches. — Church of England, 
in Shiba, Sakae-cho ; American 
Eijiscoi^al, Union Church (Pro- 
testant), Boman Catholic, — all in 
Tsukiji ; German Evangelical, 28, 
Kojimachi, Naka-roku-banch5. 

Theatres. — Kabuki-za, in Kobiki- 
cho ; Meiji-za, in Hama-cho. 

Wrestling. — At Eko-in in Honjo, 
twice yearly for ten days in winter 
and spring. Also at other times 
and places not fixed. 

Bazaars. — Goni-kican, near Im- 
perial Hotel. Smaller ones {Kican- 
koba) at Shimbashi bridge ; in Shiba 
Park, and in different parts of the 
city. Fixed prices. Nowhere can 
one more easily pick up the thousand 
and one little articles that are in 
daily use among the people. 

A Suburban Eailway, officially 
styled the T5kyo and iVkabane 
Junction, affords an easy means of 
reaching certain points on the out- 



skirts of the city, 
is a schedule : — 



The following 



^ 




1 


1^1 


Names 


1 
1 


lll 


of 


1 llemarka 

i 


S *^ 2 j stations 


i 


SHIMBASHI 


! 


3]m. Shinagawa 




4j 1 Osaki 




6.;- 1 Meguro 




7J- 


Shibuya 


[ ( Change f orfla- 
. chiojiand K6- 

1 ' fu. 


01 


Shinjiku Jet . 


111 


Mejiro 




12i 


Ikebukuro Jet. 


^ Change for Ta-l 
• i } bata. 1 


134^ 


Itabashi 


! j 


..i 


AKABANE Jet. 


1 i Change for the 
! \ North. 

1 



An Urban Railway, running 
partly through the old castle moat, 
with stations at lida-machi, Ushi- 
gome, Yotsuya, and Shinano-machi, 
connects with the Suburban Bail- 
way at Shinjiku. — An Elevated Rail- 
icay across the city is in f)rocess of 
construction. 

Conveyances. — Jinrikishas are in 
universal use. Electric trams run 
along the x>rincipal thoroughfares 
and to the main suburbs. 

Steam Communication. — A com- 
pany called Tokyo Wayi Kisen 
Gwaisha runs steamers daily to 
Uraga and Yokosuka, Chiba, Ki- 
sarazu, and other ports on the 
opposite side of the bay, and occa- 
sionally to Kominato and other 
ports on the Pacific Coast of the 
Kazusa-Boshu j)eninsula, to Atami, 
and other ports in Izu. Its steam- 
ers start from Beigan-jima. 

The Tsu-un Gwaisha runs daily 
steamers on the Tonegawa, — the 
Kami-Tone, or Upper Biver line, 
taking 5)assengers to Gydtoku, Seki- 
yado, Koga, and numerous minor 
villages, while the Shimo-Tone, or 
Lower Biver line, branches off E. 
at Shinkawa for Sawara, Tsuno- 
miya, and Omigawa,_whence S. to 
Chdshi, and N. to Ofunatsu and 
Hokoda on the Kita-ura Lagoon. 



112 



Route L— Tokyo. 



These steamers start from Ky5goku- 
bashi. The local steamers are 
little used by foreigners and by the 
better class of Japanese, as they 
are small and make scant preten- 
tion to comfort. There is not even 
always a distinction of classes, 
though it is sometimes possible to 
secure a separate room by paying 
the price of five tickets. The fares 
are extremely low. 

The following are some of the 
chief shops at which articles likely 
to interest the tourist are sold : — 

Porcelain.— Ksiib Tomotaro, at 
Ushigome, Shin-Ogawa-machi, Ni- 
chome, No. 8 ; Mikawa-ya, at Owari- 
ch5, Itchome ; Daizen, at Nihom- 
bashi, EJakuya-cho, No. 5; Sangin, 
near Shimbashi Bridge. 

Lacquer. — Hayashi Kuhei, at Ni- 
hom-bashi, Muromachi ; Kuroe-ya, 
at Tori Itchome ; Daizen, at Nihom- 
bashi, Kakuya-ch5 ; Daisho, at Ni- 
hom-bashi, Aomono-cho ; Eceda, at 
Owari-cho, Nichome. 

Bronze. — C. Suzuki, in TsuMji ; 
^laruki, at Nihom-bashi, Sukiya- 
cho ; Miyno, at Nihom-bashi ; Kaga- 
ya, at Asakusa, Kuramae-dori. 

Sicords and Armour. — lida, at 
Kanda, Hatago-cho, Itchome ; Ike- 
da, at Owari-ch5, Nichome. 

Silver Ware. — Miyamoto Sho, at 
Ky5bashi, Yazaemon-ch5 ; Ueda, at 
Kyobashi, Saegi-ch5, No. 2 ; Seishu- 
kwan, at Kyobashi, Ginza, San- 
chome. 

Cloisonne. — Namikawa, at Nihom- 
bashi, Shin-emon-ch5 ; And5, at 
Ky5bashi, Moto-Sukiya-cho. 

Ivory. — Toyama, at Ginza, Ni- 



chome ; Murata, Kato Toyoshichi, 
both at Tori, Shio-ch5 ; Hosobuchi, 
at Nihom-bashi, Sukiya-cho ; Maru- 
ki, at Nihom-bashi, Himono-cho. 

Old Silks and Embroideries.— Rat- 
tori, near Imperial Hotel ; Shimizu, 
at Kyobashi, Inaba-ch5, No. 1 ; 
Iwamoto, Domei, both in Naka-dori ; 
Morita, at Nihom-bashi, Sanai-cho. 

Silk Mercers. — Mitsukoshi, in 
Suruga-ch5 ; Daimaru, at Hatago- 
cho ; Shiroki-ya, at Tori, Itchdme ; 
Mizushima (chiefly modern em- 
broideries in European style), at 
Honchd. Itchome, — all in the Ni- 
hombashi district ; Takashima-ya, 
at Nishi Kon-ya-cho. 

Culture Fearls. — Mikimoto, at 
Ky5bashi, Moto-SuMyacho, San- 
chome. 

Coloured Pt'iyits. — Kobayashi, at 
Asakusa, Komakata ; Hattori, near 
Imperial Hotel ; Suwa, at Kyobashi, 
Tatami-cho ; Murata Kimbei, in 
Naka-dori ; Shimbi-kwan (for art al- 
bums), at Kyobashi, Shin-sakana- 
machi. No. 13. 

Paper and Fans. — Haibara, at Ni- 
hom-bashi, Tori, Itchome. 

Photographs. — Ogawa, at Kyo- 
bashi, Hiyoshi-cho ; Maruki, at 
Shiba, Shin-sakurada-cho, No. 18 
(for portraits) ; Okamoto, at Ginza, 
San-chome (for vievrs). 

Booksellers. — Maruzen, at Nihom- 
bashi. Tori, San-ch5me ; Methodist 
Publishing House, in Ginza. 

Curios in General. — Ikeda, at 
Owari-cho Ni-ch5me ; Daizen, in 
Nakadori ; Jok5, at Sanjikken-bori, 
Ni-ch5me. Also many shops in 
Xaka-dori. 



CBCCEr POPXTLAB FESTIVALS. 



DATE. NAME OF FESTIVAL. WHERE HELD. 

Monthly, 5th SuUengu Kakigara-cho. 

Monthly, 10th (October, 

special) Kompira Tora-no-mon. 

Monthly, 17-1 8th Kxcannon Asakusa. 

Monthly, 21st (March, 

special) Daishi Eawaeaki. 



Festivals and Fairs. 113 

Monthly, 2-ltli (September, 

special) Atago Jlnja Atago-shita. 

First Day of tlie Hare 

{Hatsu-u) 3Iyokendd Yanagi-shima. 

April 17th Toshogfi Shiba and Ueno Parks. 

April 18th Sanja Matsuri Asaknsa. 

May and November 6-8th. Shokonsha Kudan. 

June 3rd Kumaiw Jinja ligura and Aoyama. 

June 3-14th Tenno Matsuri Shinaga wa, Yotsuya , 

Asakusa, Senju. 

Mid-July * Kaica-hiraki ("Opening 

of the River " ) Rydgoku. 

July 7-14th Temio Matsuri Nakabashi. 

July 9-lOth Shi-man Boku-sen 

Nichi Asakusa Kwannon. 

July 15th Sanno Nagata-cho. 

July 15th Hikaioa Jinja Akasaka. 

September ll-20th Shimmei Matsuri Shiba. 

September 15th Kanda Myojin Kanda. 

October 12-I3th Eshiki (Anniversary- 

of Nichiren's death) Ikegami and Hori-no- 
uchi. 

November 22-28th Ko Mairi Monzeki temple at 

Asakusa. 
November (on Days of the 
Cock, Tori no hi) Tori no Machi Asakusa. 

Temples having monthly festivals are most crowded in January, 
May, and September. Further, the 1st, 15th, and 28th of each month 
are more or less specially observed. 

Akin to the popular festivals {matsuri or ennichi) are the following 
fairs (ic/ti) held at the close of the year for the citizens to make seasonable 
purchases : — 

DATE. NAME OF FAIR. WHERE HELD. 

December 13th Tenm Sama Shinaga wa. 

December 15th Hachiman Fukagawa. 

December 17-18th Kwannon Asakusa. 

December 20-21st Kanda Myojin Kanda. 

December 22-23rd Shimmei Shiba. 

December 23-24th Atago Atago-shita. 

December 25th Tenjin Hirakawa. 

December 27-28th Fado Yagen-bori. 

Jiljutsu practice is to be seen at the Kodo-kwan, Koishikawa, Shimo- 
Tomizaka-cho, No. 18. 

The rite of Walking over Fire {Hi-watari) may be witnessed at the 
temple of Ontake at Kudan, Imagawa-koji, on the 9th April and 17th 
September. The less interesting Ordeal by Boiling Water {Kuga-dachi) 
takes place on the previous day. (Details in Things Japanese, article, 
Fire-icalking .) 



* Sometimes delayed by rainy weather to early August. 



114 



Bonie 4. — Toby 6. 



Flowebs. 

Flum-blossoms ( Ume).—'Kam&ia, 
a station on the railway to Yoko- 
hama ; Kameido Ume-yashiM and 
Kinegawa Ume-yashiM, both close 
to Miikojima, January to beginning 
of March. 

Cherry-blossoriis ( Sakura). — Ueno, 
Mutojima, and Shiba, early in 
April ; Koganei, middle of April. 

Peonies {Botan). — Florists' gar- 
dens at Somei, end of April; Sen- 
kwa-en and Shokwa-en in Azabu ; 
Kamata, near station of same name, 
beginning of May. 

Wistarias {Fitji). — Kameido and 
Kasukabe, near Senju, first week 
in May. 

Azaleas {Tsatsuji). — ^Florists' gar- 
dens at Okubo-miira, early in May. 

Irises {Hana-shdhu). — Horikiri, 
first half of June ; Yoshino-en, at 
Yotsiiki in Honjo, and near Kamata 
station. 

Co-fivolvuli ( Asagao). — Florists' 
gardens at Iriya in Shitaya, end of 
jTily and beginning of Angtist. 

Lotus-Jioicers [Hasu). — Lake Shi- 
nobazu at Ueno, and the Palace 
moats, beginning of August. These 
flowers can only be seen to perfec- 
tion during the morning hours. 

Ghrysardh emu nis ( Kiku ) . — Dan- 
go-za!^ and Asakusa, beginning of 
NoTsmber. 

Maples {Momiji). — Kai-anji at 
Shinagawa, beginning of Novem- 
ber ; Oji, middle of November. 

Principal Places to visit. — Shiba 
and Ueno Parks (tombs of the 
Tokugawa Shoguns in both, the 
former more easily accessible). 
Temple of Kwannon at Asakusa 
and neighbouring Park, Hakubutsu- 
kwan Museum at Ueno, Atago 
Tower for view of the city. Drive 
along the main thoroughfare { Ginza) 
to Nihom-bashi, and round the 
inner moat {KaJca-bori). 

Time to Chief Points by jinrikisha 
with two coolies : 



From Shimbashi terminus to : — 

Imperial Hotel 5 min. 

Tokyo Club 5 „ 

Hotel Metropole 12 „ 

British Embassy 18 ,, 

American Embassy 10 ,. 

German Embassy 15 ., 

Shiba Park 10 „ 

Ueno Park 35 ,, 

Asakusa (Kwannon) 40 „ 

History. — The city is of comparatively 
modern origin. Down to the middle ages, 
most of the ground which it covers wafl 
washed by the sea or occupied by lagoons. 
On the sea-shore stood, in the loth centu- 
ry, the fishing hamlet of Ve-do (" estuary 
gate"), near which a certain warrior, 
named Ota Dokwan, built himself a 
fortress in the year 1456. The advantages 
of the position from a military point of 
view were discerned by Hideyoshi, who 
therefore caused his general, lyeyasu, to 
take pos.session of the castle, and when 
leyasu himself became Shogun in 1603, 
he made Yedo his capital. From that 
time forward Japan thus practically had 
two capitals,— Kyoto in the west, where 
the Mikado dwelt in stately seclusion, 
and Yedo in the east, whence the Shogun 
held sway over the whole land. The 
latter's feudal retainers,— the Daimyos, or 
territorial nobility were obliged to reside 
in Yedo for half of each year. On the 
fall of the Shogunate in 1868, the Mikado 
came and took up his abode in Yedo, and 
soon after the name of the city was 
changed to Tokyo or Tokei, these being 
alternative methods of pronouncing the 
Chinese characters ^ [^ with which the 
name is written. The meaning of the 
term Tokyo is " Eastern Capital." It was 
given in contradistinction to Saikyo, or 
"Western Capital," the name by which 
Kyoto was re-chri«tened. The Emperor's 
palace stands in the centre of the city, 
within a double line of moats, on the site 
once occupied by_the Shogun's castle, 
and earlier still by Ota Dokwan's fortress. 
A whole network of canals, traversing 
the business quarter of the city, connects 
these with the river Sumida. 
Tokyo has been bui-nt down and built 
I up again many times, fires having former- 
ly been as common in this wooden city 
as at Constantinofjle. It has also suffered 
much from earthquakes, especially from 
what is still remembered as the great 
earthquake of 1855. At the present day 
Tokyo covers an immense area, popularly 
estimated at i ri in every direction, in 
other words, 100 square miles. 

The city is divided for administrative 
purposes into fifteen districts {Ku), viz :— 
1, Kojimachi; 2, Kanda ; 3, Nihon-bashl ; 
4, Kyobashi ; 5, Shiba ; 6, Azabu ; 7, Aka- 



History. Shiha Temples. 



115 



saka ; 8, Yotsuya ; 9, Ushigome; 10, Koishi- 
kaM^a ; 11, Hongo ; 12, Shitaya ; 13, Asa- 
kusa ; 14, Honjo ; 15, Fukagawa. The 
principal suburbs are ShinagawaS., Naito 
Shinjiku W., ItabasM N. "W., and Senju 
N. E. 

Since 1869, a great change has taken 
place in the outward appearance of the 
city. Most of the yashiki, or Daimyos' 
mansions, have been pulled down to 
make room for buildings in European 
style, better adapted to modern needs. 
Railways and electric tramways now oc- 
cupy large sections of the outer moat, and 
everywhere overhead is a network of tele- 
graph, telephone, and electric light wires. 
The two-sworded men have disappeared, 
the palanquin has given iilace to the 
jinrikisha, and foreign dress has been 
very generally adopted by the male 
popiilation. But Tokyo is picturesque 
enough, and as seen from any height has 
a tranquil and semi-rural aspect owing to 
the abundance of trees and foliage, — an 
effect increased of late years by the plant- 
ing of numerous avenues of cherry-trees, 
which, early in April, transform the town 
into a garden of blossom. 

A plan of city improvement has been 
adopted, in consequence of which the 
narrower streets of any district burnt 
down are widened, and better sanitary 
arrangements introduced. 

Waterworks completed in 1901, supply 
Tokyo from the river Tamagawa, 24 miles 
distant. 

Owing to the shape and the vast 
extent of the city, it is impossible 
to combine the chief sights in a 
single round. The best plan is to 
take them in groups, according to 
the direction in which they lie. 
The following description proceeds 
on this principle. 



1. — Shiba Pakk. Temples and 
Tombs of the Shoguns. Gkaves 

OF THE FOETY-SEVEN EoNINS (SeN- 
GAKUJl). AtAGO-YAMA. 

Shiba Park {Shiba Koenchi) formed, till 
1877, the grounds of the great Buddhist 
temple of Zojoji, the head-quarters in this 
city of the Jodo sect. Here are still 
preserved the Mortuary Temples {Go Rei- 
ya) of several of the Tokugawa Shoguns ; 
leyasu, the founder of that dynasty and 
of Yedo, having taken Zojoji under his 
special protection, and chosen it as the 
temple where the funeral tablets (ihai) of 
himself and his descendants should be 
enshrined. The temple had been 
originally founded in 1393, but was re- 
moved in 1596 to the present site. The 
partial transfer of the temple to the Shin- 



toists, in 1873, naturally led to friction 
between them and the Buddhists, the 
gravest consequence of which was the 
destruction by fire of the magnificent 
main edifice on the 1st January, 1874. 
It has been replaced by a new building, 
smaller and much less imposing. Onlj- 
the large gate {Sammon) remains just 
as it was built in 1623. This temple, 
which is used for popular worship, must 
not be mistaken for one of the Mortuary 
Temples. 

The following is a list of the Tokugawa 
Shoguns. Those whose names are marked 
with an asterisk are buried at Ueno, at 
the opposite end of Tokyo ; those whose 
names have a dagger prefixed lie at 
Nikko, 100 miles to the N. of Tokyo, and 
the others at Shiba. 

PERSONAr, POSTHUMOUS DIED 

NAME. TITLE. A.D. 

1. fleyasu Toshogu 1616 

2. Hidetada Taitoku-In 1632 

3. tiemitsu ..Taiyu-In 1651 

4. *Ietsuna Genyu-In 1680 

5. *Tsunayoshi J6ken-In 1709 

6. lenobu Bunsho-In 1713 

7. letsugu Yiisho-In 1716 

8. *Yoshimune Yutoku-In 1751 

9. leshige Junshin-In 1761 

10. *Ieharu Shimmei-In .... 1786 

11. *Ienari Bunkyo-In 1841 

12. leyoshi Shintoku-In .... 1853 

13. *Iesada Onkyo-In 1858 

14. lemochi Shotoku-In 1866 

15. Yoshinobu (usually called Rei- 

ki), abdicated in 1868, and is still 
living in retirement at Tokyo. 

The Shiba Temples, which 
count among the chief marvels of 
Japanese art, should, if possible, be 
visited on the forenoon of a fine 
day. Otherwise their situation, 
and the black hoarding which has 
been put up to ward off the attacks 
of the weather, will interfere with 
the full enjoyment of their minutely 
elaborate decorations. They may 
best be taken in the following 
order : — Persons pressed for time 
might limit themselves to an 
inspection of the temple and tomb 
(Octagonal Shrine) of the 2nd Sho- 
gun only (see p. 120). 

A small fee is charged at each of 
the Mortuary Temples for seeing 
the interior, together with the 
tombs. Boots need not be taken 
off, covers being provided for them 
by the custodians. 

The entrance to the Mortuary 
Shrines of letsugu and leshige. 



Shiba Temples. 



vm 



the 7tli and 9th Shoguns, is by a 
gate on the N. side of the enclosure, 
the main gates being permanently 
closed. 

The visitor is led round to the 
})orch of the temple, where, among 
other triumphs of carving, are two 
dragons, called " the Ascending and 
Descending Dragons" [Nohori-ryn 
and Kudari-ryu), which serve as 
beams to connect the temple with 
two pillars outside. And, here be 
it noticed, each of these Mortu.ary 
Temples consists of three parts, — 
an outer oratory {haiden), a connect- 
ing gallery or corridor {ai-no-riia), 
and an inner sanctum {Jionden). In 
each of these one finds oneself in a 
blaze of gold, colours, and elaborate 
arabesques, which, especially if the 
day be fine, dazzle the eye by 
their brilhancy. In feudal times, 
when the Shogun came to worship 
the spirits of his ancestors, he 
alone ascended to the sanctum, 
the greater Daimyos ranged them- 
selves next to him in the corridor 
below, and the lesser nobility oc- 
cupied the oratory. 

On entering the oratory, observe 
the conventional paintings of lions 
on the wall. These are the work of 
Kano Chikanobu. Under the 
baldachin sits, on festival days (12th 
and 13th of each month, when visi- 
tors are not admitted), the abbot ox 
Zojdji, while the priests are ranged 
around at small lacquer tables. 
The lacquer boxes on these tables 
contain scrolls of the Buddhist 
sutras. As we pass through the 
corridor, the side panels of x>ainted 



flowers by the artist just mentioned, 
and the gorgeoiis panelling of the 
ceiling will arrest attention. 

The altar of this temple is sepa- 
rated from the corridor by one of 
those bamboo bhnds bound with 
silk, which, together with a peculiar 
kind of banner, temper the brillian- 
cy of the other decorations. The 
sanctum contains three double- 
roofed shrines of gorgeous gold 
lacquer, x^^cked out with body- 
colour below the eaves, and held 
together by costly and elabo- 
rate metal-M'ork. That to the r. 
contains a wooden image of the 
father of the 6tli Shogun, that in 
the middle an image of the 7th 
Shogun, and that to the 1. one of 
the 9th Shogun, together with the 
funeral tablets of each. The 
images, which are considered sacred 
because presented by Mikados, are 
never shown. On either side of 
each shrine stand wooden statu- 
ettes of the Shi-Tenno, who guard 
the world against the attacks of 
demons. In front are Kwannon 
and Benten. The wall at the back 
is gilt, while the altar and two 
tables in front are of splendid red 
lacquer. In innumerable places 
may be seen the mits'U-aoi or 
three-leaved asarum, which is the 
crest of the Tolaigawa family, and 
the lotus, the Buddhist emblem of 
purity. The altar is protected at 
night by massive gilt gates, orna- 
mented with the family crest and 
conventional flowers. Returning 
to the fiorch, on the way from the 
temple to the tombs, we come to 



Index to Plan of Shiba Temples. 



1. Ni-ten Mon (Gate). ; 9. 

2. Temple of 7th and 9th Shoguns. \ 10. 

3. Tombs of 7th and 9th Shoguns. 11. 

4. Temple of 6th, 12th, and 14th j 12. 

Shoguns. j 13. 

5. Tombs of 6th, 12th, and 14th I 14. 

Shoguns. i 15. 

6. Great Gate {Sammon). 1 16. 

7. Shrine of Five Hundred Eakan. I 17. 

8. Priests' Apartments. [ 18. 



Zojoji. 

Gokoku-den. 

Ten-ei-in. 

Temple of 2nd Shogun. 

Octagonal Hall {Hakkaku-dd). 

Ankoku-den ( Toshogfi). 

Maruyama. 

Pagoda. 

Shrine of Benten. 

Maple Club {Kayd-kwan), 



118 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



the Kara Mon, or Cliinese Grate, 
on. either side of which extends a 
gallery with beautifully painted 
carvings of flowers and birds in the 
panels. Observe the angel on the 
ceiling, the work of Kano Chika- 
nobu. 

[This gate is kept closed, iDreven- 
ting access to the court beyond, 
which is remarliible for a high- 
ly ornamented gate called the 
Choku-gaku Mon, or Gate of the 
Imperial Tablet ; also for being 
lined with bronze lanterns, 
two hundred and twelve in 
all, dating, some from A.D. 
1716, some from 1761, the gift 
of Daimyos as a mark of respect 
to the memory of their deceased 
lord and master, the Shogun. 
Beyond it is another court con- 
taining numerous stone lan- 
terns, and the outer gate called 
JVi-Ten Mon, or Gate of the 
Two Deva Kings.] 

As the guide leads the way to the 
tombs, observe on the eaves the 
carvings of musical instruments, 
lions, dragons, etc. Observe, too, 
the carvings of unicorns {k'lrin) on 
the Oshi-kiri Mon, or Dividing Gate, 
which is now passed through. 
Although the carving is open- 
work, the animals appear different 
according to the side from which 
they are viewed. Thence, through 
a noble court with more bronze 
lanterns, to a stone staircase which 
leads up to the site of the Tombs, — 
that of the 7th Sh5gun to the 1., 
that of the 9th Shdgun to the r. 
Below each tomb is a highly 
decorated oratory. The tombs are 
of stone, in the shape called Jioto 
(treasure shrine), which somewhat 
resembles a jmgoda. They stand 
on an octagonal granite base, with 
stone balustrade. Their simplicity 
contrasts strongly with the lavish 
magnificence of all that goes before. 
As Mitford says in his lales of Old 
Japan, " The sermon may have been 
preached by design, or it may have 



been by accident, but the lesson is 
there." 

The pattern on the black copper 
sheeting round the wall enclosing 
the tomb, is intended to represent 
the waves of the sea. The body is 
said to be buried at a depth of 20 
ft., and to have been coated with 
vermilion and charcoal ix)wder to 
prevent decay. The tomb of the 
9th Sh5gun is a replica of that of 
the 7th. On passing the oratory of 
the 9th Shogun, notice the exquisite 
carvings in high relief of peacocks 
on the panels of the gate. 

Leaving this temple, we regain 
the main or tramway road through 
the park. The front gates of the 
mausolea are on the r., two of which 
are passed before coming to a huge 
bronze statue of Goto Shojiro, one 
of the leaders of the Kestoration of 
1868. Here turning up the wide 
road r. a small side door r., gives 
access to the temple and tombs of 
the 6th, 12th, and 14th Shoguns. 
In arrangement, this temple closely 
resembles the one we have just 
left ; but the gilt is fresher, the 
carvings are closer to nature, and 
the general impression more 
magnificent, a result perhaps 
of the interest taken by the 6th 
Shogun in the j)reparation of his 
own last resting-place. The flowers 
and birds in the sjiaces between 
the cornice and the lintel of the 
oratory are perfect, both in chisel- 
ling and in delicacy of colour. 
The coffered ceiling is a master- 
piece ; and the vista of the altar, 
as one stands under the baldachin, 
reveals an indescribable glory of 
blended gold and colours. The 
panels are by Kano I'asunobu. 
The order of the shrines on the 
altar is, from r. to 1., that of the 12th, 
6th, and 14th Shoguns, the shrine 
of the last containing also the 
funeral tablet of his consort. 

From the Mortuary Temple, a 
flight of steps at the back leads up 
to the tombs of these three Shoguns 
and of the consort of the 14th, who 
was aunt to the present Emperor. 



Shiba Temples. 



119 



Her obseqmes, in 1877, were 
the last performed within these 
precincts. Each tomb has a 
small oratory attached. Tlie fine 
bronze gate of the enclosure of No. 
6, which is the first tomb reached, 
is said to be the work of Korean 
artificers ; but the design was 
l^robably furnished by a Japanese 
draughtsman. The dragons in 
low relief on the r. and 1., both 
inside and out, deserve special 
attention. Next to it is the tomb 
of the 12th Shogun, and beyond it 
again those of the 14th and his 
consort. The tomb of this princess 
is of bronze and marked with the 
Imperial crest, the sixteen-petalled 
chrysanthemum . 

Quitting the grounds of this 
Mortuary Temple we turn down I. 
to the main road, and enter the 
grounds of the Temple of Zojoji by 
the Great G-ate {S(mimon). Notice 
that it is lacquered red, not simply 
jjainted. The upper storey, which 
is reached by a steep staircase, 
contains gilt images of Shaka with 
Fugen and Monju, flanked by large 
coloured statues of the Sixteen 
Eakan. It is open to the pubhc 
only on the 16th January and 
16th July. The grand bell, on the 
r., was saved from the fire. On 
the 1. are the priests' apartments 
[Udjb) and temple offices {Jimusho). 
In front is the main temple of 
Z5j5ji, restored outwardly in the 
plainest style, but spacious within. 
The large gilt image of Amida 
enthroned on the altar is from the 
chisel of the famous Buddhist 
abbot and artist, Eshin. The tem- 
ple possesses many objects of 
artistic and historical interest, but 
they are only occasionally dis- 
played. Just outside, on the r., is 
a stone with the imprint of Bud- 
dha's feet, which are of phenomenal 
size. 

The little temple at the back of 
Zojoji, in the same brilliant style 
of decoration as the Mortuary 
Temples, is called Ookoku-den. It 
contains the Kvro-Honzon, or Black 



Image, — a statuette of Amida by 
Eshin, noteworthy on account of 
the veneration in which it was 
held by leyasu, who used to carry 
it about with him in his campaigns, 
and ascribed his victories to its 
infliience. Admittance to the 
Gokoku-den is gained through the 
priests' house to the 1. The Black 
Image, which is not shown save on 
great occasions, is enclosed in a 
handsome gold reliquary. Another 
reliquary contains small marble 
images of the Sixteen Rakan. 
Notice the curious plate-shaped 
ornaments above the pillars in 
front of the altar, with the Bud- 
dhist gods Shaka, Monju, and 
Fugen, and attendant animals in 
high relief. The bold paintings of 
hawks round the walls recall 
leyasu's fondness for hawking. 
The fine bronze image of Shaka 
outside dates from the year 1763. 

Such unprotected statues are called in 
Japanese by the somewhat Irreverent 
name of " wet sainta" (nure-botoTce). The 
thin sticks inscribed with Sanskrit charac- 
ters which stand behind it, are sotdba 
(see p. 42). 

Coming down from Gokoku-den, 
and leaving the Z5j5ji enclosure by 
an opening to the r., we next reach 
the Mortuary Temple [Ten-el-in) at- 
tsiched to the tombs of the consorts 
of the 2nd, 6th, nth, and I2th 
Shoguns. Admittance is by the 
priests' house to the 1. Though 
the oratory is i>lainer than those 
already described, the altar is by 
no means less splendid. Gilded 
gates, gilded panelling, huge 
gilded pillars, — everything sparkles 
with gold, while the shrines on the 
altar are the finest specimens ex- 
tant of a pecLiliar kind of lacquer 
adorned with metal work. Their 
order is, from r. to 1., the consorts 
of the 12th, 6th, 2nd, and 11th 
Shoguns, while in the extreme 1. 
corner is that of the concubine of 
the 5th. The coffered ceiling, deco- 
rated with the phoenix in various 
colours, is specially admired. 



120 



Route 4t. — Tohyo. 



From this temple, we pass into 
the coui-t of that attached to the 
tomb of the 2nd Shogun, — entrance 
through the priests' house to the 
r. The sanctum is a grand ex- 
ample of Japanese religious ar- 
chitecture. Two huge gilded pillars 
called daijin-bashira, r. and 1. of 
the altar, support the lofty vaulted 
roof, curiously constructed of a net- 
work of beams. The upper part of 
the walls is decorated with large 
carved medalHons of birds in high 
relief, richly painted and gilt. The 
shrine is of fine gold lacquer, over 
two and a half centuries old, and 
the tables in front also deserve 
inspection. The bronze incense- 
burner in the form of a lion dates 
from 1635. leyasu's war-drum rests 
on a large ornamental stand. The 
coffers in the ceilings are filled with 
fretwork over lacquer. 

A short wall?: among the lofty 
trees behind to the 1. leads up to 
the Hakkakv.-dd, or Octagonal Hail, 
containing the tomb of the 2nd 
8h5gun, which is the largest speci- 
men of gold lacquer in the world 
and one of the most magnificent. 
Parts of it are inlaid with enamel 
and crystals. The scenes on the 
upper half represent the "Eight 
Views " of Siao-Siang in China and 
of Lake Biwa in Japan, while the 
lower half is adorned with the lion 
and peony,— the king of beasts and 
the king of fiowers. The base is of 
stone shaped like a lotus-flower. 
The shrine contains only an efiigy 
of the Shogun and his funeral 
tablet, the actual body being be- 
neath the pavement. The interior 
walls of the hall are of lacquer 
gilded over. Eight pillars covered 
with gilt copper plates support the 
roof. 

Outside this building are two 
curiously carved stones, dating 
from 1644. The subject of one is 
"Shaka's Entry into Nirvana," and 
of the other the " Five-and-Twenty 
Bosatsu" coming with Amida to 
welcome the departed soul. The 
oratory in front of the Octagonal 



Hall contains nothing worthy of 
special notice. 

Descending again to the Mortu- 
ary Temple, and turning r., the 
visitor can either rejoin the main 
road and enter by the large gate, or 
walk direct for a hundred yards 
under the trees, to the temple of 
Ankoku-den. Here, on the 17th of 
every month, a jpopular festival is 
held in honour of the Shogun 
leyasu, who is worshipped as a 
Shint5 deity under the name of 
Toshogu. Constructed when Bud- 
dhism was dominant, this temple is 
architecturally as highly ornament- 
ed as the rest, the present su- 
premacy of the Shinto cult being 
indicated only by the paper symbols 
igohei) in the oratory, which also 
contains a large bronze mirror and 
two gilt ama-inu. The sanctum 
(admittance through the Shamusho, 
or temple ofifice, to the r.) stands 
behind, in a sejDarate enclosure. 
The coffered ceiling is very fine, as 
are the hawks and birds of paradise 
on a gold ground in the panels 
round the interior. Particularly ex- 
cellent is a painting by Kano Hogen 
at the back of the altar, represent- 
ing Shaka attended by Monju and 
Fugen. The shrine is about 4 ft. 
high, with an elaborate cornice of 
three rows of brackets ; and its 
walls are of splendid gold lacquer 
with raised designs. In front, on 
the door-panels, are eight small 
landscajDes, with dragons descend- 
ing through the clouds on either 
hand. At the sides are boldly 
designed groups of the j^ine and 
bamboo. Inside is a life-like wooden 
effigy of leyasu, which can be seen 
only on the 17th day of the month. 

A visit to Shiba may be termi- 
nated by walking xip Maruyama, 
the little hill at the back, which 
commands a view of the bay. Close 
to the Pagoda, which is not o]3en 
to the i)ublic, stands a monument 
erected in 1890 to the memory of 
Ino Chtikei, the father of Japanese 
cartography, who flourished in the 
18th century. 



Forty-seven Ronins. Atago-yama. 



121 



The mound on which this monument 
etanda haa been discovered by Prof. 
Tsuboi to be an artificial tumulus {tsuka) 
of the gourd-shape used for Imperial 
interments over a thousand years ago ; 
and there are two smaller tumuli close 
by. The larger was probably the burial- 
place of some prince, as a branch of the 
reigning family settled in Eastern Japan 
in very early times. 

Tlience one descencls to the little 
Temple of Benten, i^rettily situated 
on an islet in a pond OTergrown 
with lotuses. Further back in the 
wood stands the Kdyd-kwan, or 
Maple Club, where dinners and 
beautiful dances in native style are 
given. 

Shiba is seen to best advantage 
in early April, when the cherry-trees 
are in blossom. 

About 1 mile from the Shiba tem- 
ples, in the direction of Shinagawa, 
stands the Buddhist temple of 
SengaMji, where the Forty-seven 
Ronins {Shi-ju-shichi Shi) lie 
buried. 

For their dramatic story, see Things 
Japanese. A more minute account is 
given in Mitford'a Tales of Old Japan. 

Just within the gate is a two- 
storied building called Eanranjb, 
where swords, armour, and other 
rehcs of these heroes are shown 
on payment of a small fee. The 
well {Kuhl-aral ido), where the 
Rdnins washed the head of the 
foe on whom they had taken ven- 
geance, still exists by the side of 
the path leading to the tombs, 
which are ranged on the r. side of 
a small square court. That in the 
further corner is the grave of Oishi 
Kuranosuke, the leader of the 
faithful band ; the monument next 
to his, on the other side of the 
stone fence, marks the grave of the 
lord for whose sake he and his 
comrades sacrificed their lives. 
The popular reverence for these 
heroes is attested by the incense 
perpetually kept burning before 
Oishi's grave, and by the visiting 



cards continually left there. Paint- 
ed statuettes of the Eonins are 
exhibited in a building below. 

On the way back, one may obtain 
a good view of the city by going 
up Atarjo-yama, a small hill a short 
way to the N. of Shiba Park, named 
after the higher Mount Atago at 
Kyoto. {Atago is iDroperly the name 
of a divinity ; see p. 43.) Atago- 
yama, like many other such places 
in Japan, has two flights of steps 
leading up it, one of which, called 
" the men's staircase " {otoko-zaka), 
is straight and steep, while the 
other, or " women's staircase " 
{onna-zaka), is circuitous but less 
fatiguing. A tower has been erec- 
ted on Atago-yama, which visitors 
pay a trifling fee to ascend. The 
view includes Fuji, the Hakone 
range, Oyama, Mitake, Tsukuba, 
and the provinces beyond Tol^o 
Bay with Ivano-zan and Nokogiri- 
yama. 



2. — Akasaka and Azabu. 

Akasaka and Azabu are the 

highest and healthiest districts of 
Tolcyo, but contain little to interest 
the tourist. In a jDart of Akasaka 
called Aoyama, is situated the 
palace occupied for many years by 
the Crown Prince. It is not open 
to the public ; but the Mite of 
T5ky6 society is invited there once 
yearly to a garden party given in 
November, on the occasion of what 
is perhaps the most wonderful 
chrysanthemum show in the world. 
Closely adjoining it, is a large 
Parade Ground {Eempei-ba), v/here 
the annual review on the Emperor's 
birthday (3rd November) is held. 
A little further to the S. lies the 
Aoyama Cemetery, part of which has 
been reserved for the interment of 
foreigners. 

To the W. of Azabu, in the suburb 
of Shibuya, stands the Eed Cross 
Hospital {Seki-juji-sha Bybin), an 
admirably organized institution. 



192 



Route 4:.-^ Tokyo. 



3.— Chief BuiXDrs'QS in Koji- 
MACHi. The Diet. Sanno. 
Sh5konsha. 

On the S. side of Hibiga Park 
stand the wooden biiildings of the 
Imperial Diet. Just beyond 
them on the r. (lining the W, side 
of the Park) are the extensive brick 
edifices belonging to the Naval 
Department, the Judicial Depart- 
ment, and the Courts of Justice. 
To the extreme 1., above an em- 
bankment, will be seen the large 
brick buildings completed in 1877 
for the College of Engineering, the 
earhest scientific academy es- 
tablished in Japan, and presided 
over by British professors. They 
are now used as girls' schools. 

Crossing the wide road, we pass, 
1. the Eussian Embassy, r. the 
Foreign Office [Girainmshd), and at 
the top of the ascent the Chinese 
Legation. Behind this, on a prettily 
wooded eminence, stands the Shinto 
Temple of Sanno, officially styled 
Hie Jinja. Dating in its present 
form from 1654, it was adopted by 
the Shoguns of the Tokugawa 
dynasty as their tutelary shrine. 
All the buildings, except the main 
temple, are falling into decay. 
Each of the inner compartments of 
the large gate contains a seated 
image of a monkey ornamented 
with a bib, that animal being re- 
garded as the servant of the divinity 
of Hie, for which reason monkeys 
also figure on the altar. 

This neighbourhood, of which 
the chief jmrt is called Kagata- 
cho, is the most fashionable in 
T5ky6. Here stand the palaces of 
Princes Kita-Shirakawa and Arisu- 
gawa, and the residences of many 
high ofiicials and foreign diplomats. 
Hence, in local parlance, it is some- 
times nicknamed Da'imyb Kdji, or 
the Nobles' Quarter. Below Prince 
Kita-Shirakawa's Palace lies the 
Kioi-chb Koenchl, a garden j^lanted 
with azaleas and containing a 
huge monolith commemorative of 
Okubo Toshimichi, one of the 



founders of the new order of things 
in Japan, who was assassinated 
near this spot in 1878. On the flat 
top of the Kudan hill, a short way 
beyond the British Embassy, stands 
the Shinto temple of Yasukuni 
Jinja, also known as ShoJconsha, 
or Spirit-InvoMng Shrine. 

The Honden, or Main Shrine, of this 
temple, built in accordance with the 
Beverest canons of pure Shinto architec- 
ture, was erected in 1869 for the worship 
of the spirits of those who had fallen 
fighting for the Mikado's cause in the 
revolutionary war of the previous year. 
The Haiden was added -in 1901. Services 
are also held in honour of those who fell 
in the Saga troubles of 1873, the Satsuma 
rebellion of 1877, and subsequent foreign 
wars. 



The principal memorial services 
take place on the 6-8th May and 
6-8th November, when wrestling 
and other ix)pukr amusements 
enliven the occasion. The enor- 
moiis bronze torii was set up in 
December, 1887. 

The grounds behind the temxjle 
have been tastefully laid out, and 
look their best in early spring when 
the plum and cherry-trees are in 
blossom. 

The brick building to the r. of 
the temple is the Yilshu-kwan, a 
Museum of Arms, which is open 
from 8 a.:m. till .5 p.m. in summer, 
and from 9 to 3 in winter. It well 
deserves a visit, for the sake of 
the magnificent specimens of old 
Japanese swords and scabbards 
which it contains, as well as ar- 
mour, old Korean bronze cannon, 
trophies of the China war of 1894-5, 
the war with Kussia, (1904-5) etc. 
The 28 centimetre gim outside was 
manufactured at the Osalca arsenal, 
and used at the siege of Port 
Arthur for the destruction of the 
Eussian shij)s ; the broken 23 
centimetre gun was taken after 
the capitulation. The numerous 
portraits of modern military men 
are depressing specimens of the 
painter's handicraft ; but a series 
of large coloured photographs of 



Yasukuni Jinja. Imperial Palace. 



123 



scenes in the war with Russia morit 
all praise. 

TTie granite lanterns around the 
wide enclosure, outside the temple 
grounds, were presented by the 
nobility in 1878. The large bronze 
statue of Omura Hyobu Tayii, a 
distinguished patriot in the war 
that restored the IVIikado to power, 
was erected in 1882, and is remark- 
able as the first Japanese example 
of this method of commemorating 
departed worth. Near by, but 
beyond this enclosure, overlooldng 
the moat, is a statue to another 
eminent soldier, of later times, 
General Kawakami. Close to it 
stands a monument in the shape of 
a bayonet, erected by the soldiers 
of the Imj^erial Guard, in me- 
mory of their comrades who fell 
fighting on the loyalist side in the 
Ratsuma rebellion. This jjoint 
overlooks the city in the direction 
of Ueno. The prominent edifice on 
the bluff opposite [Suruga-dai) is 
the Bussian Cathedral, consecrated 
in 1891. To the citizens of T5ky6 
it is familiarly known as Nikorai, 
from Bishop Nicolai, who built it. 
The ancient stone beacon, on the 
opposite side of the road, formerly 
lighted junks on their way up Yedo 
Bay. 

At the foot of Kudan-zaka stands 
the Temple of Ontake, where the 
curious ceremonies of " Ordeal by 
Boiling Water " and " Walking over 
Fire " are held on the 8-9th Ain-il 
and 16-17th September. For de- 
tails, see Things Japanese, article 
Fire-iixtJklng. 



4. — K5JIMACHI (continued). The 
Inneb Moat. The Impeeiai. 
Palace. Insatstj Kyoku. 

Another and more direct way 
from the hotels (and passing by the 
British Embassy), to the Shokonsha 
at Kudan, is to take the broad road 
by the Palace moat on the N. side 
of Hibiya Park. Proceeding along 
it, and passing r. the second of the 



gates {Sakurada Oo Mon) leading 
to the Palace, we notice, on an 
eminence 1., the General Staff Office. 

Tlie moat here, with its green 
banks and spreading trees, and in 
winter the numerous wild-fowl 
fluttering in the water, is one of 
the prettiest bits of Tokyo. The 
vast enclosure of the Imperial 
Palace lies beyond. 

The Imperial Palace. The 
new Palace, inhabited by the Em- 
peror and Empress since 1889, is not 
accessible to the public, only those 
who are honoured with an Imperial 
Audience being admitted within its 
walls. Nevertheless, the following 
descrij)tion, abridged from the 
Japan Mail, may be of interest : — 
Entering through long corridors 
isolated by massive iron doors, we 
find ourselves in the smaller of two 
reception rooms, and at the com- 
mencement of what seems an 
endless vista of crystal chambers. 
This effect is due to the fact that the 
shbji, or sliding doors, are of plate- 
glass. The workmanship and de- 
coration of these chambers are truly 
exquisite. It need scarcely be said 
that the woods employed are of the 
choicest description, and that the 
cariDenters and joiners have done 
their part \^•ith such skill as only 
Japanese artisans seem to possess. 
Each ceiling is a work of art, 
being divided by lacquer ribs of a 
deep brown colour into numerous 
panels, each of which contains a 
beautifully executed decorative de- 
sign, f)ainted, embroidered, or em- 
bossecl. The walls are covered in 
most cases with rich but chaste 
brocades, except in the corridors, 
where a thick, embossed paper of 
charming tint and pattern shows 
what skill has been developed in 
this class of manufacture at the 
Imperial Printing Bureau. Amid 
this luxury of well-assorted but 
warm tints, remain the massive 
square x)Osts, — beautiful enough in 
themselves, but scarcely harmo- 
nising with their environment, and 
introducing an incongruous ele- 



124 



Route 4:.— Tokyo. 



ment into the building. The true 
type of what may be called Imperial 
esthetic decoration was essentially 
marked by refined simplicity, — 
white wooden joinery, vdth pale 
neutral tints and mellow gilding. 
The splendoiu- of richly painted 
ceilings, lacquered lattice-work, and 
brocaded walls was reserved for 
Buddhist temples and mausolea. 
Thus we have the Shinto, or true 
Imperial style, presenting itseK in 
the severely colourless pillars, while 
the resources of Buddhist architec- 
ture have been drawn upon for the 
rest of the decoration. In one part 
of the building the severest canons 
have been strictly followed : the six 
Imperial Studies, three below stairs 
and three above, are precisely such 
chaste and pure apartments as a 
scholar would choose for the abode 
of learning. By way of an example 
in the other direction, we may take 
the Banqueting Hall,— a room of 
magnificent size (540 sq. yds.) and 
noble proiX)rtions, its immense ex- 
panse of ceiling glowing with gold 
and colours, and its broad walls 
hung ^v-ith the costliest silks. The 
Throne Chamber is scarcely less 
striking, though of smaller dimen- 
sions and more subdued decoration. 
Every detail of the work shows in- 
finite painstaking, and is redolent 
of artistic instinct. A magnificent 
piece of tapestry hangs in one of 
the reception rooms. It is 40 ft. 
by 13 ft., woven in one piece by 
Kawashima of Kyoto. The weav- 
ing is of the kind known as 
tsuzuri-ori, so called because each 
part of the design is seimrated from 
the body of the stufE by a border 
of pin-points, so that the whole 
pattern seems suspended in the 
material. The subject represented 
is an Imperial procession in feudal 
Japan, and the designer has suc- 
ceeded in grouping an immense 
number of figures ^^^th admirable 
taste and slall. The colours are 
rich and harmonious, and the 
whole forms probably one of the 
finest pieces of tapestry in existence. 



The furniture of the palace was 
imix)rted from Germany. Exter- 
nally the principal buildings are 
all in pure Japanese style. 

The unpretentious brick and 
plaster structure to be seen from 
the E. side, rising above the moat 
in the palace enclosure, contains 
the offices of the Imperial House- 
hold Department. The bronze 
i equestrian statue, occupying the 
j S.E. corner of the wide open space 
I opposite the Nijti-bashi Bridge and 
{ representing the loyalist warrior, 
I Kusunoki Masashige (see p. 79), was 
j erected in 1900. — On leaving this 
I space and crossing the moat, we 
I come to another wide extent of 
I ground called Mani-no-ucM, for- 
I merly occupied by Daimyos' 
mansions, and now gradually being 
covered with the ofiices of various 
jrablic companies. 

Not far off, in an E. direction, 
is the Insatsu Kyoku, or Govern- 
ment Printing Office, a large and 
well-organized establishment, to 
the inspection of which a day may 
be profitably devoted, as its scope 
is very wide, including much be- 
sides mere printing. Here, among 
other things, is manufactured the 
paper currency of the country. 
The Ministries of Finance, of Edii- 
cation, and of the Interior, together 
with various other Government 
ofiices, are in the same neighbour- 
hood. 

5. — GiNZA. SUITENGU. NlHOM- 

BASHi. CuEio Street. Seido. 

! liANDA My5jIN. iMPEEIAIi UnI- 

VEESITY. DaXGO-ZAKA. 0-GWAN- 

NON. Botanical Gaeden. Koi- 

SHIKAWA AeSENAL AND GaEDEN. 
GOKOKUJI. 

The most imjoortant thorough- 
fare in Tokyo, which none should 
fail to see, leads from the Shimbashi 
terminus to Yorozuyo-bashi and 
Ueno. The portion of it lying 
nearest to the station is called the 
Ginza, and has a number of shops 



Seido. Kanda Myojin. Imperial University. 



125 



in European style. Proceeding 
along it, tlie traveller crosses the 
Kyobashi and Niliom-baslii bridges, 
from the latter of which all dis- 
tances in Eastern Japan are cal- 
culated. The General Post-OflQce 
stands close by. Parallel to the 
portion of the main thoroughfare be- 
tween these bridges is Naka-dori, 
a street attractive on account of 
its second-hand curio shops, and 
hence commonly known as Curio 
Street among the foreign residents. 
Nihom-hashi has also given its name 
to the surrounding large and busy 
district, which is filled with shops, 
market-places, and godowns. The 
great fish-market is a notable sight 
in the early hours of the morning. 

Another sight (chiefly on the 5th 
day of the month, but also on the 
1st and J5tli) is afforded by the 
concourse of worshippers at the 
Temple of Suitengil, in Kakigara-cho. 

Notice the brass cylinders hung to 
metal pillars in the grounds, and used by 
the inquisitive for reading their own for- 
tunes {mi kuji). These cylinders contain 
brass slips with such inscriptions in Chi- 
nese characters as "very lucky." "half 
lucky," "unlucky," etc. For the deity 
here worshipped, see p. 54. 

Just beyond Yorozuyo-hashi to the 
1. stands Seido, — the " Sage's Hall," 
or Temple of Confucius, formerly a 
University of Chinese learning, now 
used as an Educational Museum. 
It is pleasantly situated on rising 
ground in the midst of a grove of 
trees, among which the fragrant 
mokusei is most conspicuous. The 
buildings, which date from 1691, are 
fine specimens of the Chinese style 
of architecture. The main hall 
facing the entrance is supported on 
black lacquered pillars, the ceiling 
also is of black lacquer, while the 
floor is of finely chiselled square 
blocks of stone. Opposite the door 
is enshrined a painted wooden image 
of Confucius, ]X>ssessing consider- 
able merit as a work of art. He is 
flanked by other Chinese sages : 1. 
Mencius and Chwang Tzu, r. Ganshi 
and Shishi. 



Just above, in the same grounds, 
stands the Middle School attached 
to the Higher Normal School, while 
adjoining it is the Female Higher 

Normal School. 

Behind the Seido, is the Pyobu 
Shinto temple of Kanda Myojin, 
dedicated to the god Onamuji and 
to Masakado, a celebrated rebel of 
the 10th century (see p. 79). 

After the linal overthrow of Ma.sakado, 
his ghost used to haunt the neighbour- 
hood. In order to lay this spectre, apo- 
theosis was resorted to in the 13th cen- 
tury. The temple, for which a hoary 
antiquity is claimed, but which was only 
established on its present site in 1616, has 
been frequently burnt down and rebuilt 
since that time. 

The temple, originally decorated 
with paintings by artists of the 
Kano school, has now grown dingy, 
but is still popular with the multi- 
tude. The chief festival, celebrated 
on the 15th September, is well worth 
seeing. 

Entering the main street of the 
district of Kanda, one of the chief 
arteries of the northern portion of 
the metropolis, Ave come r. to the 
extensive buildings of the Imperi- 
al University ( Teikoku Daigaku), 
standing in the grounds of the 
former mansion of the great Daimyo 
of Kaga. 

The germ of this institution was the 
Bansho Shirahe-jo or "Place for the Ex- 
amination of Barbarian Writings," found- 
ed by the Tokugawa Government in 1856. 
Seven years later, this name was altered 
to that of Kaisei-jo, or " Place for Develop- 
ing and Completing," which indicated a 
change for the better in the views held 
by the Japanese as to the value of Euro- 
pean learning. Numerous other modi- 
fications have taken place both in the 
name and scope of the institution, which 
since 1881 has been placed on a thorough- 
ly modern footing, and now includes 
colleges of Law, Medicine, Engineering, 
Literature, Science, and Agriculture, 
where lectures are delivered by a large 
staff of jirofessors of various nationalities 
and in various languages. The students 
number over 5,000. The courses that 
attract most students are those of Law, 
Medicine, and Engineering. A large 



126 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



hospital connected with the University 
stands in the same grounds. Other 
institutions under the authority of the 
President are the Botanical Garden in 
the district of Koishika-wa and the 
Tokyo Observatory at ligura. 



Further on, to tlie N.E. are tlie 
florists' gardens of Dango-zaka, 
whither the towns-folk resort in 
thousands to see the chrysanthemum 
shows in Xovember. The flowers 
are trained over treUis-work to 
represent historical and mythologic- 
al scenes, ships, dragons, and other 
curious objects. 

The O-Gicannon, or Great Kwan- 
non, may be worth a passing 
visit. The gilt image, which is 
16 ft. high, was an offering made in 
the 17th centiiry by a merchant of 
Yedo, and represents the goddess 
bending slightly forAvard, and hold- 
ing in her hand the lotus, the em- 
blem of purity. Eound the walls 
of the shrine containing the image, 
are ranged in tiers the Sen-tai 
Kicaivion, or images of the Thou- 
sand Incarnations of KAvannon. 

Tlie Koishikawa Botanical 
Garden (Shoku-hutsu-en) is open to 
the public, and duplicate specimens 
of the plants may be purchased at 
the office. 

The Koishikawa Arsenal {Ild- 
hei Kosho) occupies the site of the 
former mansion of the Prince of 
Mito. An order from the military 
authorities is necessary to gain 
admittance. An order is also neces- 
sary for the Garden {Koralm-en), 
M-hich still remains intact, and is 
the finest specimen of the Japanese 
landscajDe gardener's art to be seen 
in the capital. 



The object of its designer was to 
reproduce in miniature many of the 
scenes whose names are classic among 
the literati of Japan. Prince Mitsukuni, 
generally known as I\Iito Komon, laid out 
the grounds aa a place in which to enjoy 
a calm old age after a life of labour. 
If the visitor has first inspected the 
Ai'senal, he will then be conducted to a 
eummer-house in the garden, with an 
extensive grass-plot attached, and over- 



j looking a lake copied from a noted one 
I in China, called Sei-ko. A small wooded 
j hill rises beyond, which we ascend, and 
on which stands a miniature replica of 
the famous temple of Kiyomizu at Kyoto, 
enriched with carvings, but worn by 
time. Descending, we are plunged for 
a minute in the depths of a wood before 
reaching an old bridge with a rivulet 
running far below. On crossing the 
bridge a zigzag path leads to the shrine 
of Haku-i and Shiku-sei, the loyal 
brothers of Chinese tradition, who, after 
the overthrow of their lord and master, 
refused to eat the grain produced under 
the conqueror's sway, and, secluding 
themselves on Mount Shi;y6, lived on 
ferns till, being told that ferns grew also 
on their enemy's lands, they abstained 
even from that poor food, and so died 
of starvation. An arched stone bridge 
and another shrine, shaped octagonally 
in allusion to the Eight Diagrams of the 
Chinese system of divination, are next 
j passed. From here, a tunnel-like opening 
leads through a thicket of creepers and 
other trees to a lake several acres in 
extent and full of lotuses. The water, 
which comes from the Tamagawa aque- 
duct, is made to form a pretty cascade 
before falling into the lake. An island 
in the centre is connected with the main- 
land by a bridge. Everywhere there are 
magnificent trees, — cherry-trees for the 
spring, maples for the autumn, plum- 
trees for the winter, making a change of 
scene at each season. "Near the exit, is 
a hill with a path paved in such manner 
as to imitate the road over the Hakone 
Pass. 



On the extreme N.W. outskirts of 
the city stands the Buddhist tem- 
ple of Gokokuji, now used as the 
head-quarters of the Shingon sect, 
which has a seminary for young 
priests. AVith its extensive grounds, 
its silent belfry, and the perfect 
stillness of its siUTOundings, it 
recalls the memory of days now 
irrevocably past, when Buddhism 
was a mighty power in the land. 
The azaleas here are noted for their 
beauty. The chief treasure of the 
temple is a gigantic kakemono of 
Buddha's Entry into Nirvana, by 
Ivano Yasunobu, which is shown 
only during the month of April. 

Adjoining Gokolmji is the new 
Ckmetery of the Imperial family, 
selected since the removal of the 
Court to Tokyo. It is not oi^en 
to the public. 



Ueno Park. 



127 



6. — Ueno Pabk, Temples, and 
Museum. Asakuba. Higashi 
HoNGWANJi. Temple of Kwan- 
NON. Mukojima. Hokikiri. 

Ueno Park, famed for its 
Temples ami Tombs of the Shoguns, 
is the most popular resort in the 
metropolis. Here, in April, all 
Tdkyo assembles to admire the 
wonderful mass of cherry-blossom 
for which it is famous. No traveller 
should miss this opportunity of 
witnessing a scene charming alike 
for natural beauty and picturesque 
gaiety. 

The iinportauce of Ueno, which lies 
due N.E. of the palace, had its origin in 
a wide-spread superstition, which regards 
that quarter as the most unlucky of all 
the points of the compass, and brands it 
with the name of Ki-mon, or the Demon's 
Gate. When, therefore, some progress 
had been made in the construction of 
the city of Yedo, the Rhogun lemitsu, 
in the year 1625, determined to erect 
here a set of Buddhist temples, which, 
eclipsing all others in splendour, should 
ward off the approach of evil influ- 
ences. The original main temple 
{Kioan-ei-ji) then founded occupied the 
site of the present Museum, but was 
burnt down in 1863 on the occasion of a 
fierce battle fought between the partisans 
of the Shogunate and those of the new 
r6gime. In this temple always resided 
as high-priest a son of the reigning 
Mikado, retained in gilded slavery tor 
political reasons, as it was convenient for 
the Shogims to have in their power a 
prince who could at once be decorated 
with the Imi^erial title, should the Court 
of Kyoto at any time prove refractory. 
The last high-priest of Ueno was actually 
utilised in this manner by the Shogun's 
partisans, and carried off by them to 
Aizu in 1868, when they raised the stand- 
ard of rebellion. On the Europeauisa- 
tion of the country he was known as 
Prince Kita-Shirakawa, and died com- 
manding an army in Formosa in the vear 
I 1895. 

Leaving his jinrikisha at the 
bottom of the hill, the traveller 
ascends r. a short liight of steps, 
leading to a plateau planted with 
cherry-trees and commanding a 
good view of the city, especially 
towards Asakusa, including the 
\ twelve-storied tower which is seen 
rising beyond the Ueno railway 



station, and the high roof of the 
great Hongwanji temple. The 
bronze statue of Saig5 Takamori 
(see p. 82) was erected in 1899. 
The stone monument close by is 
dedicated to the soldiers who fell 
fighting for the Shdgun's cause in 
the battle of Ueno. To the 1., is a 
dingy Buddhist temple sacred to 
the Thousand-handed Kwannon. 

Descending again to the main 
road, we reach the celebrated 
Avenue of cherry-trees, a uniquely 
beautiful sight during the brief 
season of blossom, when the air 
seems to be filled with pink clouds. 
To the 1. lies a shallow piece of 
water, called Sh'mohazu no Ike, 
celebrated for its lotus-flowers in 
August. On a little peninsula 
jutting out into the lake, is a shrine 
sacred to the goddess Benten. 
This pretty spot fell a victim to 
vandalism, when the shores of 
the lake were turned into a race- 
course. A little further up is the 
Seiybken Hestaurant, which com- 
mands a good view. The extensive 
buildings seen in the distance, on 
a height, are the Imperial Univer- 
sity and the First Higher School. 
Close to the restaurant is a bronze 
image of Buddha, 21| ft. high, 
known as the Daihutsu. This 
inferior specimen of the bronze- 
worker's art dates from about the 
year 1660. The turning to the 1. 
of the Buddha leads to a massive 
torii. Along the avenue of stately 
cryptomerias stand an ancient pa- 
godii and an elaborately decorated 
gate at the end of a long row of 
stone lanterns, presented in 1651 by 
various Daimyds as a tribute to the 
memory of the Sh5gun leyasu. To 
this Shdgun, under his posthumous 
name of Toshogu or Gongen Sama, 
the shrine within is dedicated. 
The gate itself, restored in 1890, is 
already tarnished by exposure to 
the elements. Carvings of dragons 
adorn it on either side ; above are 
geometrical figures, birds, foliage, 
and everywhere the Tokugawa crest 
of three asarum leaves. The temple 



128 



Eoute 4. — Tokyo. 



contains some fine specimens of lac- 
quer. Eound the walls hang pic- 
tures of the San-jil-rok-Jca-sen (see 
p. 82), below which are screens with 
conventional lions. 

Kegaining the main road, we 
come to some exhibition buildings, 
and immediately behind them the 
Ueno Museum ( Ueno Hakuhutsu- 
kican). This institution, which is 
open daily from 8 to 5 in summer, 
and from 9 to 4 in winter, with the 
exception of the ten days from the 
25th December to the 4:th January, 
well merits a yisit. But no details 
of the arrangement of the contents 
can here be given, as, for some un- 
explained reason, it is perpetually 
altered. 

Notice in the Natural History 
Department the cocks from Tosa 
Avith tails lU ft. long. 

The Historical and Arckceologlcal 
Departments offer special interest. 
Here are to be seen stone arrow- 
heads, spear-heads, and pottery of 
the prehistoric period ; proto-historic 
copper bells and mirrors, iron 
swords, armour, horse-trapi)ings, 
shoes, and cooking utensils. Be- 
sides the above, notice also the 
pottery anciently employed for the 
presentation of offerings to the 
Shinto gods. Some pieces from 
the provinces on the N.E. shore of 
the Inland Sea are remarkably 
ornamented with human figures in 
high rehef. Particularly curious 
are the earthenware images of men 
and horses used in proto-historic 
times for interment in the graves 
of illustrious personages, after the 
custom of burying their chief 
retainers alive with them had been 
discontinued, the figures of birds — 
apparently geese — which were used 
as a fence round the tumulus of 
the Emperor Ojin in the province 
of Kawachi, and fragments of 
earthenware posts put to a similar 
purpose. 

The most characteristically pre- 
historic Japanese specimens are the 
marja-tama and kuda-tama in jasper, 
agate, and other materials. 



The maga-tama, or "curved jewels," 
which Bomewhat resemble a tadpole in 
shape, were anciently (say, prior to the 
7th century) strung together and used aa 
necklaces and ornaments for the waist 
both by men and women. a9 were also 
the Kuda-tama, or " tube-shaped jewels." 
Their use survived in the Luchu Islands 
till a much more recent date. 

There are also shown objects 
illustrating the manners and cus- 
toms of the Chinese, Koreans, 
Australian aborigines, natives of 
India, American Indians, and 
Siberian tribes, and others illustrat- 
ing Japan's semi-foreign dependen- 
cies, — Formosa, Yezo, and Luchu. 

Some Christian relics will special- 
ly interest the European visitor. 
They include the fumiita, or 
" trampling boards " — oblong blocks 
of metal with figures in high 
relief of Christ before Pilate, the 
Descent from the Cross, the Virgin 
and Child, etc., on which persons 
suspected of the crime of Chris- 
tianity were made to trample during 
times of persecution, in order to 
testify their abjuration of the 
" Depraved Sect," as it was called. 
The Dutch traders at Nagasaki are 
suspected of having lent themselves 
to this infamous jjractice for the 
sake of pecuniary gain. One of the 
old kosatsu, or public notice boards 
prohibiting Christianity, is also 
here exhibited. 

Observe, furthermore, the Imperi- 
al state bullock cart and palanquins 
and the model of the Tenchi Mara, 
or Ship of Heaven and Earth, which 
was the state barge used by the 
Shoguns. 

The stiff flowers and geometrical pat- 
terns of the Imperial bullock cart exem- 
plify a feature often noticed in early 
Japanese ornamentation, when art was 
still in Chinese leading-strings, and had 
not yet gained the freedom, together with 
the happy use of irregularity, character- 
j istic of later days. 

I Examine also the fac-similes of 
objects from the famous temple 
store-houses of Nara and Horytiji, 
over twelve hundred years old to- 
gether -^ith the temple furniture, 



Ueno Museum and Temples. 



129 



seals, tokko, rosaries, etc., old boxes, 
images, and other objects, the most 
interesting to the antiquarian being 
the specimens of the miniatiu-e 
pagodas {hachiman-to), of which, in 
A.D. 764, the reigning Mikado 
caused a million to be made for 
distribution throughout the land. 

The Art Industry Department, 
contains lacquer, porcelain, bronze, 
etc., — a large collection of articles 
of rare beauty. 

A building to the 1., now in course 
of construction is intended to house 
the Fine Art Department, which 
includes a beautiful collection of 
kakemonos and screens, besides less 
successful pictures in European 
style. 

On quitting the Museum, an 
avenue r. leads to a Public Library 
and Beading Eoom {Tosho-kwan), 
the largest in the empire, to the 1. 
of which is an Art School {Bijutsu 
Gakko), not accessible without a 
special introduction. Close by are 
the Zoological Gardens {Dbhutsu-en). 

After passing the Tosho-kwan, an 
avenue turns oif r. to the 

Tombs of the Shog-uns {Go 
Belya), abutting on the second and 
finer of the two Mortuary Temples 
{Ni no Go Beiya). The main gate 
is always kept closed, but a side 
entrance 1. leads to the priests' 
house. The resident custodian will 
act as guide for a small fee. 

The six Shoguns buried at Ueno belong- 
ed to the Tokugawa family, being the 4th, 
5th, 8th. 10th. nth. and 13th. of their 
line. It is still at the private expense of 
the family that these shrines are kept i;p. 
In general style, they closely resemble 
those at Shiba, described on pp. 115—120, 
and rank among the priceless legacies of 
the art of Old Japan. Like the Shiba 
shrines, too, they have suffered at the 
hands of thieves since the Revolution of 
1868. 

This building, a symphony in 
gold and blended colours, has a 
wooden colonnade in front, the red 
walls of which are divided into 
compartments, each containing a 
medallion in the centre, filled with 
painted open-work carvings of birds 



and flowers, with arabesques de- 
rived from the chrysanthemum 
above and a carved wave-design 
below. In the centre of this colon- 
nade is a gate decorated with a 
painting of an angel. From here, 
an open colonnade leads up to the 
steps of the main building. The 
porch has brackets carved with 
conventional chrysanthemums. Its 
square columns are adorned with 
plum-blossoms in red and gold. 
Under the beams are red and gold 
lions' heads as brackets. The 
doors of the oratory are carved in 
diapers, and gilded all over. Note 
the tastefully painted diapers on 
the architrave. The ceiling is 
massive, and loaded with metal 
fastenings ; in the coffers are 
dragons in gold on a blue ground. 
The interior walls are gilded, hav- 
ing in some places conventional 
paintings of lions, in others mova- 
ble shutters. This apartment is 48 
ft. wide by 21 ft. in depth. The 
corridor which succeeds it is 12 ft. 
wide by 24 ft. in depth, and leads 
to the black lacquered steps of the 
inner sanctum. Its ceiling is 
decorated with the phoenix on a 
green and gold ground. Handsome 
gilt doors covered with carved 
arabesques close the entrance to 
the sanctum, which measures 21 
ft. in depth by 33 ft. in width. 
The ceiling is decorated with fine 
gilt lattice- work in the cofiiers. The 
small shrines, containing the 
memorial tablets of the illustrious 
dead, are gorgeous specimens of 
gold lacquer. Beginning at the r., 
these shrines are respectively those 
of the 5th, 8th, and 13th Shoguns, 
and of Koky5-In, son of the 10th 
Shogun. E. and 1. are two shrines 
containing tablets of eight mothers 
of Shoguns. Curiously enough, all 
were concubines, not legitimate 
consorts. The actual graves are in 
the grounds behind. The finest, a 
bronze one, is that of the 5th Sho- 
gun. Its bronze gate has magnifi- 
cent panels, with the phoenix and 
unicorn in bas-relief, — Korean cast- 



130 



Route 4. — Tokyo, 



ings from Jai^anese designs about 
150 years old. 

The First Mortuary Temple [Ichi no 
Go Beiya) stands close. to the Second. 
On leaving the Second, turn to the 
1. to reach the priests' house, where 
application for admission must be 
made. Here lie buried the 4th, 
10th, and 11th Shoguns, together 
with several princesses. The monu- 
ment of the 4th is in bronze, the 
others in simple stone. Over the 
grave of the 11th Sh5gun hangs a 
weeping cherry-tree, placed there 
to commemorate the love of flowers 
which distinguished that amiable 
prince, whose reign (A.D. 1787-1838) 
formed the culminating point of 
the splendour of Old Japan. 

On the N.E. side of the park, 
a little to the r. of the Museum, 
stands the Buddhist temple of Byd- 
Daishi, dedicated to the two great 
abbots, Jie Daishi and Jigen Daishi, 
the former of M^hom flourished in the 
9th century, the latter in the 16th 
and 17th. The portrait of Jie Daishi 
here preserved is considered one of 
the masterpieces of the great painter 
Kano Tan-yu. Note the six large 
bronze lanterns and the water- 
stand in the court-yard ; also the 
large stflpa for the reception of 
relics to the 1. on entering. On this 
side of the park are some buildings 
commonly devoted to art exhibitions 
of various kinds. 

We now leave Ueno, and passing 
along a busy thoroughfare, reach 
the district of Asakusa. The first 
object of interest here is the 
spacious temple of Eig-ashi Hon- 
g-wanji, popularly called Monzeki, 
the chief religious edifice in Tolcyo 
of the Monto sect of Buddhists. 
Though very plain, as is usual with 
the buildings of this sect, the 
Monzeki deserves a visit on ac- I 
count of its noble proportions. It \ 
was founded in 1657. The iron | 
netting thrown over the temple is ! 
intended to prevent sparks from 
falling on the wood-work, should 
a conflagration occur in the 



neighbourhood. The huge porch 
is adorned with finely carv^ed 
wooden brackets, the designs being 
chrysanthemum flowers and leaves, 
and peony flowers and leaves. On 
the transverse beams are some 
curiously involved dragons, which 
are the best specimens of this sort of 
work in T5ky6. Observe, too, the 
manner — peculiar to the buildings 
of this sect — in which the beams are 
picked out with white. The area of 
the matted floor of the nave (gejbi) 
is 140 mats, and round the front 
and sides runs a wooden aisle 12 
ft. wide. Over the screen which 
separates the chancel and its side- 
chapels from the nave, are massive 
gilt open-work carvings of angels 
and phoenixes, the largest of Vvhich 
are 12 ft. in length by 4 ft. in 
height. The rest of the building 
is unadorned. Hanging against the 
gilt background on either side of the 
altar, are to be seen several kake- 
monos of Buddhist saints, scarcely 
distinguishable in the " dim religi- 
ous light ; " also r. the posthumous 
tablet of lyeyasu, which is exposed 
for veneration on the 17th of each 
month. The honzon, Amida, is a 
black image, always exposed to 
vieM', and standing in a handsome 
shrine of black and gold lacquer. 
From the r. side of the main hall, a 
bridge leads down to the Jiki-do, 
or preaching hall. At the main 
temple, sermons are only preached 
for one week in the year, viz 
from the 21st to 2Sth November, 
when the imposing services (Ho-on- 
ko) held in honour of the founder 
of the sect are well vrorth witness- 
ing. On this occasion, the male 
worshippers all appear in the style 
of dress known as kata-ginu, and 
the females with a head-dress called 
tsuno-kakushi (lit. '' horn-hider "), — 
both relics of the past. The "horn- 
hider " would seem to have been so 
named in allusion to a Buddhist 
text which says : " A woman's 
exterior is that of a saint, but her 
heart is that of a demon." — Lesser 
services are held at the time of the 



Higaslii Hongwanji and Asakusa Tem2:)l€6, 



131 



vernal and antnmnal equinoxes. 
Quaint testimony is borne to the 
popularity of this temple with the 
lower middle class by the notices 
posted up on some of the great 
columns in the main hall. Not 
only is there one to prohibit smok- 
ing, but one warning people not 
to come here for their afternoon 
nap (ifim-ne muyd)! On cxuitting 
the Monzeki, notice its nobly mas- 
sive roof, with lions rampant at the 
corners, also the two large mono- 
liths r., commemorative of soldiers 
who fell in the China war of 189^J:-5. 

About 7 cho from the Monzeki, 
stands the great Buddhist temple 
of Sensdji, j)opularly known as the 

Asakusa Ewannon, because 
dedicated to Kv^^annon, the goddess 
of Mercy. 

A fabulous anti(iuity is claimed for the 
founding in this locality of a shrine 
sacred to Kwannon, the tradition being 
that the image which is now worshipped 
there, was fished up on the neighbouring 
strand during the reign of the Empress 
Suiko (A.D. 593-628) by a noble of the 
name of Hashi-no-Nakatomo, who had 
been exiled to this then desolate portion 
of the coast, and with two attendants 
gained his livelihood by casting his nets 
at the mouth of the river Sumida. Tn his 
fishing- hut the first altar is said to have 
been jaised ; and the crest of three nets, 
which is to be seen marking certain 
portions of the buildings, was devised in 
memory of the event. The miraculous 
image is never shown, but is commonly 
believed to be but I'j inch in height : and 
the disproportion between the smallness 
of the image and the vaatness of the 
temple has passed into a popular saying. 
Instead of the original sacred image, there 
is exhibited on the 13th December of 
every year a newer and larger one which 
stands in front of the high altar. In the 
year 1180, Yoritomo endowed the temple 
with ninety acres of arable land. But 
when leyasu m;ide Yedo his capital, he 
found the place gone to ruin, and the 
priests living in idleness and immorality. 
The present buildings date from the reign 
of lemitsu, after the destruction by fiVe 
of the former edifice. They are in the 
possession of the Tendai sect of Bud- 
dhists. 

On no account should a visit to 
this popular temple and the sur- 
rounding grounds (Koenchi) be 
omitted ; for it is a great holiday 



resort of the middle and lower 
classes, and nothing is more strik- 
ing than the juxtaposition of piety 
and pleasure, of gorgeous altars 
and grotesque ex-votos, of dainty 
costumes and dingy idols, the 
clatter of the clogs, cocks and hens 
and jngeons strutting about among 
the worshippers, children playing, 
soldiers smoking, believers chaffer- 
ing with dealers of charms, ancient 
art, modern advertisements, — in 
fine, a spectacle than which surely 
nothing more motley was ever wit- 
nessed within the precincts of a 
religious edifice. The most crowd- 
ed times are Sunday afternoon, and 
the 17th and 18th of each month, 
days sacred to Kwannon. 

The outer main gate of the 
temple no longe^ exists. One 
walks up through a lane of red brick 
shops, where toys, cakes, photo- 
graphs, and gev;gaws of all kinds are 
spread out to tempt the multitude. 
The two-storied gate in front of the 
temple is a huge structure of red 
wood, with images of the Ni-o on 
either side. The immense sandals 
hung up in front of the cages con- 
taining these images, are placed 
there by persons desirous of 
becoming good walkers. To the 1., 
immediately before passing through 
the big gate, is a popular Shrine of 
Fudo, just outside of which is a 
shrine of Jizo, distinguishable by 
a pra^ang-wheel (goshd-guruma) 
fixed in a warden pillar, the whole 
roughly resembling a pillar post- 
box. There is a newer and better 
one inside the court of the Fud5 
shrine, with an inscription to the 
" Lord Jizo , Nourisher of Little 
Children" (see p. 47). Images of 
Jizo stand behind it on a small 
hexagonal structure. 

The praying-wheel is, in Japan, found 
only in connection with the mystic doc- 
trine of the Tendai and Shingon sects. 
and its use differs slightly from that to 
which it is put in Thibet. No prayers are 
written on it; but the worshipper, attrib- 
uting to ingwa (the Sanskrit karma, 
which means, the effect in this life of the 
actions in a former state of existence) any 



132 



Route 4. — Toby 6. 



Bin of which he wishes to be cleansed, or 
any desire that occurs to him, turns the 
wheel with a simple request to Jizo to let 
this ingwa duly run its course— the course 
of ingwa resembling the perpetual re- 
volutions of a wheel. 

On the opposite or r. side of the 
lane, on a mound, is the large Asa- 
kusa hell, whose sonorous notes are 
heard all over the northern part of 
the city. The octagonal stone 
towers, one on either side, just 
within the gate, are electric light 
beacons, presented by devotees. 

The great hall of the temple of 
Kwannon is 102 ft. square, and is 
entirely surrounded by a wide 
gallery. The large picture hanging 
above the entrance to the r. sym- 
bolises life (under the figure of 
two sleeping men and a sleep- 
ing tiger) as nothing more than a 
dream, the only living reality in 
which is the ]X)wer of religion 
(typified by a Buddhist priest). 

The eye is caught, on entering, 
by the immense number of lanterns 
and pictures which cover the ceiling 
and walls. These are all offerings 
presented by believers. Some of 
the pictures are by good modern 
artists. One over the shrine to the 
r. represents a performance of the 
No, or mediaeval lyric drama, in 
which the red-haired sea-demon 
called Shoj5 plays the chief part. 
Opposite is a curious painted carv- 
ing in relief, representing three 
Chinese heroes of autiquity. Just 
below this rests a huge mokugyo, — 
a hollow wooden block, fish-shaped, 
which priests strilce while prating. 
The ceiHng is painted vrith figures 
of angels, the work of Kano Ddshun. 
The seated image to the r., with a 
pink bib round its neck, is a cele- 
brated work of Jikaku Daishi, and 
represents Binzuru, the helper of 
the sick. At any time of the day 
believers may be observed rubbing 
it (see p. 44), so that it is now 
partially rubbed away. The stalls 
in front of the main shrine are for 
the Bale of pictures of the goddess 
Kwannon, v.'hich are used as charms 



against sickness, to help women in 
childbirth, etc., of tickets to say 
whether a child about to be born will 
be a boy or a girl, and so forth. 
There is also a place where fortunes 
are told by the priests. 

The chancel is, as usual, separat- 
ed from the nave by a wire screen, 
and is not accessible to the public. 
A small gratuity to one of the 
priests in charge will, however, 
generally procure admission. On the 
high altar, resplendent with lamps, 
flowers, gold damask, and sacred 
vessels, and guarded by figures of 
the Shi-Tenno, of Bonten, and of 
Taishaku, — the latter said to be the 
work of Gyogi Bosatsu, — stands the 
shrine containing the sacred image 
of Kwannon. On either side are 
ranged images, some 2 or 3 ft. 
high, of Kwannon in her " Three- 
and-Thirty Terrestrial Embodi- 
ments," each set in a handsome 
shrine standing out against the 
gold ground of the wall. Eight and 
1. of the altar hang a pair of votive 
ofEerings — golden horses in high 
rehef on a lacquer ground — present- 
ed by the Shogun lemitsu. On the 
ceiling is a dragon, the work of 
Kano Eishin. The side altar to 
the r. is dedicated to Fudo. Observe 
the numerous vessels used in the 
ceremony of the Goma prayers, 
which are frequently offered up 
here for the recovery of the sick. 
The twelve small images are the 
Ju-ni D5ji, or attendants of Kwan- 
non. The altar to the 1. is de- 
dicated to Aizen Myo-6, whose red 
image with three eyes and six arms 
is contained in a small shrine. 
The two-storied miniature pagodji 
beside it is simply an offering, as 
are also the thousand small images 
of Kwannon in a case to the 1., and 
the large European mirror, in front 
of which is a life-like image of the 
abbot Zennin Shoniu. At the back 
of the main altar is another, called 
Ura Kvcannon [ura meaning 
" back "), which should be inspected 
for the sake of the modern wall- 
pictures on lacquer with a back- 



Asakusa Temple. Yoshiwara. 



IBS 



ground of gold leaf, by artists of 
the Kan5 school. 

True wall-paintings, that is, paintings 
. xecuted on a vertical surface, are ex- 
tremely rare in Japan, the only well- 
nuthenticated examples being these at 
Asakusa, some on plaster in the Kendo of 
the ancient monastery of Horyiiji near 
Nara, and others in the lower storey of 
the pagoda of Toji at Kyoto. As a rule, 
all so-called Japanese wall-paintings are 
on large sheets of paper fixed in their 
places after having been painted in a 
liorizontal position. 

Above is a crowd of suiDernatu- 
r;il beings, headed by a converted 
dragon in the form of a beantiful 
woman, who offers a large jewel to 
Shaka. Two of the latter's disciples 
( Rakan) are at his r. foot, I\Ionjn at 
iris 1. foot, and Fugen below on the 
1. Those on the r. and 1, walls are 
tlie Twenty-eight Manifestations of 
Kwannon. 

In the grounds are several build- 
ings of interest, and a number of 
icJw trees whose golden foliage in 
autumn is in itself a sight. }3ehind 
the great temple to the 1. and facing 
the modern fountain, stands a small 
hexagonal building called Dalho-do 
or Jlzd-do and containing a crowd of 
little stone images seated in tiers 
round a large one of Jiz5. This 
<livinity being the special protector 
of children, parents bring the play- 
things of their dead little ones to his 
shrine. Beyond the Jiz6-d6, is the 
Xembutsudo, with a pretty altar. 
Turning r.,we come to the Sanja, — 
a Shinto shrine dedicated to the 
Three Fishermen of the local legend, 
and having panels decorated with 
mythological monsters in gaudy 
colours. Note the bronze and stone 
lions in front. Passing the stage 
on which the Kagura dances are 
performed, we reach the Einzo,, or 
Revolving Library (see p. 45), con- 
tained in a square building with 
carved hons on the eaves, and then 
the Pagoda. Both these are now 
closed to the public. 

To the 1. of the temple buildings 
we find the Asakusa Koencki, or 
Public Grounds, where stands the 



lofty tower popularly called Jii-ni- 
kai. This building, erected in 
1890, has twelve storeys, as its 
name implies, is 220 ft. in height, 
nearly 50 ft. in internal diameter 
at the base, and commands a more 
extensive view than any other point 
in the city. The grounds of Asa- 
kusa are the quaintest and liveliest 
l^lace in Tokyo. Here are raree- 
shows, i:)enny gaffs. i)erforming 
monkeys, infant prodigies, cheap 
photographers, street artists, jug- 
glers, wrestlers, theatrical and other 
figures in painted wood and clay, an 
aquarium, a collection of wild ani- 
mals, stalls for the sale of toys and 
lollypops of every sort, and, circulat- 
ing amidst all these cheap attrac- 
tions, a seething crowd of holiday- 
makers. 

Five min. drive behind the big 
temple, stands a small but noted 
one, Kinryti-zan, dedicated to the 
god Shoden, on a mound called 
MatsucM-yama. This is a breezy 
spot, with a view across the river 
Sumida towards the cherry avenue 
of Mulvojima. There is a ferry 
close by. 

The name Kinryu-zan, lit. "Golden 
Dragon Hill," comes from a legend tell- 
ing how the dragon which anciently 
inhabited the river, climbed up to it 
with a lantern to keep watch over tho 
great temple of Kwannon. Far-Eastern 
dragons, be it observed, almost always 
have some connection with water, whe- 
ther river, lake, or rain-cloud. 

About 1 mile to the N. of the great 
Asakusa temple lies the world-famed 
Yoshiu:ara, the principal quarter in- 
habited by the licensed hetairas of 
the metropolis. Many of the houses 
within this district are almost pala- 
tial in appearance, and in the eve- 
ning present a spectacle probably 
unj)aralleled in any other country*, 
but reproduced on a smaller scale 
in the provincial Japanese cities. 
The unfortunate inmates, decked 
out in gorgeous raiment, sit in rows 
with gold screens behind, and pro- 
tected from the outside by iron 



134 



Boute L—Tokyo. 



bars. As the whole quarter is 
under special municipal sur^'eil- 
lance, perfect order prevails, ena- 
bling the stranger to study, while 
walking along the streets, the 
manner in which the Japanese 
have solved one of the vexed ques- 
tions of all ages. Their method, 
though running counter to Anglo- 
Saxon ideas, preserves Tokyo from 
the disorderly scenes that obtrude 
themselves on the passer-by in our 
western cities. 

Mukojima, celebrated for its 
avenue of cherrj^-trees, stretches 
for more than a mile along the 
1. bank of the River Sumida. "NVhen 
the blossoms are out in April, 
Muk5jima is densely packed with 
holiday-makers from morn till dusk, 
and the tea-houses on the banks 
and the boats on the river re-echo 
with music and merriment. This 
sight, which lasts for about a week, 
should on no account be missed. 
Various regattas are held about the 
same season. The little temple at 
the end of the avenue was raised in 
remembrance of a touching episode 
of the 10th centur3% -^hich forms 
the subject of a famous lyric 
drama. 

Ume-waka, tlie child of a noble family, 
was carried off from Kyoto by a slave- 
merchant, and perished in this distant 
spot, where his body was found by a 
Kood priest who gave it burial. The next 
year his mother, who had roamed over 
the country in search of her boy, came to 
the place, where, under a willow-tree, the 
villagers were weeping over a lowly 
grave. On asking the name of the dead, 
she discovered that it was none other 
than her own son, who during the night 
appeared in ghostly form, and held con- 
verse with her : but when day dawned, 
nothing remained but the waving 
branches of the willow, and instead of 
his voice only the sighing of the breeze. 
A commemorative service is still held on 
the loth March ; and if it rains on that 
day, the people say that the rain-drops 
are Ume-waka's tears. 

Another favourite tlov.er resort, 
lying about 1 mile beyond the far 
end of Mukojima, is Horikiri, 
famed for its irises which bloom 
early in June. 



7. — Ek6-in. The Five Hundeed 
Rakan. Kameido. District op 

FUKAGAWA. SrSAKI. 

Close to Ryogoku-hashi, one of 
the largest bridges in the metro- 
polis spanning the River Sumida, 
stands the noted Buddhist temple 
of Eko-in. 

In the spring of 1657, on the occasion of 
a terrible conflagration which lasted for 
two days and nights, 107,0-46 persons are 
said to have perished in the flames. This 
figure is no doubt a gross exaggeration : 
but whatever the number of victims may 
have been, the Government undertook 
the care of their interment, and orders 
were given to Danzaemon, the chief of 
the pariahs,* to convey the bodies to 
Ushijima, as this part of Yedo was then 
called, and dig for them a common pit. 
Priests from all the different Buddhist 
sects came together to recite, for the space 
of seven days, a thousand scrolls of the 
sacred books for the benefit of the souls 
of the departed. The grave was called 
Aluen-zuka, or the Mound of Destitution, 
and the temple which was built near it is, 
therefore, also popularly entitled Muen- 
ji. The services for the dead (segaki) are 
regularly held on the '2nd and 19th days 
of each month. Eko-in being, on account 
of its peculiar origin, without the usual 
means of support derived from the gifts 
of the relatives of the dead, was formerly 
used as the place whither sacred images 
were brought from other provinces to be 
worshipped for a time by the people of 
Yedo, and as a scene of public perform- 
ances. The latter custom still survives in 
the ■vvi'estling-matches and other shows, 
which draw great crowds here every 
spring and winter. At Eko-in prayers are 
offered up daily for the souls of dead 
animals. A small fee will procure a 
short service and burial in the temple 
grounds for such domestic pets as cats, 
dogs, etc., a larger sum being necessary if 
the animal's thai, or funeral tablet, has 
also to be furnished. 

Eko-in is a dingy edifice ; and 
\A'hile the annual wrestling tourna- 
ments are in progress here, -^-ith the 
crowds shouting and the children 



* In Japanese, Efa. Their occupations 
were to slaughter animals, tan leather, 
assist at executions, etc. The class as 
such is now abolished ; but remnants of 
its peculiar costume may still occasional- 
ly be seen in the persons of young girls 
with broad hats, who go aboiit the streets 
playing and singing. 



Temples of Ehb-xn and Kameido. 



185 



scampering in and out, the place 
lacks even the semblance of sancti- 
ty. The only object worth attention 
is a large sleeping image of Buddha 
{ne-Shaka) to the 1. of the main 
altar. In a small arched enclosure 
behind the temple, stands the grave 
of the celebrated highwayman 
Kezumi Kozb, where incense is 
always kept burning. The cemete- 
ry at the back contains monuments 
to those who perished in the fire 
of 1657, and in the great earth- 
quake of 1855. 

In Midori-cho, in the district of 
Honjo, about 1 mile further on, is 
a temple containing wooden images, 
originally gilt over red lacquer, 
almost life-size, of the Five Hun- 
dred Rakan {Go-hyaku Bakan), 
arranged on shelves round the main 
building and in a wing to the 1. 
They are from the chisel of Sh5-un, 
an artist of the 17th century, whose 
image is seen seated to the r. of the 
main hall. The much larger image 
in the centre represents Shaka, with 
Anan on his r. hand and Kasho on 
his 1. The two images in front 
of Shaka are Kwannon. The large 
images in the wing are Kwannon 
in the centre, Mokuren r. and 
Shinhotsu 1. 

Ten min. distant by jinrikisha 
stands the Shinto temple of Tem- 
mangfi, commonly known as 
Kameido, from a stone tortoise 
seated on a well in the grounds. 
Sugawara-no-Michizane is here wor- 
shipped under the title of Tern man 
Daijizai, i.e., " the Perfectly Free 
and Heaven-Filling Heavenly Divi- 
nity." The grounds have been 
laid out in imitation of those 
at Dazaifu, his place of exile. 
Passing in through the outer gate, 
the eye is first attracted by the 
wistarias trained on trellis, whose 
blossoms, during the first week in 
May, make Kameido one of the chief 
show-places of the caiDital. They 
grow on the borders of a pond called 
Shinji no Ike, or " Pond of the Word 
Heart," on account of a supposed 



resemblance to ^fj the Chinese 
character for " heart ; " and one of 
the amusements of visitors is to 
feed the carp and tortoises which 
it contains. A semi-circular bridge 
leads over the jxDnd to a large gate 
in yatsu-mune-zukuri (i.e., eight- 
roofed) style, standing in front of 
the temple. Glass cases inside the 
gate enclose the usual large images 
of Zuijin. Eound the walls of the 
temple hang small pictures on a 
gold ground of the ancient religious 
dances called Bugaku. 

Beyond a shed to the r., contain- 
ing two green and red demons be- 
spattered with paper pellets, is an 
exit by which the visitor can reach 
the Ume-yashikl, or Plum-Garden of 
Kameido, 4 cho distant. Here grow 
the Gicaryobai (lit. Plum-trees of 
the Recumbent Dragon), which are 
much visited early in March, when 
the blossoms are aU out. There are 
over 500 trees, all extremely old, 
and jiartly creeping along the 
ground, whence the name. Most 
of the cut stones which stand 
about the grounds are inscribed 
with stanzas of poetry in praise of 
the flowers ; and during the season, 
similar tributes written on paper 
will be seen hung up on the 
branches. A few cho off lies Muko- 
jima, described above. 

The S.E. part of Toky5, consist- 
ing of the district of Fukagawa 
on the 1. bank of the River Sumida, 
is a maze of narrow streets, chiefly 
inhabited by the lower trading and 
artisan classes, and offers little for 
the sightseer. 

Joshlnji, though the chief temple 
of the Nichiren sect in T5ky5, is 
quite unpretentious ; but there are 
some good carvings on the gates of 
the priests' dwellings which line 
the narrow street leading up to it. 
In the court-yard is a large bronze 
image of Shaka supported on the 
shoulders of stone demons ; and at 
the back, beyond the cemetery, a 
curious superstitious practice may 



136 



Route 4:.~Tdkyo. 



be witnessed at the shrine of 
Shdgyo Bosatsn. The stone figure 
of the saint stands in a little Tvooden 
shed hung round with small reg- 
ularly cut bundles of straw. The 
faithful purchase these at the gate, 
dip them in water, brush the image 
M-ith them, and then ladle water 
over its head, believing that this 
ceremony will ensure a favourable 
reply to their petitions. The image 
is constantly wet, showing how firm 
the belief is. 

The Buddhist temple commonly 
known as Fukagiica no Fudo, in 
Tomioka Monzen-cho, is subsidiary 
to the great shrine at Narita ; and 
in imitation of the latter the 
grounds are laid out in rococo 
stjde, Avith inscribed stone slabs 
and numerous bronze statuettes. 
It presents a lively appearance on 
the 1st, 15th, and 28th of each 
month. 

The adjacent Shinto temple of 
Hachiman, d-ating from AD. 1688, 
shows traces of former Buddhist 
influence. The walls and ceihng 
are decorated with paintings of 
birds and flowers, and there are 
also some j)retty wood-carvings. 
The ornamentation of the chancel 
is extremely rich, the ceiling being 
panelled, and gold profusely em- 
ployed. Doves fly about the 
grounds, as is usual in temples 
sacred to Hachiman. They are 
supposed to act as this god's mes- 
sengers, — strange messengers from 
the God of War ! 

The district situated between the 
temple of Hachiman and that of 
Susaki-no-Benten is noted for its 
trade in timber, the town being here 
intersected by numerous canals 
communicating with the river, 
down which come the timber-laden 
rafts from the inland provinces. 
The temple of SusaJci no Benten 
dates from the latter part of the 
17th century, at which time the 
ground on which it was erected 
liad only recently been reclaimed. 
The temple itself is uninteresting ; 
but on a clear day there is a good 



view from the embankment built 
after the ravages of the inundations 
and tidal waves of the eighth 
decade of the 18th century. At low 
tide, which the Japanese consider 
the prettiest time, and especially 
if the season be spring, numerous 
pleasure boats, with singing-girls 
and other merry-makers, will be 
seen lazily floating about in the 
ofling, watching the oyster-catchers 
ply their trade. 



8. — TSDKIJI. 

On the way from the Shimbashi 
terminus to the former Foreign 
Concession in Tsukiji, several 
important modern buildings are 
passed : — 1. the Fifteenth Bank, r. 
the Imperial Department of Com- 
munications, and further on the 
Department of Agriculture and Com- 
merce, a large building, one wing of 
which is occupied by a small but in- 
teresting Commercial Museum, open 
from 9 to 3 in summer, and 10 to '6 in 
winter. Near by stands the Kahuki- 
za, one of the best theatres in the 
metropolis. The Naval Academy is 
seen to the r. beyond the canal. 
Still further to the r. is the 8hiha 
Bikyu, formerly the summer palace 
of the Shdguns. It is used once a 
year for an Imperial Garden party, 
at the season when the masses of 
double cherry-flowers are in bloom. 
The Shiba KjQvyu is not open to the 
general public. 

On the way to Tsukiji stands the 
Nishi Hongicanji, popularly called 
the Tsukiji Mohzeki, a huge temple 
belonging to the rich and powerful 
Monto sect. It has frequently been 
burnt down, last of all in 1897 ; but 
the main building was restored in 
1901, and merits inspection for 
the sake of its massive hall and the 
symphony in gold which adorns it. 
Compare p. 130 for a description of 
the twin temple called Higashi Hon- 
gicanji. 

A large proportion of the European 
buildings in Tsukiji are devoted to 



T@SCY@ 
km ummmmm 

Scale I: 200000 




T>aishltfa-wara. 



A Kqiimachi 

Kaiidu 
C NihonhitshL 
D Kyobashi 
E Shiha 
F Akasaka 
G Azahii 
H I'o/^wvff 

Usliigorrw 
J Koishiira^va 



K Honpo 

L Shiiaya- 

M AvoiT/.va 

N ffonjo 

O Fuluufawa. 

P re«<9 

Q ShimbasM 

R Tsukyi 

S /77t/>Z. i'oZac 

T TsitJaidafin. 



FOR MURRAY'S HANDBOOK 



TOYODO ENGRAVING OFFICE TOK 



Boute 5. — Excurdons from Tokyo. 



137 



religious and educational purposes. 
The most conspicuous places of 
worship are the Cathedral of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of 
America and the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral. Beyond the river Sumida 
lies Ishikaica-jima, where stands a 
large Convict Prison. The land is 
gaining rapidly on the water in this 
district, the whole spit opposite the 
Bund having been reclaimed within 
the last thirty years. On a fine 
breezy day, the vessels sailing into 
the mouth of the river add pictur- 
esque animation to the scene. 



ROUTE 5. 

EXCUESIONS FKOM TOKYO. 

1. MEGURO. 2. IKEGAMI AND HANE- 
DA. 3. FUTAGO. 4. JONISO, HOEI- 
NO-TJCHI, AND I-NO-KASHIEA. 5. 
COEMORANT-FISHING ON THE TAMA- 
GAWA. 6. KOGANEI. 7. TAKAO- 

ZAN. 8. MITAKE. 9. 5jl. 10. THE 

caves neae konosu. 11. naeita. 
12. ascent of tsukuba-san. 

1. Meguro. 

Meg-uro ( Tea-houses, * Uchida, 
Hashiwa-ya ; there are several 
others, but they are apt to be 
noisy) is a popular jDicnic resort, 3 
miles out of the city westwards by 
road or Suburban Eailway ; but the 
station lies about a mile from the 
village. Shortly after leaving the 
station at the top of a descent call- 
ed Gydnin-zaka, one sees 1. the 
small temple of Daienji, which 
deserves passing notice for the sake 
of its Go-hyaku Rakan, — tier upon 
tier of small seated Buddhist 
images in various attitudes of 
meditation, quaint yet pathetic in 
their stony stillness. Meguro is 
seen to best advantage when either 
the peonies or the chrysanthemums 



are in blossom. There are two 
permanent sights, — the Temple of 
Fudo, and the graves of Gompachi 
and Kdmurasaki. The key to the 
latter is kept at the Kado-Ise tea- 
house at the r. corner of the turning 
which leads to the temple. The 
grave is called Hiyoku-zuka, after 
the hiyoku, a fabulous double bird 
which is revered as the emblem of 
constancy in love. It may be added 
that sentiment is the only motive 
for visiting the grave, as there is 
really nothing to see. 

About 260 years ago, there lived a 
young man named Shirai Gompachi, who 
at the age of sixteen had already won a 
name for his skill in the use of arms, but, 
having had the misfortune to kill a fellow- 
clansman in a quarrel over a dog, was 
compelled to fly from his native province. 
"While resting at an inn on hia way to 
Yedo, a beautiful girl named Komurasaki 
came and awoke him at midnight, to tell 
him that a band of robbers, who had 
stolen her from her home, intended to 
slay him for the sake of the sword which 
every samurai at that time carried. 
Being thus forewarned, Gompachi suc- 
ceeded in killing the thieves when the 
attack was made upon him. He also 
restored the girl to her grateful father, a 
rich merchant, who would have been glad 
to make the young man his son-in-law; 
but being ambitious, Gompachi insisted 
on i)ursuing his way to Yedo. Meanwhile, 
unhappy Komurasaki was left to pine for 
the handsome youth with whom she had 
fallen deeply in love. After further 
adventures, Gompachi reached Yedo, only 
however to fall into dissolute habits. 
Hearing much praise of a lovely and ac- 
complished girl who had just become 
an inmate of the Yoshiwara, Gompachi 
went to see her, and was astonished to 
find in the famous beauty no other than 
the maiden whom he had but a few 
months before rescued from the robbers' 
den. It was the usual pathetic story. 
Her parents having become poverty- 
stricken, she had sold herself in order to 
alleviate their distre.^s. Frequent visits 
to his sweetheart soon exhausted Gom- 
pachi's slender means, and in de.«peration 
lie resorted to murder for the sake of 
money to spend at the Yoshiwara. The 
crime was repeated, until he was caught 
red-handed, and met the fate of a 
common malefactor. A friend claimed 
the body and buried it at Meguro, 
whither poor Komurasaki hastened on 
hearing the sad news of her lover's end, 
and throwing herself on the newly-made 
grave, plunged a dagger into her bosom 
and died. 



138 



Eoute 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 



At tho bottom of the steps lead- 
ing up to the temple of Fudo, is a 
ixx)l fed by t-^o tiny cascades. To 
stand naked under the stream of 
water for several hours in cold 
weather is considered a meritorious 
penance, the efEect of which is to 
wash away all taint of sin. Tradi- 
tion says that Jikaku Daishi, the 
founder of this temple, miraculous- 
ly called the spring into existence 
by the aid of his mace {tokko), 
whence the name of Tokko-no-taki, 
or Mace Cascade. The most re- 
markable of the ex-Yotos is a huge 
sword, such as the god Fud5 is 
often represented wdth. — One hour's 
walk to the S.W. of Meguro, lies the 
ancient, but much decayed, temple 
of Eu-hon-hutsu, so called * from 
nine large gilded images of Buddha 
there enshrined. 

2. — IHEGAMI. HaNEDA-NO-InARI. 

Ikeg-ami is reached by train or 
tram to Omori station on the Yoko- 
hama line, whence it is about 1 m. 
by jinrikisha. (If coming from 
Yokohama, alight at Kamata station, 
whence 15 chb.) The great temple 
of Hommonji (see p. 40 for plan) is 
celebrated as the spot where the 
Buddhist saint Nichiren died in 
A.D. 1282. Its fine situation and 
magnificent timber make it one of 
the most attractive points within 
easy reach of Tokyo. The best 
time to visit it is on the 12th — 13th 
October, when the annual festival 
in Nichiren's honour takes x^lace. 
On this occasion over 20,000 per- 
sons make the pilgrimage. An- 
other festival is held from the 22nd 
to 28th April. At the top of the 
temple stejDs is 1. the Daimoku-do, 
where some of the faithful are gen- 
erally to be heard beating the drum 
and reciting the formulary of the 
sect, — " Namu Mybho Eenge Kyb." 
Next to this is a shrine dedicated 
to Kato Kiyomasa. Then comes 
the Shaka-do, or HaU of Shaka, 
where worshippers pass the night 
at the time of the annual festival, 



with, behind it, another building 
containing a complete set of the 
Buddhist scriptures which may be 
made to revolve on a huge hexagonal 
wheel. Connected with the Shaka- 
d5 by a wooden bridge is the Soshl- 
do, or Founder's Hall, dedicated to 
Nichiren, the restoration of which 
in handsome style evinces the 
popiilarity which this saint enjoys. 
On the altar stands an exquisitely 
lacquered shrine, containing a life- 
size image of Nichiren in sitting 
posture, said to have been car^^ed 
by Nichiro, one of his chief dis- 
ciples. The upper part of the wall 
is decorated with pictures of angels 
playing on musical instruments. 
Behind the altar, outside the tem- 
ple, is a pictorial reiDresentation of 
the chief incidents in the saint's 
Hfe. The buildings at the rear of 
this are the temple offices ; others 
in process of construction will re- 
I)lace the Priests' Apartments, etc., 
burnt down some years ago. Al- 
though Nichiren died at Ikegami, 
his bones were conveyed to Minobu; 
all that remain here are one tooth 
and the ashes of his funeral pyre. 
The shrine {Kotsu-do) containing 
these relics is a short way down the 
hill to the 1., in a line with the 
former Priests' Apartments. This 
building, about 20 ft. in diameter, 
is of the shape of an Indian stupa 
reposing on a huge lotus-flower of 
stone. A gilt shrine of the same 
form as the building itself stands 
inside on a table formed of a lotus- 
flower carried by eight green 
tortoises, and inside this again is 
a crystal jar with the relics. The 
interior, though not accessible, may 
be fairly well seen through the wire 
grating of the windows. At the 
top of the small hill immediately 
above the Kotsu-do, stands a stone 
monument marking the original 
burial-place of the saint [Koso 
Mi-tarrmya). Below the Kotsu-do, 
down a few steps, there are three 
shrines, the smallest of which 
{Daibo), much visited by pilgrims, 
occupies the site of the house in 



Ikegami. Haneda. Hori-no-uchi. 



139 



which Nichiren died. Here is j 
shown a tiny image which he is | 
said to have carved with the aid of j 
a mirror on the day preceding his j 
death ; also the pillar against which I 
he leant dtiring his last moments. | 

One may picnic either at the iym j 
(Tamba-ya) in the Tillage, or at the { 
small tea-houses perched on the | 
hillside halfway up the temple { 
steps. A third place, immediately | 
below the pagoda, is the immense 
tea-house of Akebono-ro, popularly 
known as Ikegami Onsen. It is 
quite a curiosity, sprawling as it 
does up and down two Mils by 
means of galleries and bridges, 
while the fine old plum-trees, by 
which it is surrounded, rising from 
a mass of rockery, present a de- 
lightful sight in early March, when 
the buildings are literally embower- 
ed in the fragrant blossom. This 
tea-house is a favourite holiday 
resort. 

At Haneda, about 2 ri S. E. of 
Omori station, near the mouth of 
the Tamagawa, and to be reached 
by electric tram (^ hr.), stands the 
shrine of Anamori no Inari, — small, 
but curious owing to the thousands 
of toril, which a burst of modern 
piety has erected there. The two 
chief festivals are on the " JMiddle 
Day of the Horse" {Kaka-no-Uma), 
in March, and September. The 
best inn is the Izumi-kwan. 



3. — FUTAGO. 

Futago {Inn, Kame-ya) stands 
on the banks of the Tamagawa, 
2J ri by jinrikisha from Tokyo. 
During the summer months, the 
Japanese visit Futago for the sake 
of the sport — if si3ort it can be 
termed — of watching fishermen net 
the ai, a kind of trout. One ri 
down the river from Futago lies 
Mariko, a place of similar character. 
An alternative way of returning to 
T5ky6 is to take boat down the 
river to Kawasaki station, which is 
about 2 hrs. from Futago. 



4. — Jf^NISO, HOBI-NO-UCHI, AND 
I-NO-KASHIEA. 

Juniso. Train from Shimbashi 
or tram from Hibiya Park to Shin- 
jiku station on the Suburban Line, 
or jinrikisha all the way, ^ hr. 
Across the railway, the extensive 
buildings seen 1. are those of the 
water-works for the supply of 
Tokyo. The road to Junis5 turns 
off 1. by the further side of these 
works, and in 10 min. comes to 
the small thatched temple of Juni- 
so Gongen, dedicated to the gods of 
Kumano. Below the temple lies a 
large joond, plentifully stocked with 
a species of carp, and surrounded 
by tea-sheds and tea-houses. Juniso 
is a favourite spot for picnic parties 
in the warmer months. 

Hori-no-uchi lies ^ hr. distant 
from Juniso by jinrildsha. The 
way leads back by another path in 
5_ min. to the main road (the old 
Ome Kaido), along which we pro- 
ceed for 10 min. before again turn- 
ing 1. partly through the fields and 
partly along an avenue of doiible 
cherry-trees lined with shops for 
the sale of rosaries, salted plums, 
toys, etc. The temple of Myohdji 
at Hori-no-uchi, belonging to the 
Nichiren sect, merits a visit for 
the sake of the excellent carvings 
that adorn the main building, — 
those of dragons in the jMDrch, 
below the architrave, and in the 
eaves being especially spirited. 
The iron gates and railing to the 
r. of the main entrance are good 
specimens of modern workman- 
ship. On the 1. of the court is a 
long shed filled with a curious 
collection of ex-votos, such as the 
queues of men whose prayers have 
been granted by the interposition 
of Nichiren, oil-paintings, etc. In 
the main hall, a splendid shrine 5 
ft. square and 10 ft. long, covered 
with gilt carvings, occupies the 
centre of the further side of the 
chancel. It contains a seated 
image of Nichiren, said to be the 
earliest effigy of that saint, and to 



140 



Moute h. ----Excursions from Toby 5. 



have been carved in A.D. 1261. It 
can be seen and a short service in 
its honour witnessed, on payment 
of a sniall fee. The principal 
festival is held on the 13th Octo- 
ber, the anniversary of Xichiren's 
death. A polite request will gener- 
ally gain admission to the jDretty 
landscape garden attached to the 
main temjale. 

Proceeding for 4| m. over a flat 
country, and past the once noted 
butjaow mouldering Shinto temple 
of Omiya Hachiman, we reach the 
Temple of Benten, situated on the 
borders of the little lake of I-no- 
kashira. 

History says that in 1600 the lake was 
visited by leyasu, vrho found the water 
so excellent that It was used ever after 
for making His Highness's tea. In 1639 
his grandson, the Shogun Temitsu, gave 
orders for the water to be laid on to the 
Castle in Yedo. 

I-no-kashira attracts visitors 
chiefly in April for the cherry- 
blossoms, and in May for the 
azaleas. The return may be made 
from Kichijojl station, which is 
only 2 cho from I-no-kashira, and J 
hr. fi'om Shinjilni. 



5. — CoBMORANT-FlSHING ON THE 

Tamagawa. 

This curious method of catching 
fish may be seen at Hmo, a vill. 
on the Tamagawa. This place is 
reached by train from Tokyo (Shin- 
jiku station, see next column) in 
a little over 1 hr., whence 8 cho by 
jinrildsha to the lamagawa-tei tea- 
house where the cormorants are 
kept, and 2 cho further to the river. 
The charge for three fishermen 
and a servant is 2 yen ; a covered 
Ijoat iyane-hune) costs 1 yen extra. 
The sport lasts from the middle of 
May to the end of September, being 
conveniently carried on during the 
daytime, — not at night, as at the 
better known cormorant fishery of 
Gifu on the Tdkaido. The fisher- 
men wade about in the water, 



holding the ungainly birds by 
strings, and relieving them of their 
prey, which is then handed over to 
the servant. A few small trout {ai) 
may generally be reckoned on, and 
can be cooked at the tea-house if 
desired. 

6. — KOGANEI. 

Kog-anei, with a fine avenue of 
cherry-trees 2J m. in length along 
the banks of the small canal that 
conducts the waters of the Tama- 
gawa to Tdlcyo, should be visited 
only when the trees are in blossom. 
It is reached by train to Sakai on 
the Hachioji line, J hr. from Shin- 
jiku Junction, and 20 min. distant 
from the avenue. 

Ten thousand young trees were brought 
from Yoshino in Yamato, — the most 
famous place for cherry-trees in Japan, — 
and from the banks of the Sakura-gawa 
in Hitachi, and planted here in 1735 by 
command of the Shogun Yoshimune. 

The crowds that assemble daily 
to revel under the shade of the pink 
and white blossoms about the mid- 
dle of April, present a gay spectacle. 
Instead of returning to Sakai, it 
will be found shorter to walk on to 
Kokuhunji station, about 20 min. 
from the upiaer end of the avenue. 

7. — Takao-zan. 



ft c« 



5i 

n 

13 

17 

19 

20^ 

23 

26| 



Names 

of 
Stations 



Remarks 



SHINJIKU Jet 
Okubo 
Nakano 
Ogikubo 

Kichijoji For I-no-kashi- 

I ra. 

Sakai iFor Koganei. 

Kokubunji Jet. . . I 

Tachikawa Jet. . . iFor Tamagawa 



Hino 
Toy da 
HACHIOJI 
Asakawa 



Valley, Rte.31. 



TakaO'Zan. Temple of Mitake. 



141 



This is a favourite excursion in 
spring and autumn with holiday- 
makers from Tokyo. The railway 
journey to Asakawa {Inn, Hana-ya) 
occupies 1^ hr., whence I hr. by 
jinrikisha to the f(3ot of Takao-zan 
and 1 hr. walk under the shade of 
lofty trees up to the temple build- 
ings. 

The railway, on learing Shinjiku, 
leads for a short distance close to 
the Florists' Gardens of Okuho, 
noted for their azaleas, the rest of 
the route passing mostly over the 
richly cultivated plain. The Tama- 
gawa and one of its affluents are 
crossed before reaching Hachioji 
(Inns, Tsunoki, Yokoyama-kwan), 
the centre of an important silk 
district. 

Takao-zan is a hill rising some 
1,600 ft. above the sea. On the 
summit stands a m.uch frequent- 
ed temple, surrounded by a splen- 
did grove, chiefly of cryptomerias, 
planted by Buddhist devotees. 
ITie road is lined with posts, on 
which are recorded the names of 
persons who have presented young 
trees, so many hundreds at a time, 
with the object of maintaining the 
grove undiminished. On the i)lat- 
form at the top of the ascent stands 
a fine bronze pagoda, 12 ft. in 
height. Above this, on another 
terrace, is the new main shrine, 
dedicated to Fudo, and adorned 
with good uncoloured carvings, 
while at the top of a long flight of 
steps is a gaudily decorated Shintd 
shrine with painted carvings. Ob- 
serve the two bronze images of 
winged tengu on the verandah. 
The annual festival takes place on 
the 21st April. Trees shut out the 
view from this point ; but lower 
down spaces have been cleared, 
which afford extensive views in 
various directions. A steeper path 
than that ascended may be taken 
on the way down. It affords pretty 
glimpses of the densely wooded 
valley, and leads to Biwa-no-taki, 
a waterfall under which people 



stand to obtain relief from cerebral 
troubles. 

8. — Mitake. 

Mitake is a sacred peak, easily 

reached from Tokyo in one day 

by taking train to Hlnata Wada 

(see Koute 31, Sect. 3). There are 

t3\'o ways of proceeding on from 

I Ome, viz., the Hinata Kaido, or 

j "Sunny Eoad" on the 1. bank of 

I the Tamagawa, and the Hikage 

j Kaido, or " Shady Eoad," on the 

j r. bank. The best plan is to take 

i jinrikisha to Saicai (2 ri) whence 

j the jinrikisha men will shoulder 

the luggage for 1 ri over a rough 

road to the first torii at the bottom 

of the hill and thence 24 cho more 

up to the priests' dwellings. The 

vill. of Mitake possesses no inns ; 

but accommodation will be granted 

by the x^riests, who, though not 

making any charge, should be duly 

remunerated. The priesthood here 

has for ages been hereditary in a 

few families, who intermarry almost 

exclusively among each other. The 

Main Temple, just above the vill., is 

I sacred to the Shintd deities 

Onamuji, Kushimachi, Sukuna- 

bikona, and Ukemochi-no-kami, the 

divine protectress of silkworms. 

The Oku-no-in, 18 cho distant, is 

dedicated to Yamato-take. 

Grand timber and a profusion of 
flowering shrubs clothe the steep 
sides of all this maze of hills. The 
best expedition at Mitake, occupy- 
ing half a day, is to the waterfalls 
of Xanayo-taki, thence up Odake, 
a high peak at a considerable dis- 
tance, and back over the Oku-no-in 
to the village. This walk may be 
i curtailed by omitting Odake. 
j The return to Ome may be varied 
j by taking the hill path over to 
Unamwa on the Tamagawa, a walk 
of 1} hr., almost entirely under 
shade, but affording prettily diver- 
sified views, whence 12 J m. down 
the valley by the main road into 
Hinata Wada. 



142 



Route 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 



9.— Oji. 

The vill. of Oji, long a favourite 
retreat in the suburbs of Tokyo, 
now presents more the aspect of a 
maniifaeturing centre than of a 
holiday resort. Huge brick build- 
ings, paper and cotton mills, the 
clash of machinery, and lofty chim- 
neys from which columns of smoke 
sweep over the cherry-trees on 
Asuka-yama, deprive the place of 
much of its_former tranquillity 
and beauty. Oji, nevertheless, still 
remains one of the attractions in 
the environs of the great city ; and 
crowds flock thither twice yearly, — 
in spring when the cherry-trees are 
in blossom, and in autumn when 
the maples lining the banks of the 
little stream called Takino-gaica 
put on their crimson tints. 

The train from Ueno station 
lands one in a few minutes close to 
the noted tea-houses, Ogi-ya and 
Ebi-ya, which stand together on 
the edge of the water, and look out 
on a small but tastefully arranged 
garden. Half a mile beyond the 
tea-houses, in a grove of evergreen 
oaks on the top of a slight emi- 
nence, stands the Temple of Inari, 
consisting of two rather dilapidated 
buildings. In the court-yard are 
some fine old. cherry-trees. The tem- 
ple and small waterfall dedicated 
to Fud5, also in the vicinity of the 
tea-houses, attract many visitors. 
As the trains are generally full to 
overflowing during the cherry and 
maple seasons, some visitors may 
prefer to go out by road. The pret- 
tiest way, 5 miles, leaves the little 
lake at Ueno, and passing through 
the suburb of Shimo Komagome, 
turns to the r. on reaching the tomb 
of the Daimyd of Kaga, descends 
the hill, and follows up the valley 
to the left. 



10.— The Caves {Hyaku Ana) xeae 
K5nosu. 

These interesting artificial Caves 
are situat-ed at Kita Yoshimi-mrira 



in the prefecture of Saitama, and 
within the limits of a short day's 
excursion from T5ky6. Kail from 
Ueno station to Konosu (Ete. 11), in 
1^ hr., whence 2^ ri by hasha. On 
the way, a quaint old temple ofKican- 
non is seen, wedged in between 
rocks, from the inner side of which 
an entrance leads to a chamber 
containing a number of stone 
images of Kwannon. A few yards 
beyond stands the office of the local 
authorities, by whom the caves are 
now maintained. The whole hill- 
side, a greyish tufaceous sandstone, 
is honeycombed with these relics of 
a remote antiquity, whose origin 
and use have given rise to not a 
little controversy amongst the 
learned. 



Ml'. Aston, the pioneer in Japanese 
archaeological research, declares that 
there is good reason to believe that the 
caves were primarily intended for sepul- 
chres, although some were doubtless used 
as shelters by beggars and outlaws at a 
later period; while Dr. Tsuboi, of the 
Imi3erial University of Tokyo, an energe- 
tic worker in the same field, maintains 
that they were the habitations of the 
beings whom the Japanese term " earth 
spiders " The original Japanese word is 
tsuchi-gumo. There is considerable doubt 
as to Its etymology, though every one 
agrees in interpreting it to denote a race 
of cave-dweiling savages Motoori, the 
greatest of all Japanese literati, explains 
the name by a comparison of the habits 
of the race in question with those of the 
spider. But it is surely more rational to 
regard the word tsuchi-guvio as a corrup- 
tion of tsuchi-gomori, " enTthhidei-s," than 
which no name could be more appro- 
priate to troglodytes. These people, who 
were widely spread over Japan in pre- 
historic times, were, probably the ances- 
tors of the modern Ainos. One of the 
earliest Japanese histories describes 
them as "short in stature, and having 
long arms and legs like pigmies."— 
Although the chief authority on such 
matters, Mr. William Gowland, in his 
elaborate monograph on the "Dolmens 
and Burial Mounds in Japan," does 
not mention this particular locality, 
which was only discovered after his 
departure from Japan, a careful perusal 
of his work leaves no room for doubt 
that Mr. Aston was right in regarding 
them, not as dwellings but as burial 
places, agreeing, as they do, in so many 
respects with the dolmens widely scatter- 
ed over Japan south of latitude 37°. 



Caves of Konosu. Temple of Narita. 



143 



Tlie caves, most of which face 
due S., are believed to number two 
hundred and thirty-seven in all. 
The entrances are about 3 ft. 
square ; then comes a passage of 6 
ft. and upwards in length, leading 
to a second doorway, within which 
are the chambers. These are of 
various sizes, many being 6 ft. 
square, and from 5 to 6 ft. high. 
The ceilings are dome-shaped. 
Each chamber contains one or two 
ledges having slightly raised 
borders. Traces of the use of tools 
are visible on the walls. Iron 
rings, arrow-heads, etc., have been 
found in some of the caves ; but 
the presence of these is doubtless 
due to the fact, as local tradition 
asserts, that parties of fighting men 
took refuge here in more modern 
times. The town of M.atsuyama 
lies 13 cho off. It contains a large 
Shinto temple to the gods of Inari, 
known as Yakyu Inari. 



11. — The Temple or Nakita. 

Shrine of Sakuea Sogoe5. 
Kadoki. 

A visit to the famous shrine of 
the god Fudo at Narita is recom- 
mended to those who would see 
Buddhism still a power in the land, 
alive and flourishing in the soil of 
popular piety. The wood-carvings, 
too, that adorn some of the build- 
ings are excellent specimens of 
modern art. Trains run from 
T5kyo {BydgoJcu-bashi station) in 
2| hrs. (see Eoute 21). An alterna- 
tive way (time about the same) is 
to take the Abiko line starting from 
Ueno. The village of Narita, clus- 
tering at the base of the low hill on 
which the temple stands, possesses 
a large number of inns. The 
*Wakamatsu-ya and Ebi-ya are the 
best. 

The full name of this holy place is 
Nariia-san Shingo Khinsho-ji, i.e. " the 
Divinely Protected Temple of Recent 
Victory on Mount Narita." The story of 
its origin is as follows ;— 



At the time of the foundation of the 
Buddhist faith, an Indian sculptor named 
Bishukatsuma carved a wonder-working 
image of the god Fudo (see p. 46), which 
image, after the lapse of many centuries, 
was sent to China, where it passed into 
the hands of a holy priest named Keikwa 
Ajari. When the great Japanese saint. 
Kobo Daishi, visited China in A.D. 804, to 
seek instruction in Buddhist mysteries, 
this priest it was who became his teacher ; 
and when teacher and disciple were about 
to part, each was warned in a dream 
that the miraculous image was destined 
for Japan, and accordingly Kobo Daishi 
brought it home with him and enshrined 
it in a temple on Takao-zan near Kyoto, 
together with attendant figures of Seitaka 
Doii and Kongara Doji which he carved 
with his own hand. Now it happened 
that about a century and a half later, 
a revolution broke out. Masakado, a 
courtier of high birth, taking offence at 
the refusal to appoint him on the staff 
of an embassy about to start for China, 
rebelled against the legitimate sovereign, 
Shujaku Tenno. Retiring to his native 
province of Shimosa, he sacrilegiously 
assumed the title of Mikado, built him- 
self a capital in which the place-names 
round about Kyoto were plagiarised, 
established a mimic Court, and having 
made himself master of several provinces 
in Eastern Japan, prepared to march 
upon Kyoto. The legitimate Mikado, 
thereupon, not content with despatching 
against the rebel such valiant loyal war- 
riors as Fujiwara-no-Tadabumi, Taira-no- 
Sadamori, and Tawara-Toda Hidesato, 
applied to the priests for supernatural 
assistance. It was found that no god was 
so powerful as Fudo. and no image of 
him 60 miraculous as that which Kobo 
Daishi had brought over. Accordingly 
Kwancho Daisojo, a celebrated abbot of 
those days, who was also a scion of the 
Imperial family, was commissioned to 
carry the image to the seat of war and 
exorcise the enemy. The abbot embark- 
ed at Naniwa (now the city of Osaka), and 
soon landed on the coast of Eastern 
Ja.,pan, whence he proceeded inland, and, 
having set up the miraculous image on a 
rock near the rebel's capital performed 
before it for three weeks the Goma cere- 
mony, that is, prayers and incantations 
recited while a fire is kept burning on 
the altar. The result was the total defeat 
and death of Masakado in the year 940, 
the triumph of the loyalists, and prepa- 
rations on the part of the abbot to return 
home, when lo and behold ! the image 
waxed heavy as a rock, and utterly 
refused to move ! As usual, a dream 
served to explain matters. The god 
Fudo appeared, and declared his inten- 
tion of remaining where he was, to bless 
and civilize Eastern Japan. Accordingly 
the grateful Mikado granted funds for 
the construction of a temple on a grand 



144 



Boide 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 



scale ; and as local circumstances forbade 
the image from remaining on the exact 
spot where it had at first been set up, lots 
were drawn by thirty-three villages in 
the surrounding country-side, and the lot 
fell on Narita. Time brought further 
changes, and the present site — the hill 
known as Myoken-zan — was built on only 
in 1704. Probably the great popularity 
of the Narita shrine dates from about 
that period. In any case, the then recent 
founding of the new capital^ Yedo, in the 
near neighbourhood had furnished it with 
a large number of potential pilgrims ; 
and for some reason otherwise inexplica- 
ble, actors and other public entertainers, 
who flourish most in great cities, have 
long been its most ardent votaries. Many 
repairs and additions were made during 
the past century, the great Ni-6 gate 
dating from 1831, and the Mido from 
1856. Of the many relics preserved in 
the treasure house of Narita, the most 
highly valued is the Amakuni-no-hoken, a 
sword said have to been forged by Ama- 
kuni, the first of all Japanese smiths, for 
the Emperor Mommu (A.D. 683—697), 
who prized it equally with his crown 
regalia. After the suppression of Masa- 
kado's rebellion, this sword was presented 
to the god Fudo by the then Emperor 
Shujaku, in grateful acknowledgment of 
that deity's assistance. One touch of it 
is believed to cure insane persons and 
those possessed of foxes. It would seem, 
however, to be now never shown. A 
festival takes place on the 28th of each 
month, April, and May being the most 
crowded. 

The temple stands on the side of 
a hill in a line grove of cryptomeri- 
as and other trees. It is approach- 
ed from the inns by a paved avenue 
lined with stone Lmterns. To the 
r. of the Tamagaki (stone wall), is 
a well where pilgrims perform the 
ceremony of washing with cold 
water. Close by is the Danjiki-do, 
Avhither devotees retire to fast 
during a whole week, the only 
refreshment permitted to them 
being the use of the cold bath. 
Formerly the period was three 
weeks. 

Tradition says that this practice was 
instituted about the middle of the 16th 
century by the saint Doyo, who passed 
a hundred days in religious exercises. 
At last his prayers were answered by a 
vision of the god, who offered him the 
choice of a sharp or a blunt sword to 
swallow. The saint chose the sharp one, 
which the god thru.st down his throat, 
causing the blood to flow freely. On 



awakening he found his intellectual 
powers immensely increased, and felt no 
traces of the wound. Nevertheless, 
prie.stly robes dyed with the blood spilt 
on this occasion are preserved among the 
treasures of the temple. 

In a building to the r. of the 
DanjiM-dd, worshippers may often 
be seen seated in a circle, handing 
round one to another a huge rosary 
to which a bunch of horse-hair is 
attached, and chanting the invoca- 
tion " Namu Amida Butsu." Oppo- J 
site is the Oana Danjiki-do, reserved ^ 
for females. Both buildings have 
ex-votos over the entrance. To 
the 1. of the Tamagaki, a shrine 
called the Baishi-do, dedicated 
to Kobo Daishi, contains an 
image of that saint, besides fine 
carvings of dragons. The other 
buildings are residences of the 
priests. 

The Ni-b-mon, at the top of the 
first flight of steps, is a massive 
structure of keijaki wood, orna- 
mented with carvings by Goto 
Kisaburd. Under the architrave 
are eight groups representing Chi- 
nese children at play, and sages, 
probably intended for the " Seven 
Sages of the Bamboo Grove," whose 
recreations are chess, music, draw- 
ing, and calligraphy. At the r. end 
are groups of young cock-fighters, 
and the child delivered from the 
tixll water-jar by his sharp-witted 
companion Shiba Onko, who breaks 
a hole in it with a stone to let the 
water escape. In front r. is a sage 
writing an inscription, 1. another 
Inlaying on the harp. On the 1. 
side are children at play, and a 
group the central figure of which 
dances to the music of flageolet and 
drum. At the back, are groups of 
checker-players and of sages in- 
specting a picture. Close to the r. 
of the Ni-5-mon stands a hand- 
some granite beacon erected in 
1894, and decorated with the names 
of the donors in lettering of bright 
red, — the colour of Fudo's flames. 
Notice also the huge sword meant 
to scare away evil-doers. 



Tetnple of Narita. Sakiira Sogoro. 



145 



On eitlier side of the steps lead- 
ing up from this gate to the Hondo, 
or Main Temple, the prettily ar- 
ranged rockwork, crowded with 
bronze and stone figures, has a 
peculiarly bizarre but not unpleas- 
ing effect. , 

As one approaches the Hondo, 
the first thing that strikes the eye 
is the huge receptacle for money- 
offerings. Above it is a large panel 
with carvings of phoenixes gor- 
geously coloured, and on the r. and 
1, of this are coloured panels of 
peacocks, also in relief. This is 
the only colouring about the build- 
ing, the rest of the exterior being 
of unpainted keyaki wood. The 
sides and the back are decorated 
with eight splendid panels, each 9 ft. 
by 4 ft., representing groups of the 
Five Hundred Rakan in low relief, 
with an immense variety of incident 
and portraiture. They were carved 
by Ivlatsumoto Eydsan. On the 
huge doors that close the sliding 
windows of this part of the build- 
ing, are beautiful carvings of the 
Twenty-four Paragons of Filial 
Piety, each panel (2^ ft. by 2 ft.) 
containing two subjects by Shima- 
mura Shumbyd. The dragon and 
angels on the ceiling, and the bold 
sketches of the Sixteen Rakan be- 
hind the main altar are by Kano 
Kazunobu, a painter of the nine- 
teenth century. 

In the Naijin, or Holy of Holies, 
is the sacred black image of Fudo 
(often called Dainichi, with whom 
Fudo is often identified), scarcely 
visible in the dim light. Among 
the rockery behind are thirty-six 
small bronze statues ; in the centre 
at the top is Fud5 in a cave, and 
higher up on the r. the saint En- 
no-Sh5kaku. The grotesque figures 
popiilarly called Dalra-hoichi in the 
gables, which bear the ends of the 
ridge-pole, are excellent expressions 
of the effort to support a heavy bur- 
den. Round the building, under 
the architrave, are groups of fabu- 
lous animals. 

The three-storied Pagoda is a 



beautiful example of this architec- 
tural form, finely decorated and 
painted. The black groups on the 
four sides represent the Sixteen 
Kakan. The bell-tower opposite 
is also well worth a few minutes' 
attention. Close by on the r. is a 
handsome library containing a 
highly decorated revolving octago- 
nal box borne on the shoulders of 
parti -coloured demons. Note the 
peculiar coffered ceiling painted 
with kaleidoscopic patterns. In the 
Ex-voto HaU to the 1. of the 
Library, are pictures of Fudo 
helping suppliants ; also a huge 
rosary, the string of W'hich is a 
cable made of human hair, two 
large anchors thickly encrusted 
with barnacles, and various other 
offerings. 

A flight of steps leads up to 
another level where stands a large 
red shrine called the Komyd-do, or 
Hall of Eesplendent Light. The 
other ex-voto shed 1. contains a 
large variety of interesting offer- 
ings, w^here charms and pictures of 
ail kinds may be purch.ised. 

At Kozu-mura, 15 cho W. of 
Narita by jinrikisha, stands a small 
shrine dedicated to the memory of 
Sakura Sogoro. 

In the year 1644 a band of village elders, 
headed by one Sogoro, proceeded to Yedo 
to protest against the tyranny of the lord 
of Kakura. Even to protest was in those 
days a capital ofl'ence, acquiescence in all 
the mandates of his superiors being an 
inferior's sole and sufhcient duty. Not 
Sogoro only was put to death ; his wife 
was crucified with him and their three 
children decapitated befoj'C their eyes. 
One, a child of seven, was butchered as he 
was eating the sweetmeats thrown to him 
by the comi:iassionate spectators. This 
pathetic story is graphically told In 
Mitford's Tales of Old Japan. 

Charms bearing the name of the 
martyred peasant, together with 
pictures of him and his wife and 
children, sell in large numbers. 
Near by on the r. is Sogoro's grave, 
where incense is kept perpetually 
burning. 



14G 



lloiile ry.—E.jx' ('/'!< Ions from Tohio. 



The Shinto Ihnple of Kadorl, 
famous but not specially interest- 
ing, stands to the N.E. of Narita, 1 
hr. by train to Saicara, and 32 cho 
thence l)y jinrikisha. Numerous 
inn.'i ci-OMxl the entrance to the 
splendid grove of trees in ^^•hich the 
temj)le stands. 

This temple is cledicated to Futsu-nu<lii 
or Iwa-nusbi, a deified warrior of the 
mythical j)eriod, -whose symbol is a sword. 
The date of its foundation is unknown, 
but juay be placed a good deal earlier 
than the 5th century. The present 
building was erected at the beginning of 
the 17th century, and restored in A.D. 
1700. It is said that, as late as the begin- 
ning of the 17th century, the T,-aters of 
the Tonegawa came right up to the base 
of the hill on which the temple stands, 
and that all the rice-fields between it 
and Tsunomiya, about o miles distant, 
have been reclaimed since that period. 



12. — Ascent of Tsukuba-sax. 

Tsukuba-san, a mounkxin 2,925 
ft. high, situated 40 miles to the 
N.N.E. of Tdkyo, and forming even 
at that distance a striking feature 
of the landscax)e, is best reached by 
taking train at Ueno Station for 
Isuchi-ura (Lm, Matsu-ya), on the 
East Coast Railway (see Eoute 22), 
whence 4 rl by jinrikisha via JIojo 
to the foot of the mountain. Hence 
to the Till, of Tsukuba is 1 hr. walk 
uphill. It should be agreed u]X)n 
beforehand with the jinrilusha-men 
that they must shoulder the luggage 
and act as guides as far as the inn. 

The name Tsukuha is said to be com- 
posed of two Chinese words meaning 
"built bank;" and the legend is that 
Izanagi and Izanami constructed the 
mountain as a bulwark against the waves 
of the Pacific Ocean, which they had 
forced to retire to the other side of 
Kashinaa, formerly an island in the sea 
This tradition accords Avith the fact, 
Aerified by geologists, that the E. shores 
of Japan have been gi-adually rising 
during many centuries past. 

Satm-nalia used formerly to be held 
here. The following is a tran.slatiou of 
an extremely ancient ode : — 

Where many an eagle builds her nest, 
On Tsukuba'!3 mountain-crest. 
There the men and maids foregather. 
And this the song they sing together : 



" I your mistress mean to woo ! 
You may take and love mine too ! 
For the gods that here do throne 
Ne'er this ancient use disown : 
.So shut your eyes but for to-day, 
And lind no fault howe'er we play ! "' 

The cleanly little vill. of Tsul'i- 
ha {Inn, Edo-ya), lies about half- 
^^'ay u^i the mountain. Most of 
the houses command a fine view of 
the plain of Tolcyo, stretching away 
towards Fuji. The ascent begins 
immediately after leaving the vill., 
the way passing through the 
grounds of a temple. From this 
point to the summit of the W. 
peak, called Xantal-zan (Male 
Mountain), the distance is about 
50 chb. This is the usual ascent, 
being less steep than the path up 
the E. and lower peak. Xyotai-zan 
(Female Mountain). The summit 
is dotted with shrines, of which the 
largest is sacred to Izanagi. Simi- 
larly, the temple on Xyotai-zan is 
dedicated to his consort Izanami. 
There is a magnificent view of the 
Tokyo plain, Fuji, Asama-yama, 
and the Nikl^o range. Pines and 
cryptomerias cover the mountain, 
and the rocks about the summits 
are awkward to scramble over, the 
j assistance of an iron chain being 
I necessary in some places. From 
i the W. to the E. x^eak is an interval 
j of about ^ m. TTie descent from 
the latter is 70 cho. It passes over 
and Ijetv.een huge rocks, to which 
fanciful names have been given, 
from their supposed resemblance 
to portions of the human body. 
Tlie ascent and descent occupy 
about 4 hrs. 



I 



FUJI AND THE 

HAKONE 
DISTRICT 




Route 6. — Miyanoshita and Hakone. 



147 



ROUTE 6. 



The H vkone Distkict : Miyano- 
shita, Hakone. 

1. general infoiimation. 2. miya- 
noshita and neighbourhood. 
3. hakone and neighbourhood. 

1.- -General Information. 

This route is specially recom- 
mended, Jis uniting charm of 
scenery, jiccessibility, iind an un- 
usual degree of comfort. All 
tourists arriving at Yokohama are 
advised to devote a Aveek to it, and 
it they have not so much time at 
their disposal, then to devote two 
or three days to a portion of it. 
Even should they be disinclined 
for walking and sightseeing, they 
will tiud no place more pleasant 
for idling in at all se.isons than 
iliyanoshita. It offers another 
advantage, as a convenient starting- 
l)oint for the ascent of Fuji. The 
^\'hole district abounds with hot 
springs. 

The Avorcl Hakone, it sboultl be observed, 
tliougli employed by us. as by all Euro- 
peans to denote the village called by the 
Japanese JIakone-no-shuku, liakone-noeki, 
or Ilakone-macJti, is properly the general 
name of the entire mountainous district 
lying at the neck of the peninsula of Izu, 
between the Bays of Odawaraand Suruga. 
For this reason the Japanese talk of 
Miyanoshita, Kiga, etc., as being "in 
Hakone." The original name of Hakone 
Lake (now, however, used only in poetry) 
is Ashi-no-( 7 mi, that is, the Sea of Heeds. 
(Compare the name of Ashi-no-yit, " the 
Hot Water of the Heeds," which is really 
deserved, as these springs issue from a 
reedy marsh.) The lake measures, in 
round immbers, 1| ri long, 44 ri round, 
and has a depth of 37 fathoms in its 
deepest part. 

The following are the heights of the 
i;hief villages and mountains mentioned 
in this route : — 

Ashinoyu 2,870 feet. 

Futago-yama '.J, 575 , , 

Gora -2,300 „ 

Hakone 2,378 ,, 

Kamiyama i,716 „ 

Kintoki-zan 3.995 . , 



Koma-ga-take 4,4.52 feet. 

Kowaki-dani (Kojigoku) 2,100 ,, 

Miyanoshita .' 1,377 ,, 

Myojin-ga-take 3,821 ,, 

Myojo-ga-take 3,027 ,, 

Ojigoku 3,478 „ 

Otome-toge 3,276 „ 

iSaijoii (D6ry6-san) 1,216 ,, 

Ten Province Pass 3,216 ,, 

Yu-no-hana-zawa 3,100 , , 



2. — MlYAN(,)SniTA AND NkIGHBOUR- 
HOOD. 

Miyanoshita is easily rea<;hed 
from Yokohama by the Tokaido 
Hail way to Kozu station, Ij hr. ; 
thence by electric tram to l^umoto, 
1 hr. ; thence by jinrikisha (at least 
two men necessary) or on foot, for 
1| ri up the valley of the Hayakawa 
to Miyanoshitii, nearly 1 hr. by 
jinrikisha, 1] hr. on foot, — say 4^ 
hrs. for the whole journey, includ- 
ing stoppages. The total distance 
from K5zu to l^imoto is 10 miles, 
and from Yumottj to Miyanoshita, 
4 miles. 

At Kozu [inn, Kozu-kwan), it is 
worth devoting a few minutes to 
walking out on the beach to look at 
the beautiful view of Odawara Bay, 
I with to the r. the peninsula of Izu 
on whose coast Atanii is situated, 
ahead the volcano of Oshima (Yries 
Island), and to the 1. the islet of 
Enoshima. From the station, one 
has a strildng view of Fuji. The 
road from Kozu to I'umoto — the old 
Tokaido — leads past (a])Out 1 m.) 
the S/tdtd-eu, an inn situated on the 
beach, with sea bathing and Euro- 
pean conveniences. It is patronised 
by the higher official class. 

A little further on, the broad 
Sakaim-gawa is crossed, where a 
curious method often resorted to 
for the ]>rotection of the embank- 
ments of capricious rivers may be 
observed. Large ox^en crates made 
of split bamboos are filled with 
stones, and set in rows along the 
bank. Their appearance has gain- 
ed for them the name of ja-kago, 
literally, " serpent-baskets." The 
half-way station on the tram line is 



148 



Route 6. — Miyanoshita and Eakone. 



Oda"wara {Inns, Koise-ya, in the 
town ; Hoseki-ro, -udtli sea-bathing, 
at vill. of Ilayakaica, 10 cho off, on 
the Atami raid). This is a tovrn 
celebrated in Japanese history as 
Ihe scene of many bloo<ly conflicts 
in feudal times. 

Odawaia belonged successively to vari- 
ous families of Daimyos, who dwelt in the 
castle, which was not finally dismantled 
till the time of the late revolution. The 
most celebrated of these fainilies were 
the Hojo, a younger branch of the family 
of "Regents," who ruled over Japan 
during the 13th century and the first 
three decades of the Uth. This younger 
branch, selecting Odawara as their seat 
in A.D. 149>, continued to reside there for 
five generations, namely, till 1-590, when 
they were defeated and the power of their 
house broken for ever by the Taiko Hide- 
yoshi in the battle of Tshikake-yama. 
iletiring to their castle, the various com- 
manding officers on the Hoio side could 
come to no agreement, as time wore on, 
as to whether it were better to await the 
onslaught of the enemy, or to sally forth 
themselve.s and ofler battle. ^Yhile they 
were still discussing this question in all 
its bearings, Hideyosbi made a sudden 
Jittack and captured the castle by a coup 
de. main. Hence the proverbial saying, 
Odawara hyogi, that is, "the Odawara 
Conference," which means endless talk 
resulting in nothing. 

The tram station stands opposite 
the mined onter walls of the Castle ; 
no admittance to the picturesquely 
pine-clad grounds, where a i>alace 
\vas erected in 1900 for H. I. H. the 
Crown Prince. The middle and 
innermost walls, which are in ex- 
cellent preservation, may be seen 
by waUdng towards Komine, a 
hiUock \ hr. distant, — whole neigh- 
bourhood fragrant in February and 
early !March with masses of plum- 
blossom. 

On leaving Odawara, the road 
enters the valley of the Hayakaica 
near the mouth ot that stream, 
which takes its origin in Lake 
Hakone. The two round summits 
seen almost constantly ahead jire 
Fatacjo-yama, or the Tv.in Moun- 
tains. The avenue to the r. of the 
tram-road marks the Tokaido. 
Near 

Yumoto (10 min. out of the 



vill.), is a cascade known as Tama- 
dnre no taki. A small fee is charged 
for admittance. Yumoto boasts hot 
springs and a large inn, called 
Fuluizumi. Foreigners obUged to 
break the journey are, however, 
advised to push on § m. further to 
the vill. of 

Tonosawa [Inns, Tama-no-yu, 
Suzuki), with good hot springs. 
The mosaic wood-work which from 
Yumoto onwards fills such a promi- 
nent place in the shops, is the 
specialty' for which the Hakone 
district is noted. The hamlet more 
than half-way up from Yumoto to 
Miyanoshita is called Ohiradai. 

Ivliyanosliita (Hotel, *Fuji-ya, 
Europ. style) is a pleasant resort 
for many reasons, — the purity 
of the air, the excellence of the 
hotel accommodation, the numer- 
ous pretty walks both short and 
long, the plentiful supply of 
" chairs " and of specially large and 
comfortable kagos for those who 
prefer being carried, and the deli- 
cious hot baths, which, containing 
but faint traces of salt and sodo. 
may be used without medical ad- 
vice. The upper portion of the 
village is called Sokokura. The 
principal short walks from Miyano- 
shita are : — 

1. To Kig-a (distance, 9 cJio, say 

\ hr.) : — no climbing, tame fish to 

feed with cakes at the favourite 

" Gold-fish Tea-house." — The ravine 

spanned by a bridge soon after 

starting is called Jakotsu-gaica, lit. 

"Stream of the Serj^ent's Bones," 

from some white stones popularly 

believed to be the bones of dead 

serpents. A little way up is a 

waterfall, and the hot water ^\hich 

supplies the village can be seen 

issuing from the rocks in several 

l^laces. — Equally flat and pleasant 

road 8 cho further up the valley of 

j the Hayakawa to Miyaglno, a viU. 

I built on both sides of the stream. 

I 2. To Dogashiraa, a hamlet 

I Mith hot springs and a pretty 

! cascade, some few hundred yards 



Walks at Miyanoshita. 



149 



below MiyanoshitA, down a steep 
ravine. 

3. Climb half-way up Seng-en- 
yama, the wooded hill immediate- 
ly at the back of the Japanese wing 
of the Fnjiya Hotel. It is a steep 
pull of 25 or 30 min. to the tea- 
shed, some 700 ft. above the village, 
whence view of upper half of Fuji. 
This walk may be continued along 
the ridge towards Ashinoyu, but is 
pleasanter if taken in the opposite 
direction. 

Somewhat longer (1 to 2 hrs.), 
less good walking, but very pictur- 
esque are : — 

4. To Kiga and Miyagino, as in 
Xo. 1 ; then cross the river and 
turn sharp to the r., walldng back 
on the other side, via the rustic 
Hace-course, and re-crossing to 
the Miyanoshita side at Doga- 
shim^a. This is the most beautiful 
of all the walks near Miyanoshita. 

5. Up to Kowaki-dani, also 
called Kojlfjoku (Mii5:av>-aya Hotel, 
semi-Europ.), with hot mineral 
^;prings stronger than those at 
Miyanoshita, then do\s^n past the 
hamlet of Ninotaira to Miyagino, 
whence back by the main road via 
Kiga. The 28 cho (nearly 2 m. 
but there are many short-cuts) from 
Miyanoshita to Kowald-dani is done 
on foot or in jinrikishas. 

The moaning of the name Kojigahu is 
"Small Hell." It was bestowed on the 
place in allusion to some small sulphni* 
springs, which supply the hotel baths. 
In 1877, on the occasion of a visit of the 
Emperor, the name of Eojigoku was 
officially altered to Kowaki-dani, which 
means the "Valley of the Lesser Boiling." 

This walk may be abridged by 
turning to the r. before reaching 
Kowald-dani, almost all the paths 
r. leading down ultimately to the 
Kiga road. 

G. To the hot spring of Gora, 
through the wood leading to 0- 
jigoku ; returning home by the 
zigzag road over the moor to 
Miyagino ; under 2 hours. 

Grood half-day excursions are 
to:— 



7. Ojigoku, or_Big Hell, alter- 
natively named Owaki-dani, i.e.. 
the Yalley of the Greater Boiling, — 
distance, a little under 2 ri to the 
top of the gorge. Neither name is 
a misnomer. Tho whole gorge 
reeks vrith sulphurous fumes, vege- 
tation decreases as one ascends 
higher, and the aspect of the scene 
becomes weird and desolate. It is 
advisable to keep to the path and 
tread carefully after the guide, as 
more lives than one have been 
sacrificed by a false step on the 
trt\acherous crust. The view from 
tho top differs as widely in its 
charms from the scene of desolation 
just traversed as can well be im- 
agined. In the centre, Fuji towers 
up in perfect beauty. To the ex- 
treme r. is tooth-shaped Kintoki- 
zan, then the Otome-toge, the 
Nagao-tdge, and to the 1. the more 
imj)Osing slopes of Ashitaka. The 
summit of Kamiyama, which rises 
up immediately behind the sulphur 
springs, is distinguished by its 
graceful outline and by the dense 
forest covering its sides. 

8. Up Myojo-ga-take, or Muko- 
ynma, the big grassy hill immedi- 
ately opposite Miyanoshita, on the 
1. side of the stream. It is a walk 
of Ir} hr. to the top, the path at 
first leading down through the vill. 
of Dogashima, there crossing the 
stream, and then swerving consider- 
ably to the r., before tiirning 1. 
again along the crest of the hill. 
The view from the summit is ex- 
tensive. In the centre is Fuji, the 
depression immediately in front of 
which is the Otome-toge ; then to 
the r. Kintold and ^^^yojin-gfi- 
take, behind which rise Oyama and 
Tanzawa ; in the plain the Sakawa- 
gawa, and behind it the low range 
of Sogayama. The town of Odawara 
can be seen by walking back a few- 
yards ; then the sea with Oshima, 
and to the r. the low slope of 
Ishilcake-yama ; then Futago-yama, 
Koma-ga-take, Kamiyama, a.nd Dai- 
ga-take. The blear si^ot on Ivami- 
yama is the solfatara of So-un 



150 



rioute G. — Miycmo'fihita and liakonp. 



Jigokn. Still further to the r., in 
the blue distance, is Ashitaka- 
yama. The best time to Tiew this 
scene is at sunrise or at sunset. 
The coolie shouhl therefore carry a 
lantern, either for the first or for 
the last portion of the walk. The 
descent via Miyagino and Kiga is 
steeper in parts eyen than the 
ascent. This expedition is not 
recommended to i)eoi5le with weak 
heads or during the heat of sum- 
mer. The whole will take 3J hrs., 
including a short rest at the sum- 
mit. 

9. To the Dai, or Terrace, on 
the top of the hill leading to Saijoji 
(see p. 153), li hr. climb for sake 
of splendid view. Thence 1. along 
the ridge, and down the next de- 
pression (Yagura-zawa-t5ge) also to 
the 1., and so home, — 4 or 5 hrs. 

Tlie foUoT^-ing are longer excur- 
sions, occupying the greater part 
of a day. No. 10 can be done in 
jinrikisha or basha. 

10. To Ashinoyu and Hakone. 

]\Iiyanoshita to : — IVi Cho M. 

Kowald-dani 28 2 

Ashinoyu 1 5 2| 

Moto-Hakone 1 — '2h 

Hakone Till 14 l" 

Total 3 11 8 



But numerous short cuts will 
save pedestrians nearly 1| mile. 
Ashinoyu (Inns, Matsuzaka-ya, 
Euroi). food and beds ; Kinokuni-ya) 
is famous for its sulphur springs, 
whose efficacy in the treatment of 
skin diseases and rheumatism at- 
tracts crowds of Japanese patients 
and not a few foreigners, despite 
the bare uninviting ai)i)earance of 
the localit)^ Ashinoyu is yerj cool 
in summer, owing to its height, but 
is frequently enveiojjed in mist 
and commands no view, as it lies 
in a marshy dej)ression, though on 
the top of a hill. 

[At the end of the vill. of Ashino- 
yu a ixath 1. lead ni> Futago- 
yama, (lit. "twin mountain") 



a favourite designation for 
such double i^eaks, 25 min. 
to the first summit of the 
nearer peak ( Uim-Fniarja), 
which presents a garden-like 
appearance, and |- hr. more to 
the second summit, passing 
through an ancient crater now 
thickly carpeted ^\-ith moss and 
overgrown with bushes and 
trees. The view from this 
second summit is the finer, 
including Lake Hakone and 
many of the points enumerated 
on page 152 under Kamiyama. 
It is possible to reach the 
further j)eak of Futago-yama 
(Shifa-Futago) ; but the labour 
is not repaid, as the summit 
itself is covered vdth vegetation 
that shuts out all view. 

On a hill 8 cho (say {- hr.) 
lieyond Ashinoyu, is Yu-no- 
hana-zava a bathing establish- 
ment with very strong suljjhur 
baths. It commands a view, 
including Odawara Bay and 
Oyama shaped like an obtuse 
triangle. This walk, and that 
along the flat in the direction 
of Hakone, are the two best for 
invalids staying at Ashinoyu.] 

After leaving Ashinoyu, the path 
is at first level, and then descends 
most of the way to Hakone. The 
first object of interest passed is, 1., 
a set of three small stone monu- 
ments dedicated to the Soga Breth- 
ren and to Tora dozen (see p. 84). 
A few yards further on, to the r. 
and half-hidden among the grass 
and bushes, is a block of andesite 
rock well- worth x^ausing a moment 
to inspect, as it is covered with 
Buddhist images carved in relief. 
Tnese images are known as the 
^i-j^i-[lo Bosatsu, that is, the 
"Twenty-five Bosatsu" (see p. 44). 
The carving ai^parently dates only 
from A.D. 1293, though attributed 
to Kobo Daishi. 

Two or three of tlie images at the toi^ 
are unfinished. According to a legend 
still credited by the country-folk, Kobo 



Expeditions from Miyaiio^hila 



151 



Daislii had carved the other twonty-two 
during a single night ; but as day broke 
before the completion of his labours, the 
rest perforce remained incomi)letc. 

But tlie chief curiosity here- 
abouts is a colossal image of Jizo 
{Iiokudo no Jizo) carved in relief on 
a block of andesite, and ranlring 
among the triumphs of the Japa- 
nese chisel. Standing, as it does, a 
few yards above the road it may 
easily be missed unless the coolies 
1)6 instructed beforehand to x^oint j 
it out. Tradition has it that the 
great Buddhist saint, K5bo Daishi, 
carved this image also in a single 
night. A festival in its honour 
is celebrated yearly on the 23rd 
August. 

The two meres {Shoni-'ja-ike and 
Ncizuna-ga-ike), r. and 1. on the way 
bet^^'een Ashinoyu and Hakone, are 
the remains of ancient craters. 
Sh5ni-ga-ike generally affords fair 
skating in the "v^inter. Nazuna is 
filled with a species of small fish 
called aka-hara. 

[Koma-ga-take may be as- 
cended by a track starting 
from the first of these meres, 
leading up to the r., and fol- 
lowing along the ridge. This 
mountain is rather less worth 
climbing than Kamiyama, as 
the plateau-like nature of the 
top makes it imi)ossible to take 
in the whole view from any 
single spot. It has, however, 
the advantage of afxording the 
completest view of Lake Hako- \ 
ne. Time, 50 min., or say, 2| ; 
hrs. from Miyanoshita. — Koma- 
ga-take may also be ascended i 
from a point nearer the vill. of 
Ashinoyu ; but the climb is ; 
then considerably steeper.] 1 

i 
A boulder at the top of Koma-ga- i 
take is the subject of a curious su- 
perstition. It is believed that the ' 
water contained in the hollows of | 
this boulder never runs dry, and 
the peasants of the surrounding 
country make pilgrimages to it in | 
seasons of drought, in order to ob- I 
tain rain by scattering the drops to i 



the four winds. But if any of the 
water be taken down the mountain, 
the result is a typhoon. J 

The first hamlet reached on get- 
ting to the lake is Moto-Uakonf, 
where the Maisuzaka-ya Inn (semi- 
Europ.) pleasantly situated on the 
border of the lake, commands the 
best view of Fuji in this neigh- 
bourhood. Hence along an im- 
pressive avenue of cryptomerias to 
Hakone (see p. 153). 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita by the way one has come, it 
will l)e found pleasant in warm 
weather to take a boat from Hako- 
ne (or from jMoto-Hakone, which 
shortens the expedition by one 
mile) to the far-end of the lake, — 
Umi-jiri, lit. " sea-end," as it is 
termed. Alighting there, we go 
past the little bathing village of 
Ubago, up _the siiur separating the 
lake from Ojigoku, and return to 
Miyanoshita by the Ojigoku way, 
as in Walk No. 7. Those who 
do the expedition, not on foot, 
but in chairs, can take these con- 
veyances with them in the boat, 
and can be carried most of the Avay 
home from Umijiri. Jinrikishas 
and hasha not practicable. It is 
only necessary to walk over the 
dangerous portion of the Ojigoku 
gorge. Instead of taking a boat, 
some may prefer to follovr the path 
along the edge of the lake. The 
distances, if this extension be adopt- 
ed, are as follows : — 

^liyanoshita to :— 7?/ Cho M. 

Hakone 3 11 8 

Umijiri 1 18 'i'i 

Ubago 12 i 

Ojigoku 8 ^- 

Miy anoshita 1 34 4| 

Total 7 11 17f 



11. Up Kamiyama, the central 
and highest peak of the Hakone 
range, the way — \ve purj^osely say 
"way," for there is not always a 
l>ath — lying first among long grass, 



152 



Route 6. — Miyanoshita and Hakone. 



and then throngli scrub. It is best 
to ascend from a ix)int on the O- 
jigoku road past the viU. of Kino- 
taira, and to descend \m Yn-no- 
hana-zawa, -whence down by a zigzag 
path passing through Kowald-dani. 
The ascent v/ill take a fair walker 
2^ hrs., the whole expedition, say, 5 
hrs. Its roughness makes it unsuit- 
able for ladies. An old crater is 
traversed before reaching the sum- 
mit, which commands a grander 
panorama than any other in this 
district. Fuji towers to the N.W., 
flanked by the sno\vy summits of 
the Koshu mountains to the r. and 
the Shinshu mountains to the 1. 
Further 1. is Ashitaka-yama, then 
the blue GuK of Suruga with its 
line of surf, and the narrow pine- 
clad promontory of Mio -no-Mat su- 
bara shutting in Shimizu Bay. 
Next comes the peninsula of Izu 
with the Amagi-san range, Hatsu- 
shima near Atami, smoldng Vries 
Isknd, and the smaller islands of 
Toshima, Xiijima, etc., forming with 
it and with more distant Hachijo 
the " Seven Isles of Izu ; " Sagami 
Bay, with the town of Odawara, 
the river Sakawa, Enoshima, and 
the promontory of ]Misaki, v.ith the 
further promontory or Sunosaki 
in Boshu behind ; the plain that 
stretches towards Fujisawa, Oyama, 
and the Tanzawa range. All the 
summits of the Hakone range are 
grouped in the nearer distance at 
the spectator's feet. Betvreen him 
and Fuji is a ridge, the three lowest 
points of which are the Otome- 
tdge, Nagao-t5ge, and Fukara-toge. 
The grassy summit on the other 
(southern) side is Koma-ga-take 
with_ Futago-yama behind, while 
Tailco-yama and Ishikake-yama 
stretch behind thnt again like a 
long wall. Miyano.shita, too, is 
visible on this side. 



Taikb-yama, or Taiko-michi, takes its 
name from a traditi(m to the efiect that 
the Taiko Hideyoshi led his troops along 
it when going to fight the battle of 
Ifihikake-yama. The way was shown him 
by a hunter, whom ho thereupon killed, 



in order to make sure that the enemy 
should not profit by the poor fellow's 
local knowledge. 

12. Up most of the way to Ashi- 
noyu; thence turning sharp 1. for 
30 chd down a steep and stony path, 
which passes through the vill. of 
Hata on the old Tnkaido. The first 
portion of the descent is called Taki- 
zaka, or Cascade Hill, on account of 
a cascade seen to the r. about two- 
thirds of the way down. The 
return to Miyanoshita is made via 
Yumoto, Tonosawa, and Ohiradai, 
— total distance, about 5 ri. 

_13. To the top of the Otome- 
tog-e, or " Maiden's Pass," distant 3 
ri {7\ m.), whence can be gained the 
nearest and most complete view of 
Fuji and of the plain at its base. 
The path is not steep, excepting 
11 chd of stifE climbing at the end. 
It is possible, however, to ride or to 
be carried the whole way in a chair. 
The path leads through Miyagino, 
crosses the Hayakawa, and conti- 
nues up the valley to the vill. of 
Sengnku. 

[From Sengoku, the ascent of 
tooth-shaped Kintoki-zan 
takes 1 hr., the climb being 
steep for a portion of the way. 
One may also reach it from the 
Otome-toge, but that is much 
longer. The summit, which is 
marked by several tiny shrines 
and is clear of trees, affords a 
grand view. The people of the 
surrounding country-side as- 
cend Kintoki-zan annually on 
the 17 th day of the 3rd moon, 
old style, on which day the fes- 
tival of I-no-hana (" the boar's 
snout") is held on the summit. 
The name of the mountain is 
derived from that of Kintold, 
a mighty hunter of legendary- 
fame.] 

The climb up the Otome-toge 
commences shortly after leaving 
Sengoku. The labour it entails is 
amply repaid by the view from the 
gap forming the pass. Persons 



Expeditions frcnn Miyanoshita. 



153 



with sufficient time will do well to 
climb up the hill to the r., from 
whose top are visible the snow-clad 
peaks of the mountains of Koshu 
and Shinshu. — To travel out to 
Miyanoshita via the Otome-toge is 
a pleasant alternative route for those 
who intend visiting this district a 
second time. Instead of alighting 
at Kozu, one continues in the train 
as far as Gotemba station, situated 
in the plain at Fuji's base. From 
Gotemba it is 2.} rl to the top of 
the pass, but the first portion of 
the way may be done in jinrikisha. 
Gotemba is also the nearest station 
for travellers coming up the Tokai- 
do Kailway from Kobe, bound for 
Miyanoshita. But if they have 
much luggage or object to walidng, 
they should go on to Kozu, whence 
the facilities for proceeding to 
Miyanoshita are greater. 

14. To the vill. of Sengoku, as in 
the i)receding walk ; there cross the 
river to the thickly wooded hill of 
Dai-g-a-take ; then past the hot 
springs of Yuha, again crossing and 
re-crossing the river to Miyagino, 
and so home. The park-like scen- 
ery about Dai-ga-take and Yuba 
differs from that of the other walks 
in the neighbourhood of Miyano- 
shita. Time, 2 hrs. from Sengoku, 
or 4 hrs. altogether. 

15. To the Buddhist temple of 
Saijoji, sometimes called Dbryo- 
san, distant 3 ri. Though placed 
last, this long expedition is perhaps 
the most delightful of all ; for it 
alone includes architectural beauties 
as well as beauties of nature. The 
path, after passing through Kiga 
and Miyagino and crossing the 
Hayakawa, leads up to a grassy 
j)lateau near the summit of Mydjin- 
ga-take, — not to be confounded with 
the Myojo-ga-take of Walk No. 8. 
(Though kagos go this vray, horses 
dannot. Eiders therefore have to 
go roTind via Yagura-zarm, which 
increases the distance by about a 
couple of miles.) Tell the guide 
to lead to the spot called the Dai, 
or " Terrace," ^ hr. out of the way 



to the 1., whence may l)e&t be seen 
the superb view : — on the one 
hand, the sea, with Yries Island, 
the peninsula of Boshii, and the 
nearer peninsula of Sagami, the 
plain of Sagami watered by the 
rivers Banyii and _Sakawa, the 
mountain ranges of Oyama, Kura- 
kake, Tanzawa, Sobutsu, Yagura- 
dake, and many of the mountains 
of Koshu ; on the other, the wooded 
heights beyond the Hakone pass 
which dwarf the nearer ridge of 
Takanosu ; then turning towards 
the r., double-crested Futago-yama, 
Koma-ga-take, Kam.iyama, and the 
long ridge to the W. of Hakone 
which terminates in Kintoki-zan ; 
and above and beyond all, the 
gigantic cone of Fuji. From this 
point it is a descent, Saijdji being 
even lower down on the far side of 
the mountain than Miyanoshita is 
on the near. Before reaching it, 
the open moorland of the hillside is 
exchanged for a fine grove of pines 
and cryptomerias, with an under- 
growth of flowering shrubs, — 
deutzia, azalea, pyrus japonica, 
aucuba, etc., according to the 
season. 

The temple of Saijoji, which belongs 
to the Soto f5ect of Buddhists, was founded 
by a hermit named E-yo-an, who died A.D. 
1401 ; but it owes its special repiitation 
for sanctity to his succe-esor Doryo, who 
was held to bo one of the numerous 
incarnations of Kv/annon, the Goddess of 
Mercy. 

To Doryo's memory is dedicated 
the finest of all the shrines which 
collectively constitute Saijoji. It 
is called Myokwalai-do, and stands 
at the top of a flight of steps to the 
1. The links of the chain which 
divides the staircase into two parts 
are often bound wdth scra^is of 
pax-)er, on v>'hich pilgrims have 
written short prayers. The fan of 
feathers, which forms so strildng a 
feature of the ornamentation, was 
Doryd's crest. The winged figures 
with large noses represent goblins 
[tengu), who dwell in the moun- 
tains. Do not fail to notice the 



154 



Pioide G. — Miyanoshila and Hal'one. 



(■l:il)or;ito wood-carvings. ]Most of 
the lai-ge upright stones of irregular 
shape inscribed with characters in 
red or gold, -which are scattered 
about the grounds, are memorials 
of persons who have at Tarious 
times contributed towards the 
repairs of the temple. So is the 
hideous grey railing, by which 
more recent piety has succeeded 
in marring the perfect taste and 
beauty of the scene. It is generally 
most convenient to lunch at Saijoji 
alfresco in one of the retired por- 
tions of the temple grounds. There 
are also several tea-sheds some vray 
down the avenue l)eyond the 
temi:>le. 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita the way one came, it is 
better to arrange at the hotel, be- 
fore starting, to have jinrildshas in 
v.-aiting at the end of the stately 
avenue of cryptomerias leading 
from the temple down for 28 cho 
to the vill. of Sekimofo {tea-house, 
Saka-ya). After the fatigues of the 
walk, one can thence bowl along 
merrily through the pleasant valley 
of the Sakawa-gawa, skirting Oda- 
wara, whence by tram to Tdnosawa, 
and by jinrikisha or on foot up 
to Miyanoshita. The total distance 
of the trip, as thus modified, is 10 
rl 25 cho (26 miles) ; but the 3 ri in 
jinrikisha from Sekimoto to Od;x- 
wara, and the possibiUty of doing 
all the remainder of the way up to 
Miyanoshita by jinrikisha, diminish 
the exertion. Allow 9 hrs. for the 
whole. — It is also ix)ssible to take 
Saijdji on the way back from 
Miyanoshita to Yokohama, by join- 
ing the railway at Mafsuda, the 
nearest station to the temple. The 
distance from the end of the avenue 
just mentioned, is under 2 rl. From 
(> to 7 hrs. should be allowed for 
the whole expedition, including a 
stoppage for lunch. 

3, — Hakoxe and Neighbourhood. 

Hakone is most q^uckly reached 
from Yokohama l^y the T5kaid6 



Railway as far a.s Kozu, thence by 
tram to Yumoto, and on foot or in 
kago along the old Tokaido up the 
Hakone jmss via Hata. the entire 
journey taldng about G hrs. from 
Yokohama. The way up the Hako- 
ne pass is picturesque, notv/ith- 
standing recent deforestation ; but 
the road is extremely stony. Many 
residents prefer to travel via ]\[iya- 
noshita, where the7y spend the night, 
and then push on next morning by 
Walk No. 10 (see p. 150). 

The respective merits of Hakone 
and ]Miyanoshita may be summed 
up as follows. Miyanoshita has the 
advantage of hot springs, a drier air, 
easier access, and a first-class 
hotel. Hakone is cooler, lieing just 
1,000 ft. higher, and has a pictur- 
esque lake where one may bathe 
and boat and go on water x^i^^nics. 
The view of Fuji too, and the 
reflection of Fuji in the lake are 
great attractions. In ^-inter the 
advantage is altogether on Miyano- 
shita's side ; no one thinks of 
staying at Hakone during that 
season. The Hakone Hotel also 
called Hafu-ya (semi-Europ.) stands 
on the lake-side. But as nearly 
every house in the village is to let 
during the summer season, the 
plan usually followed by families 
from Yokohama and the China 
X)orts is to hire a separate residence 
by the month, bring their own 
servants with them, and set up 
housekeeping. Euroj)ean furniture 
of a roiigh kind is generally obtain- 
able, as also ju-ovisions during the 
summer season. 

Some of the most enjoyable ex- 
peditions from Hakone are the 
same as those already described 
from Miyanoshita, — ^for instance, 
those to Ojigoku, to Ashinoyu, up 
Futago-yama, etc. The following 
may also be recommended : — 

1. The Temple of Gongen, l\ifi. 
The way leads along an avenue of 
fine cryptomerias that lines the 
Tokaido. A flight of steps will be 
seen r., near which formerly stood 
the old Barrier {Hakone no seki) and 



WaUi.^ at Rcfkone. 



15? 



gimrd-house, %vliere all travellers 
were challenged and required to 
show their passports. The barrier 
Avas removed in 1871, but part of 
the stone-Avork still remains. 

Kaempfer, who passed this way on the 
11th March, 1691, writes of this guard- 
house as follows:— "We came to the 
Imperial guard at the end of the village, 
where all the Japanese came out of their 
Korimons and Cangox, and those on horse- 
l)ack alighted from their horses, present- 
ing themselves very respectfully and 
bareheaded, to be search'd, which how- 
ever was done but slightlj'. If there be 
any the least suspicion of a woman, 
disguis'd in man's cloaths, they must be 
more narrowly search'd, with this differ- 
ence however, that in this case, they are 
examin'd by women. Private persons 
going up to Jedo, must show their Pass- 
ports at this place, otherwise they are 
kept under arrest for three days, before 
they are permitted to iiursue their 
journey." 

Following along the avenue, we 
soon come 1. to an Imperial Sum- 
mer Palace, not accessible to the 
public. The next ix)int in the road 
is the Maisuzaha-ija inn(Euroj). food), 
commanding the best view of Fuji 
to be had anywhere on the shores 
of the lake. A little further on, 
we XDass under a stone torii, and 
enter the hamlet of Moto-IIakone. 
We then turn slightly to the 1., 
passing under a red torii, by the 
side of which stands a wooden shed 
containing two iron rice-boilers 
said to have been used by Yoritomo 
on his hunting expeditions. The 
road here skirts the lake, soon 
Ijringing us to a charming vista as 
we ascend to the foot of the temple 
steps. On the 1., just before pass- 
ing through the torii, stands the 
custodian's house, where Yoritomo's 
sword and other relics are preserved. 
Also on the 1., half-way up, is a 
shrine dedicated to the Soga Breth- 
ren. The main temple is a i:>ictur- 
esque relic of mouldering antiquity. 
The annual festival is celebrated on 
the 1st August. 

2. Walk to the End of the Lake, 
5 m. along the E. shore to Uroijiri, 
as the N. end is called. 

3. Along the Sukumo-gawa.— 



This is a picturesque, but rather 
rough, walk. The stream has to be 
j)erpetually crossed and re-crossed, 
and wading is sometimes unavoid- 
able. The \)ii{h. finally leads out 
near the vill. of Ilata, whence home. 
At the beginning of the valley, a 
path to the r. leads to Yos-Jnhaiva 
on the coast. 

4. Walks in the direction of 
Atanii. — Several walks with line 
views, can be taken in the direction 
of Atami, notably one up the slope 
of Okoma-ynma and over Kazakoshi- 
yama, to the highest i:)oint of the 
Tokaido, where, on a little plateau, 
a ]X)st marks the boundary between 
the provinces of Sagami and Izu, 
and back to Hakone by the 
Tokaido : — distance about 3 J m. 
Biit of all walks in this direction, 
the most delightful is that to the 
Ten Province Pass (see p. 156). — 
A pleasant way to Odaicara is 
afforded by walking towards this 
Pass for 1.} ri to a milestone, 
whence down 1. for another IJ ri to 
the spa of Yiu/mcara (see p. 158). 

5. The Subterranean Water- 
course and the Fukara-toge. — 
The Fukara Pass (a very low one) 
is the most southerly of three that 
lead from the end of Lake Hakone 
to Fuji, the other two being the 
Nagao-toge and the Otome-toge. 
The first stage on the way to all 
three from Hakone is by boat 
nearly to the end of the lake. Close 
to the spot on the shore where the 
way up the Fukara Pass begins, 
is a tunnel {suimon), through which 
a portion of the waters of the lake 
is carried to several villages on 
the other side of the mountain, 
serving to irrigate their rice-fields. 

This subterranean channel is said to be 
artificial, the local account being that it 
was pierced by two brothers, who bored 
through the mountain from opposite 
sides until they met in the middle. 

The walk up the pass takes only 
15 min. The exit of the tunnel 
is some way down the valley, say 2 
hrs. from the boat and ]:)ack again. 



156 



Route 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 



6. Tlie Nag-ao-tSg-e.— This lies 
1 ri 7 cho from the end of the lake. 
The -vvay leads first across the 
Hayakawa, the lake's natural outlet; 
then along a broad level cinder 
path to the foot of the pass, 
and finally by an easy climb of 12^ 
chb to the top. The gap at the 
summit commands a complete view 
of Fuji from base io peak. 



ROUTE 7. 



The Peninsula of Izu. 
1. atami and neighbouehood. 2. 

FEOil ATAMI BOUND THE PENINSU- 
LA TO NUMAZU. 3. TO THE HOT 
SPRINGS OE SHUZEN.JI AND TO 
SHIMODA. 4. FROM YUGASHIMA 
TO ATAMI. 

{Conf. map facing p. 147.) 

1. — At AMI AND NeIOtHBOUEHOOD. 

Atami (Higuchi Hotel, Europ. 
style ; Fuji-ya, and many others) 
has become a favourite winter re.sort 
of the Japanese, as it ix)ssesses hot 
springs and is protected by a high 
range of hills from the north- 
vv'esterly winds which prevail at 
that season. The whole stretch of 
coast from Kozu on the Tdkaido 
Railway to Atami partakes more or 
less of the same advantage ; and 
the soft air, the orange-groves, and 
the deep blue of Odav/ara Bay, 
combine to make of this district 
the Pdviera of Japan. 

Atami is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by rail as far as 
Kozu, 1^ hr., whence by tram to 
Odawara, J hr., and then by " Jin- 
rikisha Tram " {Jinshu Tetsudb) for 



the rest of the way, 3^ hra., along 
the coast. Jinrikishas may also be 
availed of, but take 1 hr. longer. 
Note that at Odawara time and 
trouble are saved by continuing on 
in the tram past the tramway 
station to the point where the 
Jinrildsha Tram station stands. 
Small, cheaf) steamers also ply 
between Kozu and Atami in 3 hrs. 

Itinerary by Boad. 

KOZU to :— Pa Cho M. 

Odawara 1 28 4^ 

Hayakawa ]0 ^ 

Nebnkawa 1 20 3| 

Enoura 1 12 3V 

Yoshihama 1 32 4.^ 

Izu-san 2 12 5| 

ATAm 18 1\ 

Total 9 24 23i 



The road is delightfully pictur- 
esque and representatively Japa- 
nese, leading first under an ancient 
avenne most of the way to Oda- 
wara, and thence up and down 
along the coast, with ever-changing 
views of sea and land and of Tries 
Island smoking in the distance. 
The little peninsula whose neck is 
crossed about half-way, is called 
Manaziiru. 

Travellers approaching Atami 
from the Ky5to side may save time 
by changing trains at ]Mishima Junc- 
tion for Daiha, and thence on foot or 
by jinrikisha over the hills to Atami, 
5 ri ; but pedestrians can gain at 
least 1 ri by short-cuts over the 
sjmngy turf of the higher portion 
of the walk. During most of the 
way up, a fine near view is obtained 
of Fuji, with to the r. Amagi-san 
and the lower ranges of the penin- 
siila of Izu. 

A third way, much to be recom- 
mended to good walkers, is that 
from !Miyanoshita via Ashinoyu to 
Hakone (see p. 150), and thence over 
the hills by the Ten Province 
Pass {Jikkoku-toge). The climb is 
for the most part easy enough, and 



Atami. 



157 



the panorama from tlie summit, 
especially in early winter, some- 
thing never to be forgotten. The top 
of the ridge, which is marked by a 
stone known .as the Ten Province 
Stone, looks down on the provinces 
of Izu, Siu-uga, T6t5mi, Koshu, 
Kotsuke, Musashi, Shimosa, Kaznsa, 
Boshu, and Sagami. Bays, penin- 
sulas, islands, mountain ranges lie 
spread out in entrancing variety of 
form and colour, Fuji towering up 
magnificently above all the rest. 
The last 3 m. into Atami are a steep 
descent, passing the ruinous temple 
of Higane-san, which has curious 
stone images of Emma-6 (p. 45) and 
Shozulva-no-Baba (p. 47), and a 
stone praying-v.'heel dated 1880. 
The total distance from IMiyano- 
shita to Atami by this way is 
between 6 and 7 r^i ; time, 7 lirs., 
including stoppages. 

The curiosity for which Atami 
is noted is its ge3^ser ( Oyu), in the 
middle of the town which breaks out 
once in every four hours. It orig- 
inally shot straight up into the 
air, but is now partially enclosed ; 
and an inhalation house has 
been erected for patients suffering 
from affections of the throat 
and lungs, the salt in which 
the steam of the geyser is rich 
being beneficial in such cases. 
There are several other springs, 
mostly saline, recommended for 
rheumatism and other diseases. 
The chief productions of Atami are 
a delicate land of paper, called 
(jampisJd, literally, " v\^ild-goose skin 
paper." — gampishi-orl, which is a 
fabric made of this paper and used 
for clothing, and a wholesome 
sweetmeat called ame. 

The geyeer has been known ever since 
the settlement of Eastern Japan at the 
dawn of trustworthy history. According 
to tradition it burst out suddenly, not 
in its present site, but in the sea, whence 
the name of Atami (for atm-uvii), "hot 
sea." In order to put a stoi) to the 
destruction of marine life, and also to 
secure for human use so valuable a heal- 
ing moans, the Buddhist abbot Mangwan 



visited this then remote spot in the year 
749, and in answer to his prayers, the 
geyser was, amidst the crash of earth- 
quakes and other portents, removed 
higher up on to the shore, whore it still 
exists. It was only about 1870 that the 
recommendation of a celebrated physi- 
cian made the place fashionable. At 
first it was resorted to chiefly in summer, 
but now winter is the favourite season. 
Invalids form a large proportion of 
the visitors. 

The wallas to be recommended 
at Atami are : — 

1. To the grove of Kinomiya, l 
hr. distant from the Higuchi Hotel. 
At the far end of the grove, are 
some of the finest camphor-trees 
[kusunoki] remaining in Japan. 

2. To Uomi, the hut visible 
high up on the cliff that shuts in 
Atami Bay to the S. It is a climb 
of some 20 min., with a good view. 

The name Uo-mi, lit. " fish-outlook," 
refers to the use to which this post of 
observation is put, an experienced man 
being constantly on watch there, who, 
when a school of fish enters the bay, 
blows a horn as a signal to the fishermen 
below. These at once launch off from 
the shore, and, forming their boats in 
a circle, draw in a large net which is 
kei)t constantly laid down, harpoon the 
fish, and pull them into the boat,— an 
exciting and bloody scene. This is the 
way in which the albacore (a delicate 
sort of tunny) is caught during the 
winter months. In spring, mackerel and 
various other fish are taken, and in 
summer large quantities of bonito These 
last are, however, more often angled for 
than netted. 

A walk of 25 min. further, up the 
crest of the hill and then down to 
the 1. leads to some small cascades 
called Fudo no taki. 

3. To the Bai-en, or plum gar- 
den, — a level walk of about 1 mile. 
Blossoms from New Year to early 
February. 

4. To Izu-san, \ ri, a hamlet of 
inns, grouped on a cliff below, the 
highway, where a very hot spring 
containing sulphur and alum, spe- 
cially recommended for diseases of 
the brain and skin, gushes out. 

5. To Tosawa, ^ hr. climb half- 
way up Higane-san to a beautiful 
grove of trees. There one may turn 



158 



Boute 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 



to the r., and come back by way of 
the vill. of Izu-san. (This Till, is 
not below the highway, as are the 
hot springs of Izti-san, mentioned 
in No. 4). 

fi. Past the Bai-en, and up to tlie 
top of the Tanna-toge, aitbrding 
a magnilicent view similar to that 
from the Ten Province Stone (p. 
156),— 1| hr. there, 1 hr. back. 

7. By boat to the fishing vill. of 
Ajiro [Tan, 8himizn-ya), Ih hr., 
including a short stoppage at the 
sea-caves of XisJuki-ura. The wallc 
back over the Ta(/a-tdge, Ih ri, 
affords a variety. 

8. Up to just below Higane- 
san, and down a steej) narroAv 
gorge r. to the neat little spa of 
Yiujaicara [Inn, Fuji-ya) ; thence 
back via Mongaica on the tram line. 

The follo"«dng are all day expedi- 
tions : — 

9. To the islet of Hatsushima, 
noted for its jonquils {sidseii). 

10. By bocit to Ito {Inns, Danko- 
en, Masu-ya), 5 ri 17 chd by road, 
but shorter by water. 

The cluster of liamlets, of wliicli Wada 
iiud Matsuhara are tlie biggest, are col- 
lectively known aa Ito, and noted for 
their hot mineral waters. The other 
hamlets of the group are Yukawa, Takc- 
no-uchi, and Arai. 

[Ito may be reached from the 
Tokaido Eailway by taldng the 
branch line from Mishima 
Junction to Ohito, whence 5 ri 
26 chb by road, half of which is 
practicable for basha. Or by 
small coasting steamer from 
Kozu, daily, in about 5 hrs.] 

A day is required from Ito for 
the exciu-sion to Omuro-zan, an 
extinct volcano resembling Fuji in 
shape, and therefore often called 
by the country-folk Fuji no Imofo, 
" Fuji's Younger Sister, or Scngen- 
yama. (Sengen is an alternative 
name of the Gt)ddess of Fuji). The 
crater is about 2-50 yds. in diameter, 
and some 80 ft. deep, the bottom 
being covered with scattered blocks 



2 
3 


14 5f 
3 7J 


3 

2 


20 8.^ 

21 G] 


1 


35 4f 


6 


— 14| 


14 
2 
4 
2 


— 34i 

2 ^ 

35 12^ 

34 7} 


4 


15 10$ 


2 


7 5i 




31 2 


1 


— 2=V 


.52 


1 127 



of lava. To the E. of this volcano 
stands a smaller called Konivro-ian. 



2. — Feom Atami Hound thk 

PeXINSI'LA to iSUMAZU. 

liinerary. 

ATAMI to:— 7.'/ Chd 21. 

Ajiro 

Ito 

Yawatano 

Naramoto 

Inatori 

Kendiiiji (;ipprox.) 
IMatsuzaki ,, 

Tago 

Toi 

Heda 

Mito 

Enoura 

Ushibuse 

Xumazu 

Total 

This excellent trip will take a 
good pedestrian 6 or 7 days, the way 
leading up and down hills all along 
the beautiful seaboard. During the 
first three days the volcano of 
Oshima and the smaller isles of Izu 
iire constantly in sight. The latter 
portion northward up the west coast 
passes a succession of picturesque 
nooks, bays, and islets, with rocky 
caves and pinnacles. Of these the 
most noted is DdgasJdma, to visit 
which hire a boat at MatsuzaM. 
From Heda onwards the Avalk com- 
mands unrivalled views of Fuji, while 
at its close the lovely Bay of Enoiira 
affords si^ecially fine accommoda- 
tion at the inns mentioned below, 
together Avith sea bathing ; but the 
inns are good throughout. Here 
and there boats might be availed of 
as a change, for instance, at the end 
from Mito to Enoura where islands 
shut out the rough sea. This bay is 
visited from March to August l;»y 
large quantities of tunny, and some 
of the wooded islets that dot the sea 
are tox^ped by the curious look-outs 



Bound the Coad. Shuzenji Spa. 



159 



of the lisliermen (p. 157).— If the 
very bug day between llenclaiji 
and Matsnzald be objected to, one 
may tind f)assable accommodation 
en rouh, especially at Nakaini. It is 
also I'ossible to take hasha as for as 
Telshl, 7 miles f rom Kendjiiji ; and 
there is a short cut by an inland 
road, ])artly traversed by hasJui, but 
ibis is less x)ictures(iue. The inns 
are as follows : — 

ltd, Danko-eu. 

Iiiatori. Koji-ya. 

lie ndai j i , Yoshimu r; i . 

Matsuzaki, Slidkai. 

Toi, Choyo-kwMi), ]Meiji- 

kwan. 

TIeda, ''•Hoyo-kwaii. 

Hhizn-uni, *Hoy5-kwau. 

Ushibuse, Mishima-kw;in. 

The Tdkaido IJaihvay is joined at 
ynmazu. 



3. — To THE Hot SniixGs or Shu- 

ZENJI, AND OVEK AmA(;I-SAN TO 

Shimoda. 

'I'rain from Mishima Junction on 
tlie_T5kaido Eaihvay in 1 hr. due S. 
to Ohito, whence 1 ri 8 cho by hasha 
to Shuzenji. 

SHUZENJI to : - III Cho M. 

Yugashima '^> 18 8.j 

Nashimoto 5 6 12 J 

Mitsulmri 2 8 5.V 

SHIMODA 2 5 51- 

Total 13 -- 32 



For travellers from Yokohama 
or up the Tokaidd this is a 2 or 3 
days' trip, v.iiich should be arranged 
in such fashion as to sleej^ the first 
night at Shuzenji, and the second at 
Yugano (see next page), whence 
one can easily reach Shimoda by 
noon on the third day ; or if neces- 
sary, by pushing on to Y\igashinia 
the first night, Shimoda could be 
reached on the second. It is pos- 
sible to take jinrikishas as far as 
Yugashima, and again along the 
excellently graded road from the 



foot of the Konabe-toge into Shimo- 
da ; but they are not always to be 
depended upon in that direction. 
Take it altogether, the way beyond 
Shuzenji is hilly, and scarcely 
to be recommended except to pedes- 
trians, who will tind it replete with 
naturjd beauty, and be able to sleej) 
at a hot spring every night. 

Passing from Mishima Junction 
{Ian, Honda-ya) through Mlshwia- 
machi, a town which boasts a large 
Shinto temple to Oyama-tsumi, the 
god of mountains, the line runs 
along a narrow, well-cultivated 
plain, or rather valley, bounded on 
the W. by green hills of abrupt and 
fantastic shapes, and on the E. by 
tlie long hog's-back which shuts out 
Odawara Bay. Through this valley 
flov.s the Kano-gawa, on an aflluent 
of which, the Katsura-gawa, stands 
Shuzenji. The rocky sides of Jo- 
yama ("castle hill") present a 
striking asx)ect as seen on the r. of 
Ohilo station. 

[From Ohito, a road, jjartly i)rac- 
ticable for hasha, branches off 
1. to lid on the coast, 5 ri 26 cAo 
(14 m.).] 

Shuzenji {Lins, Arai-ya, Kiku- 
ya, and many others). Pleasantly 
situated among low hills, this place 
is much resorted to on account of 
its mineral waters, some of which 
contain carbonate of soda, others 
traces of sulphur. In the middle 
of the torrent which flows down 
through the village, a hot sf>ring 
gushes out in a basin of rock. The 
spot has been caged in and con- 
nected with the bank by a tiny 
bridge, so that bathers may either 
luxuriate in the high temperature of 
the spring, or moderate it by means 
of the cold water of the river. The 
sexes bathe promiscuously. Numer- 
ous other hot springs supply baths 
lining the river bank, — some jaiblic, 
some the private property of the 
chief inns. These latter are pleas- 
ant and suitable for Europeans. 



160 



Route 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 



[Those who do not wish to go 
be^^ond Shnzenji may make a 
charming little round by walk- 
ing thence to Mifo on the coast, 
3 ri, and then sailing or rowing 
to Shizu-urn, and on foot or 
by jinriMsha to Xv.mazu, the 
whole occupying 5 or 6 hours. — 
Another way for j^edestrians is 
over the Goro-toge, stony but 
commanding a magnificent 
view, the distance from Shuzen- 
ji to Heda being about 11 A^ 
miles ; thence northwards along 
lovely Enoura Bay.] 

Behind the vill. of Odaira, and 
visible from the road, is Asahi no 
takl, a cascade about 100 ft. in 
height, forming a series of four or 
five falls. All this neighbourhood 
abounds in hot springs, those of 
Seko no iaki being the aiost notable 
(8 cho off the main road from Yuga- 
shima), and picturesquely situiited. 

Yug-asliiina (Inns, Yumoto-ya, 
Ochiai-r5 at the hot springs, about 
10 min. to the r. off the main road) 
is a hamlet at the foot of the Amagi- 
toge. The ascent of this jmss 
(3 ri) is easy, leading over grassy 
hills and the forest-clad slope of 
one of the spurs to the r. of Amagi- 
san. 

Amafji-san, is the general name given 
to the whole inountain mass stretching 
across the peninsula of Izu from E. to 
W., the loftiest summit of which is called 
Banjiro. 

The traveller should turn aside to 
visit the cascade of Jorcn no takl, 
formed by the waters of the Kan5- 
gawa. It is close to the main road. 
The hot springs of 

Yug-ano {Inns, Shioda-ya, Edo- 
ya) are prettily situated on the 
banks of the Kawazu-gawa, some 
6 cho from the hamlet of Nashimoto, 
at the foot of the pass on the other 
side. Here a road branches off to 
other hot springs at Kaicazu-no- 
hama on the coast (lo ri), Avhich 
affords a different route for those 
wishing to strilce the coast without 
touching Shimoda. 



Just before reaching Nashimoto, 
it is worth turning aside, 10 
did, to see the Otaro waterfall. — 
Beyond Nashimoto the old road 
crosses the Konabe-toge, a climb of 
18 cho, (jinriMshas go round via 
Mine, 1 ri longer), and after passing 
Mitsukuri, descends a well-culti- 
vated valley irrigated by the waters 
of the Nozugawa, a stream which 
flows into the harbour of Shimoda. 
The country round is beautifully 
diversified, every hill laid out in a 
series of terraces planted with rice 
and barley. The conspicuous cone- 
shaped hill which seems from the 
vill. of Kochi, to block iip the mouth 
of the valley, is called Shimoda 
Fuji. Three cho from Kochi stands 
the hamlet of Bendaiji {Inn, Y''oshi- 
mura), noted for its hot springs, 
which make it preferable to Shimo- 
da as a stopping-place, the distance 
between the two occupying only 
^ hr. by jinrikisha. Beyond Een- 
daiji, the valley widens till it forms 
an extensive open iilain before 
reaching 

Shimoda {Inns, Matsumoto-ya, 
Awaman-ro), a town compactly 
built and regularly laid out. The 
situation of Shimoda affords a 
healthy climate, owing to the dry- 
ness of the soil and the fresh sea- 
breezes. The harbour, though small, 
is safe and commodious. There is 
also an inner anchorage for small 
junks and boats, which is connected 
v\'ith the Nozugawa, being con- 
structed by means of dj^kes and a 
breakwater. From Shimoda is ex- 
jjorted much of the stone employed 
for the new constructions in Tokyo. 
It comes from extensive quarries at 
Saicada, about 3^ ri distant. 

Shimoda was first visited in 1854 by 
Commodore Perry. The treaty which he 
concluded made it an open port for 
American shipping; and here Mr. Towns- 
end Harris, the United States ininister, 
resided imtil the substitution of Kana- 
pawa as a trafling port in 1859. This 
change was motived by an earthquake and 
tidal wave which rendered the harbour 
useless for large ships and overwhelmed 
the town. The graves of some Americans 



Route 8. — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 



161 



buried here during the fifties are still 
shown at Gyokuaenji, a temple 40 niin. 
Avalk from the town. 

The easiest way to quit Shimoda 
is by taking one of the small 
steamers to Atami, which call at 
two or three intermediate places. 
For itinerary of the coast road to 
Atami, see p. 158. 



4. — Feom Yugashima to Atami. 

This is a pleasant 1^ day's walk 
from the centre of the peninsula 
to the sea at ltd (p. 158), where 
spend the first night, and 
thence along the coast to Atami. 
Two passes have to bo crossed, the 
first — the Nagano-toge — a climb of 
40 min. immediately on leaving 
Yugashima, and the other — the 
Hiekawa-toge — somewhat shorter 
just before descending to It5. The 
coast road is also hilly, affording 
charming views. 

The Itinerary is as follows : 

YUGASHBIA to:— Bi Cho 31. 

Nagano 20 1^ 

Harabo 2 — 5 

Hiekawa 1 19 3| 

Ito 2 — 5 

ATAMI 5 17 13V 

Total II 14 271 



ROUTE 8. 



Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

1. general information. 2. as- 
cent from subashiri. 3. ascent 
from gotemba. 4. ascent from 
yoshida. 5. ascent from mura- 
yama. 6. summit of fuji. 7. 
circuit of fuji half-way up. 

{Corif. map facing p. 147.) 

1. — General Information. 

Time. — Mere hurried ascent of 
Fuji and back to Yokohama, 1 day 
and night ; more comfortably in 2 
days and 1 night, which latter is 
sjDent at one of the huts on the 
mountain. 

The pleasantest plan is to com- 
bine the ascent of Fuji with a visit 
to the Miyanoshita-Hakone district, 
devoting at least a week to the en- 
tire trip, and climbing the moun- 
tain during whichever portion of 
that time seems to promise the 
most settled weather. The ascent 
is usually made between the 15th 
July and 10th September, the huts 
to accommodate pilgrims being 
closed during the rest of the year, 
and the coolie guides [goriki) fear- 
ing to go up so long as any snow 
remains on the pass. The huts are 
built of stone ; the accommodation 
provided is very rough, and crowd- 
ing frequent. Besides those on the 
way up, there are a number on 
various points of the summit, the 
newest and best being one at the 
top of the Subashiri ascent. The 
charge is 1 ijen per night. The best 
tim.e is from the 25th July to the 
10th August. 

The shortest way of reaching Fuji 
from Y^'okohama is to take rail to 
Gotemhit. 3 hrs., where as at Subashiri, 
guides, horses, and foreign saddles, 
besides rough quilts and charcoal to 
ward ofE the cold air at night in the 
liuts on the mountain can be pro- 



1G2 



liotde 8. — Fi'jl and NeiylibourliooO . 



cured. The traveller must bring 
his own food. Eather than stay at 
Gotemba and make the ascent 
thence, it is, however, preferable to 
push on 7^- rn. by horse tram (2 hrs.) 
to Subasldrl on the E. slope of the 
mountain, which stands higher 
(3,000 ft. instead of 1,500 ft.), and 
AA'hence the climb is somewhat 
easier. An alternative \vay from 
Tokyo is to take the Central Rail- 
way (see Route 31) as far as Ozukl 
(4 hrs.) whence by horse tram to 
Yoshvla (3 hrs.) at the N. base (conf . 
map facing p. 97). Travellers from 
the Kobe direction may alight either 
at Iwabuchi or at Suzulvawa, and 
ascend from jMuraya-ma, it being 3 
H from each_ of those stations to 
Ombja [Inn, Omiya-tei). One goes 
from Iwabuchi to Omiya by jinriki- 
sha ; from Suzuka^^'a to Omiya by 
tram in IJ hr., passing through the 
toAvn of Yoshiwara. There is a 
short cut from Yoshiwara for pedes- 
trians. It is also possible to ascend 
from Suyama, S.E., and Hito-ana, 
S.W. ; Imt these tvro routes have 
nothing special to recommend them. 
Details of the ascent from Subashiri. 
etc., are given below. 

Numbers of travellers choose 
rather to reach Fuji from Miyano- 
shita or Hakone, l)y Avalldng to 
G-otemba over the Otome-toge (see 
p. 152). In this case, they can pro- 
vide themselves with all necessaries 
at the Fuji-ya Hotel. It is advisable 
to take plenty of warm clothing, 
as the temperature falls belo\v 
freezing-point at night on the 
summit of the mountain even 
during the hottest period of sum- 
mer. It is also prudent to take 
an extra supply of food, as parties 
have occasionally been detained on 
the mountain side by stress of wea- 
ther, unable either to reach the sum- 
init or to descend to the base. It 
is possible, by sleeping at Subashiri, 
Gotemba, or Murayama, and start- 
ing at daM'n, to reach the summit 
and descend again in a single day. 
Counting the working day as 
having 15 hrs. (1 a.m. to 7 r.M.), 



this would allow 10 hrs. for the 
ascent, including short stopjjages, 
2 hrs. at the top, and 3 hrs. for 
the descent. The shortest time in 
which the ascent and descent have 
been known to be made (from 
Gotemba station), including stop- 
Images, is 9 hrs. 8 min., of which 6 
hrs. 50 min. were occupied in the 
ascent. But jjersons not ambitious 
of "breaking the record" are 
urged to pursue the following 
course : — leave Subashiri before 
daylight, — say at 2 a.m., — thus in- 
cluding the glory of sunrise on the 
way up. After sunrise, do the 
remainder of the ascent slowly, 
reaching the summit about midday. 
Having estabhshed himself in one 
of the huts on the summit, the 
traveller should go dov/n into the 
crater, make the round of the crater, 
and spend the night at the top. 
This will afford tlie chance of a 
sunset and of a second sunrise, 
after which last the descent can be 
at once begun. The descent will 
take most people from 4J to 5 hrs. 
The great advantage of this xilan is 
that it multiplies the chances of a 
good view from the summit,— such 
views being much more often 
obtained at sunrise and sunset than 
in the middle of the day, and being 
by no means certain at any time. 

Fuji is more easily ascended than 
many mountains far inferior in 
height, as it presents no obstacles 
in the shape of rocks or under- 
growth. The first 6,000 ft. can 
moreover be performed on horse- 
back, after which the accomplish- 
ment of the remainder is merely a 
question of perseverance. The 
distance to the summit from the 
point named Uma-gaeshiisv.neq\Vci]- 
ly divided into ten parts called yd, 
which are subdivided in some cases 
into halves called (jo-shaku. The 
first station is thus Icldgo-me, the 
second Xi-go-me, and so on, the last 
before the summit is reached being 
Ku-go-me, or the ninth. At most of 
these stations, as also at the top, arc 
huts where accommodation for the 



General Information. 



163 



night, boiled rice, eggs, and water 
can be obtained. 

The go is generally used as a measure of 
capacity. One explanation given by the 
Japanese of the api^lication of this method 
of calculation to Fuji is that the mountain 
resembles in shape a heap of dry rice 
poured out of a measure, and that con- 
sequently its subdivisions must corres- 
pond to the fractions of the latter. How- 
over this may be, the go is used as a tenth 
part of the ri throughout the island of 
Kyushta, and traces of the same usage 
linger in Shikoku. 

The number of coolies required 
will of course depend on the 
amount of baggage to be carried. 
When ladies are of the party, 
it is advisable to have a spare man 
or two to pnll and push them 
np wiien tired. Gaiters or puttees 
may advantageously be worn during 
the descent, to prevent sand and 
ashes from getting inside tlie boots. 

Fuji, often called Fuji-san, that is 
Mount Fuji, and by the poets Fuji-no- 
yama, that is the Mountain of Fuji, 
whence the form Fusiyojna often used by 
Europeans, stands between the provinces 
of Suruga and Koshu, and is the highest, 
the most beautiful, and the most famous 
)iiountain in Japan. The height of Ken- 
ga-miue, the westernmost and highest 
point of the crater wall, is given by the 
Geological Survey as 12,390 ft. 

Though now quiescent, Fuji must still 
be accounted a volcano. Frequent men- 
tion ia made in Japanese literature of the 
smoke of Fuji, which, if the expressions 
used by poets may be taken as indicating 
facts, must have formed a constant 
feature in the landscape at least as late as 
the 14.th century. An author who flou- 
rished about the end of the 9th century 
says: "There is a level space at tlie sum- 
mit, about 1 ri square, having a depres- 
sion in the centre shaped like a cauldron, 
at the bottom of which is a pond. This 
cauldron is usually filled with vapour 
of a pure green (or blue) colour, and the 
bottom appears like boilding water. The 
steam is visible at a great distance from 
the mountain." In 967, a small mountain 
was formed at the eastern base of Fuji. 
This was probably- the hump called 
Ko-Fuji, on the 1. of the second station 
on the (Totemba ascent. A traveller's 
diary of the year 1021 speaks of smoke 
rising from the slightly flattened summit, 
while at night fire was seen to issue from 
the crater. Eruptions also occurred in 
1082 and 1649. The most recent one 
began on the 16th December, 1707, and 
lasted with intervals till the 22ud 



.January, 1708. This being the period 
known in Japanese chronology as Iloei, 
the name of Ilbei-zan was given to the 
hump then formed on the upper slope of 
the S. side of the mountain. According 
to another account, a projection had 
always existed in this place, but was 
rendered more conspicuous by this latest 
eruption. Be this as it maj', it is record- 
ed that the ashes lay 6 ft. deep on the 
Tokaido near Hara and Yoshiwara, and 
even fell in Yedo to a depth of 6 inches. 
Even at the jn-esent day, small quantities 
of steam continue to issue through the 
ashes on the E. or Subashiri side of the 
mountain, just outside the lip of the 
crater. 

Enormous must have been the torrents 
of lava that have flowed from Fuji on 
different occasions. Fifteen miles from 
the summit in a direct line, at the vill. 
of Matsuno on the r. bank of the Fuji- 
kawa, is the termination of one of these 
streams, while another may be studied 
on the N.E. side of the base, between 
Yoshida and Funatsu. But most of the 
lava has long since been covered up by 
the deep deposits of ashes and scoria?, 
and only becomes visible here and there 
where it is denuded by the streams 
which furrow the lower i^art of the 
mountain. 

An effort was luade by a bold meteoro- 
logist, Mr. Nonaka, to spend the winter of 
1895-6 on the top. His friends, fearing 
the result, sent up a relief party before 
Christmas, which found him and his 
courageous wife in such terrible plight 
that they had to be carried down. 

Fuji ranks high among the many sacred 
mountains in Japan, and is crowded with 
pilgrims during the brief summer season, 
who repair to the summit to worship, and 
to purchase charms sold by the priests. 
Most of these pilgrims belong to the peas- 
ant class. In former years, women were 
debarred from ascending to the toj) of all 
these sacred peaks. On Fuji the eighth 
station was their furthest limit. The pro- 
hibition no longer applies here, though it 
has been re-introduced in some localities. 
The aspect of Fuji has so strongly im- 
pressed the national mind that many other 
hills of like sha^^e derive their name 
from it. Thus we have the Bungo Fuji, 
Tsugaru Fuji, etc. The greatest distance 
at which Fuji has been seen at sea by the 
compilers of this Handbook is 108 miles. 
— A post office has been available at the 
summit of Fuji in summer since the year 
1906 ! 

Fuji stands by itself, rising Avith 
one majestic sv/eep from a plain 
almost surrounded by mountains. 
The S. side slopes right down to 
the sea, its outline being broken 
only on the S. E. by the rugged 



164 



Bov.te 8. — Fuji and Xeighbourhood . 



peaKS of Asliitaka-yama. On the N. 
and W. rise sicop granite ranges, 
stretching away from the Misaka- 
toge nearly to the junction of the 
Shibakawa Avith the Fnjilvawa. 
Against these moiintains the show- 
ers of ashes ejected during ages 
from the crater have piled them- 
selves lip, and confined in their 
separate basins the waters of 
Motosu, Shoji, and other lakes. 
The E. side is shut in by volcanic 
mountains of imdetermined origin, 
beginning near Sr-bashiri, and ex- 
tending southwards into the 
jjeninsula of Izu. Among them 
lies Lake Hakone, with the nu- 
merous hot springs of Miyanoshita. 
Ashinoyu, Atami, etc. The base 
of Fuji is cultivated up to a 
height of about 1,500 ft., above 
■which spreads a wide grassy mo-or- 
land to 4,000 ft., v/here the forest 
commences. The upper limit of 
this varies considerably, being 
lowest on the E. side, namely, 
about 5,500 ft., on the ascent from 
Subashiri, and 7,900 ft. on the 
Murayama side. But on the W. 
face, between the Yoshida and 
Murayama ascents, and looking 
down over the plain round Hito- 
ana, it must extend as high as 
9,000 ft. or more. This difference 
is no doubt due in large measiu-e 
to the comparatively recent distur- 
bance on the S. E. side, which 
caused the present conformation 
of Hoei-zan, "ohen the greater part 
of the ashes ejected fell in the 
direction of Subashiri, destroying 
the forest, and leaving a desert 
waste which only a lapse of centu- 
ries can again clothe v.ith vegeta- 
tion. To the same cause, namely, 
comparatively recent volcanic ac- 
tion, must be ascribed the almost 
entire absence of those Alpine 
plants which abound on the sum- 
mits of other high mountains in 
Japan, such as Ontake, Shirane in 
K5shu, and Yatsu-ga-take. Abo^e 
the forest lies a narrow zone of 
bushes, chiefly dwarf larch. A few 
species of hardy plants are found 



up to a height of 10,000 ft. on some 
parts of the cone. 

"2. — Ascent feom Subashiet. 

Subashiri {Inn, Yoneyama). If 
the traveller intends to pass the 
night here, he should try to arrive 
early, so as to avoid difficulty in 
obtaining accommodation. In 
order to economise one's strength, 
it is advisable to take horses for the 
first 2 r'l along a broad avenue up 
through the forest to some rest huts 
called Uma-gaeshi* beyond which 
it is necessary to walk. The next 
stage of about 1 i-'i, still ascending 
I gently, brings us to a small temple 
called Ko-M'dake, where staves are 
sold to help climbers on their way 
up. These staves are engraved 
with the name of the mountain, 
and can have a further inscription 
added by the x>riests who dwell at 
the summit. 

Though Fuji, as already stated, 
is theoretically divided on all its 
sides into ten parts, some of the 
stations no longer exist in practice, 
— that is, have no rest-huts, — while 
others are subdivided. 

The best stations on this ascent 
! are Nos. 2, 6, and the top. This 
I should be borne in mind, in case of 
the necessity of calling a halt for 
the night on the "o'ay. About half- 
way between Ko-!Mitake and No. 2 
station (Xo. 1 no longer exists), the 
path issues from the forest on to 
the bare cinders of the base. The 
steeper part of the ascent begins at 
No. 4. To the r. of Xo. 4^ (shi-go- 
go-shaku) is a hut at the entrance 
to a small cave called Tainal, or 
the "Womb." From the 6th to a 
little beyond the 7th, one ascends 
by some steep lava dykes, and 
though there is no regular path, the 
way is distinctly marked by the 
cast-off sandals of the pilgrims. At 

* Uma-gaeshi.Ut. ".horse send back," is 
i the general name for that point on a 
I mountain beyond which it is not cuetom- 
I ary to ride- 



Ascent from Ootemha and YosMda. 



165 



I 



No. 8 the Yoshida ascent joins in 
on the r. From here on, patches of 
snow T\ill be found in rifts in the 
lava rock. Station 9 has a small 
shrine known as Mukai Sengen, 
that is, the Goddess of Fuji's Wel- 
come, intimating to the weary 
wayfarer that he is approaching the 
goddess's sanctum. 

Approximate heigJits of the Stations. 

FT. 

Hubashiri 2,520 

1 rma-gaeslii 4,410 

Ko-Mitake 6,430 

Xo. 2 Station 7,580 

„ 4 „ 8,420 

,, 4^ „ 8,570 

,, 5 9.400 

„ 5A 9,450 

,, <>" , 9,800 

,, 7 ,, 10,200 

,, H ,, 10,990 

,, 9 ,, 11,640 

Summit 12,100 

The descent as far as 2so. 8 is the 
name as tJie ascent. At Xo. 8 it 
diverges to the r. down a glissade 
(Jai3. hasJitri) of loose sand, over 
which one may skim at such a rate 
as to reach the upper end of the 
forest in no more than 2 hours from 
the summit. Xone of the huts are 
jiiissed on the Vi'ay. .Ko-Mitake is 
idjorit 15 min. f-irther on through 
tlip wood. 

3. — AscaXT FROM GOTSMBA. 

Gotemba Station {Inn, Fiiji-ya) 
stands 1 mile from the old vill. of 
the same name. A direct way 
leads up the mountain from the 
station by what is called the Naka- 
baia route. On this side horses 
should be engaged for the first 2^- 
hrs. of the ascent across an open 
and gently rising country. This 
takes one beyond Uina-gaeshi, where 
horses are supposed to be left, to 
Tarbho, (so called from a goblin 
who is there worshipped), where 
they are generally left. Indeed, 
there is no difficulty in riding as 
far as No. 2 station. The distances 
of this first part of the ascent are 
given as follows : — 



GOTEMBA to : Bi Cho M. 

Nakabata 1 8 3| 

Uma-gaeshi 2 — 5 

Tarobo 28 2 

Total 4 — lOi 



No. 2 station 45 min. more. 

Basha are also available as far as 
a tea-shed called Ichi-ri-matsu , 2 ri 
from Gotemba, and, if required, will 
await one's return at Uma-gaeshi. 
Staves such as those mentioned 
under the Subashiri ascent are sold 
at Tarobo. The best huts are Nos. 
5, G, 8, and the top. 

From. No. 3 to 5 the j^ath skirts 
Hoei-zan, where the steep portion 
of the ascent begins. The first lava 
crops out after No. 5, affording 
better foothold. At No. 6, a path 
turns oif to Hoei-zan. Above No. 
8, the climb becomes more fatigu- 
ing, being now over loose cinders. 
At No. 10 — the top — there are three 
stone huts, fairly roomy and com- 
fortable. Should they all be oc- 
cupied by pilgrims, the traveller 
must walk round to the huts on the 
Subashiri side of the lip of the 
crater, about \ m. distant. 

The descent is the same as the 
ascent as far as No. 7, whence by a 
glissade dovrn to No. 2h in less than 
1 hr. From Tarobo onwards, the 
descent will occupy nearly as much 
time as was required for the ascent. 
The entire journey down from the 
summit to Gotemba station can be 
accomplished in 5 hrs. 

4. — Ascent feo:*! Yoshida. 

Yoshida is an unusually long 
village, divided into an upper por- 
tion {Kami-Yoshida) and a lower 
portion ( Sb imo- Yosh ida ) . From 
Kami Yoshida [Inn, Osakabe), the 
way to Uma-gaeshi, the 2nd station, 
as far as which it is possible to ride, 
leads up an avenue. The upper 
edge of the forest is not quitted till 
No. 5 is reached. Thus the view 
on the way up is less good by this 



166 



Rottie 8. — Fuji and ]S!eicjhhoi(rhood. 



ronto than on the Snbashiri side, 
Imt there is more shade.— People 
staying at Shoji had best choose 
this ascent ; 1 )iit the^' need not 
actually go into Yoshida Till., as 
another path leading np from E. of 
Xarnsav.a joins the Yoshida path 
on the mountain side. They must 
sleep at Ko-Mitake, where there is a 
good hut, as the expedition is too 
long for one day. 

5.— ASCKXT FROM MUIIAYAMA. 

From Murayama [Inn, Fnji- 
masa) to Hachiman, which is the 
Uma-gaesld, or "riding limit" on 
this side, is a distance of 3 ri 8 cho. 
Thence onward it is necessary to 
walk. Of the various stations, No. 5 
is the most to be recommended, 
though all are fair, the ascent from 
Murayama having long been that 
most patronised by the native 
l)ilgrims, and therefore styled the 
Oynote-guchi , or Front Entrance, to 
the mountain. This ascent, though 
long, has the advantage of offering 
more shade than the others and an 
al)sence of loose cinders. Some 
experienced climbers therefore 
recommend going up this way, and 
returning on the steeper Subashiri 
side. The chief drawback is the 
length of time (3^ hrs.) required to 
reach Murayama from ftuzukavxa. 



6.— StTMMiT OF Fr.n. 

The Summit of the mountain 
consists of a series of peaks sur- 
rounding the crater, the diameter 
of which is not far sliort of 2,000 ft. 
The descent into it, down the loose 
talus of rock and cinders close to 
the huts at the top of the Mura- 
yama ascent, is easy ; still it is 
advisable to take a guide. The 
l-.ottom is reached in ^V hr. The 
floor, which is formed of cinders, 
inclines slightly from W. to E.. and 
is intersected by small stream-V)eds, 
Avhich at the E. end terminate 
among the loosely piled lava masses 



forming the core of the mountain. 
All round, except where the descent 
is made, rise precipitous rocky 
walls, from which large pieces 
detach themselves from time to 
time A^'ith a, loud cracking sound 
like musketry. On the W. side, 
immediately under Xen-ga-mine, 
there is usually a large snow-slope. 
The depth of the crater has been 
variously estimated at 416 ft., 548 
ft., and 584 ft. The retium to the 
edge will occupy about f hr. 

Before dawn the pilgrims betake 
themselves to Ken-ga-mine, to await 
the sun's rising. As soon as the 
orb appears, they greet it devoutly 
with muttered i^rayers and the 
ruVjbing of rosaries. 

Ken-ga-mine commands a mar- 
vellously extensive view. To the 
S. stretches the Gulf of Suruga, 
shut in on the E. by the lofty 
peninsula of Izu, and confined on 
the W. by Mio-no-Matsubara at the 
end of the long range dividing the 
valley of the Abekawa from that 
of the Fujikawa. H. W. is the 
broad pebbly bed of the Fujikawa, 
its course above the ix)int v.iiere it 
crosses the Tokaidd being hidden 
by the lower hills. Westwards are 
seen all the lofty summits of the 
border range of K5shvi and Shin- 
shu, beginning with the granite 
peak of Koma-ga-take and its 
lesser neighbours, Jizo and H6- 
6-zan, then the three summits 
of Shirane, the Koma-ga-take 
of Shinshii rising between the 
Tenryu-gawa and the Kisogawa, 
and so on to Ena-san in Mino and 
the top of 8hichimen-zan raen 
Minobu. Further to the r., ex- 
tending northwards, comes the 
great range dividing far-off Hida 
from Shinshu, amongst whose 
peaks may be distinguished Nori- 
loira, Y*ari-ga-take, and, further 
remote in Etchii, the volcanic 
summits of Tateyama. Gradually 
moving E. again, along the north- 
ern horizon, v.-e distinguish the 
mountains near Nagano, — Ken-no- 
mine and the extinct volcano of 



Siimmif of Fuji. 



167 



]\r3'6k5-zan. Nearer in the fore- 
ground rise the mimeroiis surn- 
inits of Yatsn-ga-take ; and then 
glancing further N., we perceive 
Asama-yama's smoking crater, the 
mountains about the Mikuni Pass, 
and next, all the Niklco mountains, 
— Shirane, Nantai-zan and lesser 
peaks. E. of Yatsu-ga-take is seen 
Kimpu-zan, easily recognised by its 
rounded shoulder and the pillar of 
rock at the summit ; then Yakushi 
and Mitsumine in Chichibu, till 
the eye loses itself in a confusion of 
lower ridges. On the E. side of the 
crater, from almost any point that 
may be chosen, a prosi^ect less 
extensive indeed, biit siirpassing 
this in l>eauty, meets otir gaze. 
Far away across the i^lain, is dis- 
tinctly visible the double top of 
Tsukuba in Hitachi, vrhile further 
H. we descry the outer edge of the 
Tolvyo plain, with Tokyd lying far 
\\\) the bay ; then in succession 
Capes Sagami and Sunosaki, Tries 
Island, the Gulf of Sagami, and 
nearer in the foreground beautiful 
Lake Hakone x>eacefully embosom- 
(h1 among green hills. 

On but few days in the season 
will the whole panorama here 
described be clearly visible. " Nor 
will the pilgrim, he wholly 
fortunate unless he sees the 
superb cloud effects which the 
mountain affords. These are most 
likely to be enjoyed in ordinary 
summer weather, betAveen noon 
and 6 o'clock in the evening, and 
they are truly magnificent. The 
summit of the mountain j-emains 
clear, but its slioulders and waist 
iire surrounded by billowy masses 
of dense whit-e vapour of indescrib- 
able splendour. Here and there a 
momentary break may permit a 
glimj^se of the earth beneath ; but 
usually nothing can be seen land- 
ward but this vast ocean of cloud, 
amid which the peak stands as the 
only island in the world. Turning 
seaward, the ocean itself can l)e 
seen over the circumambient 
vapour, and affords a striking con- 



trast to the turmoil and restless 
change of form of the clouds them- 
selves." 

A curious i)henomenon may also 
sometimes he witnessed at sunrise 
or sunset. As the sun's rays appear 
above the horizon, or vanisli 
below it, the shadow of Fuji 
is thrown in deep outline on 
the clouds and mist, vviiich at that 
hour clothe the range of mountains 
to the west. The ]>eautiful phe- 
nomenon commonly knovrn as the 
"Spectre of the Brocken," may be 
seen from the lip of the crater at 
sunrise or sunset under favourable 
conditions of mist. The spectator 
beholds his enormously magnified 
and transfigured self, — his head tlie 
centre of a circular bow or halo, 
with the prismatic colours in con- 
centric rings. 

Descending again from Ken-ga- 
mine, the i^ath j)asses under it, and 
just above the steep talus callejl 
Oija, .•^Ith'azn Ko ftJiirazn ("Heedless 
of Parent or Child"), from the 
notion that jjeople in danger of 
falling over the edge of the crater 
Avould not heed even their nearest 
relatives if sharers of the peril. 
The name occurs in similarly peril- 
ous places in many parts of Japan. 
Continuing N., the path sldrts the 
edge of the cone, passing a huge 
and precipitous gorge which ap- 
pears to extend downwards to the 
very base of the_mountain. This 
gorge is called Osav:a, the lower 
limit of which may be some 6,000 ft. 
above the sea, or only half-way from 
the summit. Passing across the 
flank of the Bai-irca, or " Thunder 
liock," the path goes outside the cra- 
ter wall, ascends the Shaka no Warl- 
ishi {" Shaka 's Cleft Kock"), and 
leaving Shaka-ga-take — the second 
loftiest j)eak — behind, descends to 
the Kimmei-sul ("Famous Golden 
Water"), a spring of ice-cold water 
situated on the fiat shelf l)etweeii 
the N. edge of the crater and the 
outer wall. Ascending again, the 
path passes the row of huts at the 
top of the ascent from Yoshida 



168 



Boute 8. — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 



and Sul3asliiri, and reaches a torli 
commanding the best view of the 
crater. It then turns again to the 
1., and goes outside the wall of the 
crater, imderneath Kicannon-ga~ 
take. Here the interesting phe- 
nomenon may be observed of steam 
still issuing from the soil in several 
places, one of which is close to the 
path, while another lies near at 
hand on the 1., about 50 ft. down 
the exterior of the cone, and a third 
is seen immediately underneath a 
wall of rock 50 yards ahead. A few 
inches below the surface, the heat is 
great enough to boil an egg. 
Beyond this point, the path crosses 
a depression known as Seishi-ga- 
kuho. ascends E. the Sai-no-kav:ara, 
which is dotted with cairns raised 
in honour of Jizo, descends to 
the Gim-mPA-sui ("Famous Silver 
Water,") at the top of the Gotemba 
ascent, and passing under the low 
peak named Koraa-g/i-take, reaches 
the huts at the top of the path from 
Murayama. Between this last 
point and Ken-ga-mine, is a small 
crater named Konoshiro-ga-ike, ac- 
cessible from the N. The total 
distance round the large crater is 
popularly said to be 1 ri, or 
2| miles ; but this is doubtless an 
exaggeration. An interesting hour 
may be devoted to making the 
circuit, which will allow for pauses 
at all the best points of view. 

7, — CiEcuiT OF Fuji half-way up. 
( Chudo-Meguki. ) 

This walk is a favourite with 
native lovers of the picturesque ; 
for it is easy, and commands a 
splendid panoramic view over the 
country in the immediate vicinity, 
which gradually unfolds itself 
before the eyes of the spectator as 
he moves along. The path en- 
circles Fuji at heights varying from 
9,490 ft. on the Gotemba side 
(which it intersects at station No. 6) 
to 7,450 ft. on the Yoshida side. 
It is best to turn to the 1. on 



I starting from the above-mentioned 
i Ko. 6 station, because the path 
descends a rapid slope of loose sand 
from the ridge of Hoei-zan towards 
the "W., which would be very fatigu- 
ing if taken in the opposite direc- 
tion. The path proceeds along the 
narrovv ridge of H5ei-zan, turns 
down into tlie deep hollovf formed 
by the erui^tion of 1707-8, crosses 
the ridge at its fiu-ther side to a 
broad plateau strewn with the 
cast-oif sandals of pilgrims, and 
climbs steeply to hut No. 5 on the 
Murayama ascent. It then con- 
tinues W. over dykes_ of lava until 
it reaches the great Osav.'a ravine, 
and, descending the mountain to 
the 1. of the huge mass of lava 
v.hich here projects over the 
chasm, passes through a wood of 
larches and rhododendrons to the S. 
edge of the ravine, which is now 
crossed. The path onward lies 
alternately through the wood and 
over the bare northern side of the 
cone to the prettily situated temple 
of Ko-MUake, where a good hut 
affords accommodation for the 
night. Shortly beyond this point 
the path divides, the r. branch, 
v,'hich should be taken, leading to 
No. 5 J on the Yoshida ascent, 
whence Lake Y'amanaka is well 
seen almost due E. Turning off 
1. at No. 6, the path winds over 
the lava dykes to No. 5 on the 
Subashiri ascent, and then by a 
gentle gradient back to our start- 
ing-point. The time required for 
the entire circuit is from 7 to 8 hrs. 



Route 9. — Fiound the Base of Fuji to Shoji. 



169 



KOUTE 9. 



1. Round the Base of Fuji to 
Lake Sh5ji, and the Rapids of 
THE Fujikawa. 2. Waterfalls 
OF Kami-Ide, 3. Ashitaka-yama. 

1 . — Sh5.ti. 
Itinerary. 

GOTEMBAto:— 7?/ Cho M. 

Snbashiri ) ^ 3 7^ 

Kami-Yoshida I ^^^^^ 5 22 13 if 

Fimatsu 1 1 2J 

Nagaliama (1^ hr. by 

boat across Lake 

Kawaguchi) Nislii- 

no-umi IT) 1 

Nemba (1 br. hy boat 

across Lake Nishi- 

no-nmi, two men 

necessary) 

ShdjiLake 1 U 3^^ 

SHOJI Hotel (} hr. hj 

boat) or on foot 

round Lake 1 — 2| 

Total 12 13 30} 



Plus 2 J iirs. Ijoat. 

From Shoji to Yoka-ichiba, 1 
day on foot, on horseback, or in 
kago. From Y'oka-ichiba, ^ day 
in boat (price for jm'^'^t^ boat 
G yen in 1907 for one or tv/o 
passengers, and 50 sen extra for 
each additional passenger) to Iwa- 
buchi on the Tokaido Railway. 
Yoshida can be reached the first 
night, even if the start be made 
from Miyanoshita. Shoji is an 
easy half -day from Yoshida, of 
alternate walking and boating. 

[An alternative way from Yoshida 
to Shoji for pedestrians or 
horsemen avoids the Lakes, 
and leads via Narusaica, about 
12 miles. Though less pretty, 
it is to be preferred in stormy 
weather.] 

There is a tramway from Gotem- 



ba station {Inn, Fuji-ya) via Suha- 
shiri {Inn, Yoneyama) and the 
Kago-zaka Pass to Kami-Yoshida 
{Inn, Osakabe). A special car costs 
8.} yen (1907). Though very poor 
and slow — 5j hrs. — , all but sturdy 
walkers should avail themselves of 
it. On the way from Y^oshida to 
Sh5ji via the Lakes, jinrikishas 
can be taken as far as Funatsu 
{Inn, Naka-ya, on the v/ater-side) the 
other non-boating portions must be 
walked, unless previous arrange- 
ments be made to have horses 
waiting. 

The special charm of this route 
lies in the continuous near views 
of Fuji. Lovely, too, are the chain 
of lakes that half encircle the great 
mountain's base, the forest covering 
the lava flow on its N. W. slope, 
and the Fujilcawa with its rapids. 
The Foreign Hotel crowning the 
little peninsula of Unosaki at Shoji 
is beautifully situated on the S. 
side of the lake (3,160 ft. above 
sea-level), opposite the village. 
There is no reason for visiting this 
latter, which, like most of the 
neighbouring hamlets, is squalid. 
A boat sent from the Hotel obviates 
the necessity of passing through 
it. Shoji affords bathing in 
summer, skating in winter, and 
a great variety of walks amidst 
unrivalled scenery. Most notable 
is the marvellous panorama from a 
hill, 1 hr. climb behind the hotel. 
An interesting half-day's expedition 
is to a remarkable Ice Cave {Kbri- 
ana), which long lay hidden in the 
dense forest growth on Fuji's slope 
at a height of 3,750 ft. The dimen- 
sions are : — length, 568 ft.; average 
width, 36| ft.; height, 32 ft. The 
floor is solid ice of unknown 
thickness. At the far end are a 
number of beautiful icicles, and an 
unexplored cavity down which 
the wind constantly rushes. Two 
smaller ice caves exist in the 
neighbourhood, besides another 
cave in which lived and died a 
succession of hermits in the olden 
time. 



170 



rtoiite 9. — Round the Base of Fuji to Shqji. 



[Shoji may also he reached from 
Tokyd by the Central Eailway 
(see Kte. 31), either alighting at 
Oznlcl, whence tram to Yoshkla 
(12J m.), and so on as above, or 
by continuing on in the train 
to Kofn and -walking thence 
over the steep but j)icturesque 
Uhaguchi-tbge and Onna-toge 
(7h rl). The 2 /■/ over the plain 
from Kofn to the vill. of Uba- 
guchi can be done in jinrikisha 
(conf. map of Kofu).] 

On leaving Shoji, pedestrians go 
one way, — over the hill mentioned 
above, — riders go another. 1 ri 
longer, through the forest ; both via 
LaJce 3Iotosu, the most beautiful of 
all Fuji's lakes. At Furusekl again, 
there is a choice of ways, — an upper 
road 1 ri shorter over a steep hill, 
and a lower one down the valle}-, 
passing through Irhinose. The two 
unite further down. The total dis- 
tance is thus 5, 6, or 7 ri according 
to circumstances. The river is 
reached at Tamhara, whence it 
is a short drop down to Ybka- 
ichiba (Inn, Wakao-ya) on the 
opposite bank. There is also a 
good inn (Matsuzaka-ya) at Kiri-islu, 
a little higher up the stream. — For 
a description of the rapids of the 
FujiJimi-a and for the temples of 
]\Iinobu, where a spare day may 
well be spent, see Ete. 31, Sect. 4. 



2. — Kami-Ide. 

Itinera I'll. 

SHOJI to:— /;; cin, 

Motosu 1 7 

Xebara 1 4 

Ilito-ana 2 4 

Kami-Ide 1 8 

Omiya 3 8 

Suzukawa 3 — 

Total 11 31 



M 
3 

2| 

^1 
3 

n 

7V 



29 



This alternative way of reaching 
the Tokaido Eailway from Shoji 



offers attractions differing from 
those of the previous section. It is 
recommended whenever heavy rains 
make the rapids of the Fujikavva 
dangerous. The distance from Shoji 
to Omiya must be done on foot or 
horseback. Omiya is connected 
with Suzukawa station by a shal)by 
but swift little tramcar. 

Emerging from the forest, and 
sldrting Lake -\Iotosu, we emerge 
on the open moor which occupies 
the whole western slope of Fuji. 
The cave of Hito-ana is hardly 
worth turning aside to see. A 
better plan for pedestrians, though 
somewhat longer, is to abandon 
the highway about 1 ri beyond 
Nebara, striking to the r. across 
the open moor to reach some 
remarkable springs [Mizu-moto) at 
the scattered hamlet of I-no-kasldra. 
These gushing si:)rings, which are 
said to derive their origin from 
Lake Motosu, the fields and groves 
and murmuring brooks, and Fuji's 
perfect symmetry of shape from 
this point combine to form a lovely 
picture. Following along the 1. 
bank of the Shibakawa, past a 
pretty cascade, one strikes the road 
leading to the beautiful Avaterfalls 
of Shiraito, which are precipitated 
over a wall of black lava. The two 
largest, some 85 ft. in height, are 
called respectively 0-daki and Me- 
daki, or the Male and Female Cas- 
cades, and there are more than 
forty smaller falls, their children. 
A few yards off another stream 
forms a fine cascade, about 100 ft. 
high and 30 ft. wide, called Of<.- 
dome, lit. " noise-stopping." 

According to legend, the Soga Brethren 
(p. 84), wlaeu on their way to wreak venge- 
ance on the murderer of their father, 
met here, one coming to the toi^ of tlie 
fall, the other to the bottom ; and the 
waters ceased their roaring to enable 
them to hold converse. 

Eight did beyond the waterfalls, 
lies the vill. of Kami-Ide (ixwr inn). 
It is b^=^t to i3ush on to Omiya 
{Inn, Omiya-tei), — baslt.a available. 
About 1 ri oTit of Kami-Ide, biit off 



Route 10. — Chichibu and Temple qf j\[itsumwe. 



171 



the road, stands an interesting old 
temple of the Nichiren sect, called 
J)a}shakujL _ 

On the tram jonrney from Omiya 
to Snznkawa some large paper fac- 
tories are passed at Iriyamase and 
Terama. 

Su2ukawa (see Route 23). 

3. — AsHITAKA-YA>tA . 

A pedestrian desirous of complet- 
ing the circuit of Fuji literally might 
ascend Ashitaka-yama from 
Harcf, on the Tokaido Railway ; but 
the inn there is poor. The inns at 
Numazu are good, and the expe- 
dition thence not much longer, 
namely, a short day,— the first hour 
up as far as Sakash If a by jinrikisha 
with 2 men, whence on foot to the 
summit, which affords a l^eautiful 
and extensive view. The descent 
to tSuyama for Gotemba entails too 
much struggling through tall Ijam- 
boo grass to be recommended. 

Asliitaka-yama, 3,950 ft, looks liiglicr 
owing to its remarkable shape, — two peaks 
joined saddle-Mise. Down to the 17th 
century wild horses herded on its grassy, 
partly forest-covered elope ; and the peas- 
antry still believe that bamboo grass 
gathered on its summit will cure all the 
diseases to which the horse is heir. A 
pilgrimage is made to the ruinous Shinto 
shrine at the top on the 17th January 
The 8th April is a second festival day. 



ROUTE 10. 

CinCHIBU AND THE TeMPLE OF 
MiTSUMIXE. 

The district of Chicliibu lies in 
ihe W. corner of the province of 
^lusashi, sei^arated by its moun- 
tains from the provinces of Kotsuke 
on the N. W. and Koshti on _the S. 
W. The i^rincipal town, Omiya 
(not to be confounded with the 
railway station of the same name 



nearer Tolcyo), is best reached 
from T6ky5 by rail to Knmar/ai (see 
p. 173), whence branch line in 1 hr. 
to Hafjuro, and 2 J hrs. l)y jinrildsha. 
On leaving the train, the lesser 
hills of the Chichibu range are 
approached, and the scenery ira- 
proves. Narrow valleys leading up 
to various low passes are entered, 
v.-here mountain, rock, forest, and 
river give a charm to the scene. 

Omiya {Inn, Kado-ya) stands 
close to Bnkd-zan, 4,360 ft., the 
highest mountain in the district ; 
but there is little indticement to 
climb it, as the forest with which 
it is clothed shuts out almost all 
view. The town is noted for its 
fairs, which are largely attended 
during the season by dealers in raw 
silk and cocoons. 

At the hamlet of Kagemori, 20 cho 
8. W. of Omiya, a path turns off 1., 
leading in I- hr. to a temple of 
Kwannon called Ilashidate-dera, 
v.'here is a cave considered the 
Avonder of the country-side. It 
consists of two chief ramifications 
in the limestone rock. Inspection, 
v.'hich M'ill occupy about I hr., is 
facilitated l^y means of ladders 
and planlcs. The stalactites in the 
cave assume a variety of fantastic 
shapes, to which names mostly con- 
nected with Buddhism are given, 
such as the Lotus-floAver, the 
Dragon's Head and Tail, the Five 
Viscera, etc. A guide is obtainable 
at the temple. 

Interesting alilvc for its lieautiful 
surroundings and its antiquity is 
the temple on Mitsumine-san, a 
mountain G ri to the 8. ^V. of Omiya. 
A good jinrikisha road takes one as 
far as the vill. of Niegawa, 3.J rl ; the 
remainder must be walked. The 
cave described above may be visited 
on the way by making a slight 
detour (say f hr.), that is, by leaving 
the road at Kagemori, and rejoining 
it again a few cho further on, close 
to the bridge called Fuji-bashi over 
the Arakawa, up the course of which 
river most of the way lies. Me- 
gaica (fair accommodation) com- 



172 Route 10. — Chichibu and Temple of Mitsumine. 



mands a fine view, with Buko-zan 
standing sentinel-like at the month 
of the valley. Thence the scenery 
becomes grander ; the path keeps 
along the 1. bank, rising frequently 
to cross the spurs of the hills, and 
the river winds picturesquely 
among thickly wooded slopes that 
rise on either hand to a height of 
about 1,000 ft. A remarkable pro- 
jecting rock has been cut through at 
a spot called Odahara, shortly after 
v\-hich the path diverges down to a 
bridge spanning the river. On the 
opposite side stands a toril at the 
entrance to the sacred mountain. 
An avenue of cryptomerias marks 
the remainder of the way through 
the forest, — a steep climb of .52 cho, 
with rest-houses at intervals. 

The temple buildings stand in a 
grove of lofty chamgecj^paris trees, 
close by the upper toyii at a height 
of 3,000 ft. above the sea. 

The foundation of this temple is refer- 
red to the legendary epoch. Yamato-take 
(see p. S6), on his expedition to subdue 
Eastern Japan, is said to have passed this 
way, and to have caused a shrine to 1)6 
built here for the vs'orship of the Shinto 
deities Izanagi and Izananii. The name 
of Mitsumine-no-miya is alleged to have 
been bestowed upon it by his fathei- the 
Emperor Keiko a year later, from the 
three contiguous peaks, — Kumotori, Shi- 
roiwa, and Myoho, on the latter of 
which the terai^le stands. In A. D. 
737, the reigning Empress placed an 
image of the Buddhist goddess Kwannon 
within the grounds. In 1533 Mitsumine 
became the seat of the Seigo-in branch of 
the Tendai sect. Finally, the rehabilita- 
tion of Shinto in our own day has again 
brought it, after the lapse of many cen- 
turies, within the fold of the native re- 
ligion. Two festivals are held annually, 
on the 8th April and 2nd December. 

Some noble cryptomerias guard 
the approach to the main temple, in 
front of which the huge vrooden lan- 
tern r. and the building over the 
holy-watt!r cistern 1. are a mass of 
carvings of Chinese figures, and 
birds and beasts. No less admi- 
rable, though more weather-beaten, 
are the carvings on the exterior of 
the temple itself. The interior 
has been emptied of its elaborate 
Buddhist furniture to make way 



for the simple requirements of 
Shinto — drums and mirrors. The 
shrine on . the r. is dedicated to 
Yamato-take, that on the 1. to 
Kuni-toko-tachi, v>'hile there are 
numerous subsidiary shrines to 
lesser deities. The quadrangular 
building further 1. serves for the 
accommodation of pilgrims. The 
traveller who presents a suitable 
gift of money on arrival, will be 
made comfortable and regaled with 
vegetarian food. Beyond this 
again stand the temple-offices, the 
priests' dwellings, etc. One of 
these latter — the Daisho-in — de- 
serves inspection for the sake of its 
brightly painted fusuma of Chinese 
scenes on a gold ground by Bokkei. 
The temple godown also holds 
many art treasiu-es. The Okusha 
lies 30 cho higher rap the mountain, 
but affords little view. 

On the return journey the visitor 
should take the Ura-michl, or Back 
Way, which is less steep and more 
open than the front approach. It 
leads past the pumping station 
v\"hich supplies the temple with 
water, andi rejoins the main road to 
Omiya at a point higher up the 
course of the Arakawa. 

Enthusiastic walkers may, in- 
stead ol returning the way they 
came, i:>roceed over the Karhaka- 
toge to Kofu. The distance is 
estimated at 20 ri from Mitsumine. 
The first day's walk should end at 
Oclaki ; the next will include the 
portion locally known as Hachi-ri 
Hatch o, which is a distance of 8 ri 
8 cJio without a sign of habitation 
till Kumarjana is reached, where the 
second night is S]3ent ; the third 
day will take one easily into Kofu. 
This trip is only feasible in summer. 

Or else Hikaica, situated in the 
valley of the Tamagawa (see Eoute 
31), about 11 ri from Omiya, may 
be reached from that town by a 
lonely mountain path over the 
Sengeyi-ioge and the Nipprtra-iogc. 



Route 11. — The TakasaM-Karuizaiva Baihvay. 



173 



ROUTE 11. 

Prom Tokyo to Takasaki and 
Karuizav/a. 

SniMONITA, MAEBASHI. ISOBK. 
MYOai-SAN. 



« 1 

O lO 


Names 






of 
StatiOKs 


Remarks 




TOKYO (Ueno) 




l^m. 


Nippori Jet. 




21 


Tabita -Jet. 




4 


Oji 


( U i ' trains 
1 change for 
( Yokobama. 


«i 


Akaljitne Jt;t 






1 10 


Warabi 




1 12] 


Urawa 




1 •* 
16} 


Omiya Jet 


ForNikkoanci 
the North. 


21 ;i 


Ageo 




1 2i 
i 23 
1 33 >- 


Okegawa 
Konosu 


(Alight for 
( caves. 


Fukiage 


38 


Kumagai 




±5 


Fukaya 




51} 


Honjo 




53^ 


Jimbohara 




6Gi 


Shimmacbi 




601 


KuL-agano 


Change fur 
Karuizawa. 


63 


TAKASAKI Jet.. 


J Some trains 
change for 


64 'j 


lizuka 


V Maebashi. 


69 i 


Annaka 




74 


Tsobe 




77^ 


Matsuicla 


(Alight for 
1 Myogi-san. 


81 


Yokogawa 




8i 


Knma-no-taira 




88 


KAllUIZAWA 





This line closely follows tlie 
first stages of the old Nakasendo 
(Route 24), and is flat and unin- 
teresting as far as Takasaki ; but 
in clear weather distant views 
of mountains are obtained all 
along the route. Fuji is visible 1. 
imtil shut out by the Chichibu 
range ; to the near r. rises Tsukuba 
with its twin summits, then Nan- 
tai-zan and the other Nilcko moun- 
tains to the extreme r. behind a 
lower range ; Akagi-san is to be 
distinguished by its wide grassy 



base, crov.^ned by numerous peaks. 
On approaching Takasaki, the 
square mass of the Haruna group 
comes in sight ahead to the r., while 
on the 1., also ahead, the cliffs of 
Myogi stand out like the v/alls of a 
huge fortress. Smoking Asama is 
a prominent object ahead to the r. 
during the whole journey till the 
very foot of the pass at Yokogawa, 
which it overtops. 

Urawa [Inn, Yamaguchi-ya) is 
the capital of the prefecture of 
Saitama, which includes the greater 
part of the province of Musashi. 

Omiya {Inn, Takashima-ya, in 
public garden, Europ. dishes). An 
avenue of 1 mile in length leads 
to Hikavxi Jinja, the chief Shinto 
temple of Musashi, situated in 
grounds that have been turned 
into a public garden. The temple 
is said to have been founded in 
honour of Susano-o by Yamrao- 
take (see p. 86) on his return from 
subduing the barbarous tribes of 
Eastern Japan. 

Konosu. For a description of 
the caves near this place, see p. 14.2. 

Kumag-ai ( Inn, Shimizu-ya) 
carries on a large trade in silk and 
cotton. 

Shimmachi {Inn, Saitama-ya) 
also is a large silk-producing town. 

Takasaki {Inn, Takasald-kwan, 
at station) was formerly the castle- 
town of a Daimyo, and is still an 
important industrial centre. A 
tranncay leads hence to Shibukawa 
for Emo. — A miniature railway of 
21 miles in length runs hence to 
Tornioka {Inn, Yamato-ya), a thriv- 
ing silk mart, and to Shimonua 
{Inn, Sugihara), a tidy little town 
standing among the lower spurs of 
the mountains amidst delightful 
scenery. Iron ore is worked here. 

[A railway branches o£E here to 
Maebaslii, 6 miles, where it 
meets the Eyomo line from 
Oyama (see Route 15). Mae- 
bashi {Inn, Shirai-ya ; Europ. 
restt., Akagi-tei), formerly the 
seat of a great Daimyo, is 



174 



lloate 11. — The lalxisald-Karuizaica liailwai/. 



now the capital of the pre- 
fecture of Gurnraa, and an 
emporium of the silk trade, 
one of the best qualities of raw 
silk being named after this 
town. A market is held six 
times monthly. To the N. 
rises the extinct volcano of 
Alvagi-san, to the W. the 
cnrions groiip of mountains 
collectively called Hariina, on 
the N. E. flank of which are 
situated the favourite baths of 
Ikao, described in Eoute 13. 
The brick enclosure seen r. 
just before entering Maebashi 
is one of the largest convict 
prisons in Japan, whose wall 
20 ft. high encloses 11 acres of 
land. The big river crossed is 
the Tonegav\-a.] 

lizuka is a station at the W. end 
of Takasaki, some distance from 
the business part of the town. 

Isobe {Inns, Horai-kwan, and 
others) is a watering-place with a 
salt spring lying in a wide valley 
not quite 1,000 ft. above the level 
of the sea. Exposed as it is on all 
sides, it is neither mild in v.inter 
nor cool in summer. 

Matsuida {Inn, Sushi-ya) is the 
station to alight at for a visit to the 
wonderful rocky peaks that cro^n 
Myogi-san. It lies about 1 ri by 
jinriMsha from the small vill. of 

Myogi {Inns, Hislii-ya, Kambe- 
ya), the best place to stay at to 
insxoect the rocks. 

The shrine at Myogi is dedicated to the 
memory of the 13th abbot of Enryakuji, 
a temple on Hiei-zau neai- Kyoto, who, in 
the reign of the Emperor Daigo (A.D. 898- 
930), retired here to mourn over the 
sudden downfall and banishment of his 
pupil, the famous Sugawai-a-no-Michizane. 
After his death, he was deified under 
the title of Myogi Dai Gongen. Over two 
centuries ago, a fresh access of zeal on the 
part of his devotees was the cause of the 
shrine being rebuilt in the grand style of 
which traces still remain. Tt is now in 
charge of Shinto priests. 

The temple stands a short 
distance above the village, in the 



midst of a grove of magnificent 
cryiotomerias. The Oka-no-in lies 
25 cho further up the mountain, and 
above this point the cliffs are near- 
ly perpendicular. A rocky cave, 
formed by a huge block resting 
in a fissure, contains an image of 
the god. On the summit of one 
of the jutting peaks near the Oku- 
no-in, is the enormous Chinese 
character ^ {dal), "great," w^hose 
dimensions are stated at 30 ft. by 
20 ft. It is constructed of thin 
bamboos, tied together and cov- 
ered with strips of paijer, the 
votive offerings of pilgrims, which 
give it the aj^pearance from below 
of being x^^^iiited white. The sur- 
rounding scenery is weird and 
romantic. From the bosom of a 
gloomy grove rise innumerable 
rocky jDinnacles, which gradually 
increase in height around a lofty 
central peak, the whole vaguely 
recalling the front of some colossal 
Gothic cathedral. 

Dr. Naumann describes Myogi-san as a 
system of grand, acute-edged, deeply ser- 
rated dykes, apparently radiating from a 
common centre, whose highest summit is 
about 3,880 ft. in height. Probably it is 
the skeleton of a very old volcano. 

The highest peak of the jagged 
ridge {Ilaku-un-zan) rising directly 
above the vill. is called Myogi Jinja 
Chdjo ; the S. wing is Kinkei-san, 
with Kinto-san lying between the 
two. The Fade-ivxi, or " Pen Kock," 
is a conspicuous projection belong- 
ing to Kinkei-san and forming the 
N.W. termination of this dyke. Its 
ascent is difficult and dangerous. 

Three dixys may i^rofitably be 
devoted to the various expeditions 
around Myogi-san. First day : — to 
Dcdkoku-san, the way there leading 
over the pass between Kinkei-san 
and Kinto-san, and taldng 1^ hr. 
from the village. (The leeches with 
which the wood swarms are apt to 
be troublesome.) A natural ciurio- 
sity passed on the way is Ichi no 
Sekiinon, lit., the First Stone Gnte, 
which consists of a vertical slab 



Myogi- 



mi). 



of rock some 180 ft. lugh, 240 ft. 
>v3(ie jit the base, and. 18 ft. thick, 
with an arched opening 90 ft. high 
iind 80 ft. v/ide. Ni no Sekimon, and 
so on down to lioku no Seldmon, 
inaldng six altogether, are similar 
curiosities. Through the last named 
it is necessary to crawl on hands 
and knees. The Hige-suri-iim, or 
" Beard-shaving Rock," is a slender 
column of volcanic breccia, the last 
10 ft. of the climb up which is 
achieved with the assistance of a 
chain and ladder. From this coign 
of vantage, the lofty peak of Naka 
no take and many other remarkable 
rocks are seen. The ascent of 
Naka-no-take, which, though a 
rough scramble, is well w^orth 
making, takes about 1 hr. from the 
Hige-suri-i wa . The modern-looki ng 
edifice near the latter was built for 
ihe priests, after the burning of the 
tv^'o temples in 1872. 

Second day : — to Klnkel-san. 
The way lies along the plain for 1 
lir. to the vill. of Sugaicara, whence 
the climb to the top — steep but not 
dangerous — will take Ih hr. more. 

Third day : — to Myo(/l Jinjor 
dtojo, the most diflficult of the three 
expeditions. The only practicable 
path is that leading ux? to the JJai 
;ind behind the Takezuru Chojo, 
7 chd below the Olai-no-in (the 
route i\p the steep and dangerous 
rock from the Oku-no-in should be 
avoided), thence u}) over the Ilato- 
nmne, or " Pigeon's Breast," a rock 
some 20 ft. in height, to scale which 
i t is necessary to take a rope. To this 
succeeds an arduous climb, which 
]nust be achieved by hauling one- 
self up from tree to tree,— 2^ hrs. 
to the summit. Steep and narrow 
cols and ridges connect the various 
])eaks. The return is made the 
same way. 

The precipitous sides of Myogi 
are clothed in parts with rich vege- 
tation, and towards the end of 
October glow with the crimson 
1 ints of the maple and other trees. 

On leaving Myogi, the railway 



may be rejoined at Mat.sulda ; or 
else one may walk on for 2 ri to a 
point a little further along the 
Nakasendo highway, near 

Yokogawa {Lm, Ogino-ya, at 
station). After this, the line begins 
to climb the Usui Fusm. 



The construction of the 7 miles of rail- 
way leading to Karuizawa over the Usui 
Pass presented great dillic\ilties, which, 
however, v^ere overcome in 189:3 by the 
introduction of the Abt system, — cog- 
Avheela working on rack-rails. The 
gradient is 1 in 15, and almost the whole 
way a succession of bridges and tunnels, 
the total tunnelling aggregating 2.1 miles. 
There are 20 tunnels altogether, Ko. 6 
being the longest. The viaduct over the 
Usui-gawa has four arches, each of GU ft. 
Oldening ; and the height of the rails from 
the valley is 110 ft. In order to obviate 
inconvenience from heat and smoke in 
the larger tunnels, the engine is placed 
behind, and as soon as the train has 
entered, a curtain is drawn at the lower 
end, which prevents the smoke from 
being sucked up along the tunnel. 



The tiresomeness of the tunnels 
is relieved by momentary glimjjses 
of grandly wooded ravines and of 
the rugged peaks of Myogi-san. 

Shin-Karuizawa, the station, 
lies } hr. by jinrildsha from the 
summer resort called 



Kyu-Karuizawa (se< 
Eoute). 



next 



176 



Route 12. — KarvAzawa and Asama-yama. 



EOUTE V2. 



Kabuizawa, Asama-yama, and 
Neighboushood. 

1. kaeuizawa and neighboukhood. 
2. ascent of asama-yama. 3. 
temple of shakusonji. 4. myo- 
senji. 5. hot springs of bessho. 
6. to bhimonita by the -wami- 

T5GE. 7. FROM KASriZAWA TO 
KUSATSU. 

1. — IVAEUIZAWA AND NEIGH- 
BOURHOOD. 

Karviizawa (Mikasa Hotel, at 
Yunosawa, 10 min. beyond the vilL, 
Mampei Hotel, Karuiza^va Hotel, in 
vill. ; — 15 min. by jinrildsha from 
the station. Trayeliers should notify 
their arrival beforehand.) 5.t hrs. 
from Tolcyo by the railway de- 
scribed in the preYious route, lies in 
the corner of a grassy moor on the 
W. side of the Usui-t5ge, 780 ft. 
belo'NV the summit. 

The village was in formei- times ijrin- 
cipally dependent upon travellers over 
the Nakasendo highway (Route 2i), and 
appears to h;-ive just escaped ruin, after 
the construction of the railway, by a 
number of the foreign residents of Tokyo 
making it a retreat from the heat of the 
city during the summer months. Karui- 
zawa's lofty situation (3, 270 ft.) gives it a 
temperature seldom excessive during the 
daytime, and invariably cool at night. 
The rainfall bears favourable comparison 
with Nikko and other mountain resorts, 
and owing to the porous nature of the 
soil in the vicinity, leaves fewer traces 
behind. The i)lace is nevertheless not 
free from mosquitoes, and the small 
sand-fly called huyii, — an insect which 
inflicts a bite, painless at first, but after- 
wards extremely irritating. Karuizawa 
is specially patronised by missionary 
visitors from all parts of Japan and even 
China. The country round about afiords 
good rides and walks both on the grassy 
moor and among the hills. Trout are 
caught about Kama-no-hashi, and in the 
Chikuma-gawa near Komoro station. 

The chief excursion from Karui- 
zawa is the ascent of the volcano 
of Asama-yama (see page 178). 



Others are described below. The 
rocks of My5gi-san (p. 17-1), and the 
great Buddhist temple of Zenkoji 
at Nagano (Ete. 27) are near at 
hand. Karuizawa also forms a con- 
venient starting-point for more 
arduous trips among the mountains 
described in Eoutes 28 and 30. 
The walks include 

1. The Usui toge, 1^ m., on 
the top of which stand a few houses 
and a small temrjle. An extensive 
view is obtainable from a slightly 
higher jx>int accessible by a path 
to the r. after passing the first 
house in the hamlet. It embraces 
Asama-yama, Haruna, Akagi, the 
Shirane-san and Koma-ga-take of 
Koshti, Yatsu-ga-take, and Tate- 
shina-yama. The return can be 
varied by continuing along the 
ridge (path a^^t to be overgrown), 
and descending by the side of the 
IMampei Hotel. Time, 1^ hrs. 

On the TJsui-toge is localised the follow- 
ing legend, preserved in the Kojiki: — 

When Yamato-take (see p. 86) was cross- 
ing from 8agami to Kazusa, while on his 
exijedition against the barbarous tribes 
who then inhabited that region, he ridi- 
culed the nsitxie ot Hashiri-mizu ("Running 
Water") given to the strait, and exclaimed 
that it waa no more than an easy jump 
across The Sea-God, ofi'ended at this 
insult, so disturbed the waters that Ya- 
mato-take's ship was unable to advance. 
Upon this, his consort Oto-Tachibana- 
Hime said to him, " I will drown myself in 
thy stead," — and as she plunged into the 
eea, the waves became still. Seven days 
afterwards her comb floated ashore. The 
prince erected a tomb, and placed the 
comb therein. On returning to the capital 
after subduing the tribes, he stopped to 
rest at the top of the Usui Pass, and 
gazing over the plain, said thrice in a 
melancholy voice: ^^ Azuina xva ya!" 
("Alas! my wife"), whence the name of 
Azuma by which Eastern Japan is still 
known. 

2. A vievv' more comprehensive 
still than the preceding is obtained 
from Fujimi-zaka, the E. end of 
the rounded hill to the N. of the 
Usui-toge, commonly known as the 
" Hog's Back." The way leads 
through the temple grounds, turns 
at once sharp r. (two paths to the 1. 
should be avoided) and wends along 



Walks at Karuizawa. 



177 



the hillside for about 1 hr., whence 
after a short dip and rise again we 
come to a spot from which Fuji is 
visible. — Aviihari, the peak opposite 
(5,400 ft.), marked by a tripod, takes 
another ^ hr. to climb, and offers a 
remarkably extensive panorama. — 
An alternative return can be made 
by keeping along the ridge and 
descending into the Kusatsu road, 
1^ m. beyond Kose. 

3. Atago-yama, a conical hill 
behind the vill. is ascended in J hr. 
by two flights of stone steps. Half- 
way up are some curious perpen- 
dicular rocks. 

4. Hanare-yama. This iso- 
lated hill may be climbed in 1^ hr. 
On its S. side, near the summit, is a 
large cave tenanted by bats. 

5. To a Cascade, 20 min. beyond 
the Mikasa Hotel, up a valley to the 
r., mostly under the shade of fine 
trees. 

6. Yag-asaki-yama (" Prospect 
Point "), the sharp peak, marked by 
a tripod, on the S. of the railway, 
and affording a magnificent view of 
the Myogi and other ranges. It is 
a climb of less than 1 hr. from the 
vill. of Yagasaki, near the top 
tunnel. The descent may be made 
by a path along the ridge leading to 
the Kamado-iwa, a remarkable 
rock re-named " Pulpit Eock " by 
the foreign visitors. 

7. Iriyaina-toge, 1 hr. The 
path skirts the moor at the base of 
Yagasaki-yama, and below the 
" Pulpit Rock." At the foot of the 
pass stand a few houses known as 
SaJcai. The top affords the finest 
view obtainable of the valley lead- 
ing towards Myogi-san, and, look- 
ing backwards, of the wide stretch 
of moorland at the base of Asama- 
yama. 

8. Wami-tog-e and Rosoku- 
iwa. From the tiny hamlet of 
Sakai, just mentioned (1 hr.), the 
path keeps to the r., and in | hr. 
more, reaches the highway over the 
Wami-tdge. The ascent is easy, 
and the eye is delighted by a splen- 
did amphitheatre of mountains. 



Descending a short distance on 
the opposite side, a path 1. leads in 
30 min. to the hamlet of Ongawa, 
situated at the base of the J?o- 
soku-iica, aptly re-named by for- 
eigners the Cathedral Eocks, 
and remarkable for the petrified 
wood found in the neighbourhood. 
The climb — not easy for ladies — to 
the top of the S.E. or higher of the 
two rocky masses is made from 
Shimo- Ongawa, and is a stiff pull 
of 1 hr. At two points in the upper 
part, chains help the climber to 
surmount the clefts and buttresses. 
The rocky wall on the Ongawa side 
forms a sheer precipice of about 650 
ft., recalling those of adjacent Myo- 
gi-san. Instead of returning the 
way one came, a pleasant round 
may be made by taking a tortuous 
hill path leading doM^n deep into 
the Iriyama valley, from which 
Karuizawa may be regained by the 
Iriyama-toge. Or else, by pursuing 
a downward course from Ongawa, 
one may reach the hamlet of Aral, 
at the lower end of the Iriyama 
valley. From this point it is a 
little over 1 ri to Yokogawa, whence 
train. In any case, the excursion 
will occupy a day. 

9. Kose, 1 hr. The way leads 
by the Mikasa Hotel, soon passing 
over more elevated ground and 
through beautiful stretches of forest. 
Kose is a tiny hamlet in a fold of 
the hills, but possesses a commodi- 
ous inn with natural lukewarm 
baths. — A delightful alternative way 
back may be taken by following 
the path to the r. soon after ascend- 
ing the hill from Kose. After 15 
min. up through the wood, it 
emerges into the open, affording a 
fine panorama of mountains. 
Thence it leads over the ridge to 
the dip by Hanare-yama, and down 
1. through the dairy farm to Karui- 
zawa. Time from Kose, 1^ hr. 

10. KarQa-no-liash.i, 1 hr. walk 
on the flat to a pretty spot, where 
the stream rushes in a series of 
rapids under two rustic bridges. 
The way leads along the Nakasendd 



178 



Boute VI. — Karuizawa and Amma-yama. 



to the railway, which it crosses, and, 
passing through the hamlet of Torii- 
hara, turns at once to the 1., and 
soon reaches the river. — An addi- 
tional 2 to 22 hrs. walk or ride may 
be taken by varying the return as 
follows : — Cross the bridge, and first 
keeping close to the W. side of 
Kazakoshi-yama, take the path 
which soon turns 1. and is marked 
by small images of Jizo. It keeps 
Karuizawa in sight, and leads round 
by the hamlet of Magoi and the foot 
of the Wami-t5ge ; but short-cuts 
across the plain may be availed of. 

2 . — ASAM A-YAM A . 

Asama-yama (8,130 ft.) is not 
only the largest active volcano in 
Japan, but the most accessible. 
The excursion to the summit and 
back may be made from Karuizawa 
in one day ; or else, by starting at 
10 P.M., one may be at the top for 
sunrise. 

The last great eruption occurred in 
1783, when a stream of lava destroyed 
a primeval forest of considerable extent, 
together with several villages on the N. 
side. Most eruptions have produced 
mere showers of ashes ; hut stones have 
also been ejected during the last thirteen 
years. At the foot of the steep cone the 
subterranean disturbance can be dis- 
tinctly heard, and the sulphureous exhala- 
tions near the summit often make this 
part of the ascent opiDressive. Snow 
may be found aboi;t here under a thin 
layer of ash even in August. 

The ascent by the Wakasare no 
Chaya — a rest-house on the old road 
to Kiisatsu — is the one usually 
preferred, and is the least fatiguing. 
The best plan is to take horses 
at Karuizawa, where foreign 
saddles may be procured, ride 
via the vill. of Kutsukake to 
Ko-Asama, — the excrescence on 
the mountain side, — 2.} hrs., and 
walk up by the path which diverges 
1. some 20 cho before reaching 
Wakasare-no-Chaya. It is also 
]jossible to reach this ])lace via 
Kose. The climb up from Waka- 
sare is steep, but the path a fairly 



solid one of cinders. The time 
taken to the hp of the crater is 
about 2h hrs. from the place where 
riders dismount. 

The crater is circular, some f 
m. in circumference, with sides 
perpendicular, honeycombed, and 
burnt to a red hue, while sulphu- 
rous steam wells ui^ from the bottom 
and from numerous crevices in the 
walls. On the S. side of the moun- 
tain rise two jDrecipitous rocky ram- 
l^arts, separated by a considerable 
interval, the outer one being lower 
and mostly covered with vegeta- 
tion. They seem to he the remains 
of two successive concentric craters, 
the existing cone being the third 
and most recent. The nearer one 
is quite bare, and columnar in 
structure at the centre. The side 
of the cone is strewn v.ith large 
rough fragments of loose lava, and 
unfathomable rifts extend for the 
greater part of the way down to 
its base. Persons with weak heads 
should beware of the path across 
the stony and almost precipitous 
slope on the E. side between the 
two craters. The view from the 
summit embraces a large tract of 
country :— to the N., the whole of 
the Kdtsuke mountains, with the 
Haruna group and Akagi-san ; the 
Xikkd range and the E. range divid- 
ing Shinshri from Kotsuke ; the sea 
far away in the distance ; next the 
Koshu mountains on the S., with 
Fiiji peering over them ; conical 
Yatsu-ga-take and the adjacent 
summits of Kdshti ; and then on 
the ^Y., the huge range that forms 
the boundary between Shinshu and 
Hidii. The descent to the Waka- 
sare-no-Chaya takes 1^ hr. 

Another way up, also occupying 
about 5^ hrs., is from Oiirake {Inn, 
Nakamura-ya), a vill. on the Kaka- 
sendo, 2 ri 14 cho from Karuizawa. 
On leaving Oiwake, the path as- 
cends gently through sloping moor- 
land covered with wild-ilowers ; 
then the acclivity becomes greater, 
and gritty ash is reached. At an 
elevation of 1,145 ft. above Oiwake, 



Ascent of Asama. Shakusonji. 



179 



is a cascade liidclen among the 
trees that border a deep gorge. Its 
height is about 18 ft. ; the red 
colour of the water and of the 
underljdng rock — volcanic breccia 
covered with a red crust — gives 
it a strange ajipearance. At a 
height of 3,225 ft. above Oiwake, all 
vegetation ceases. For 1,600 ft. 
more, the path proceeds up a steep 
ascent of loose ash to the edge of 
the outer ridge, which from the vill. 
below appears to be the summit, 
though not really so. The path 
then descends, and crosses over 
to the base of the present cone, 
which is more easily climbed. 

The ascent can also be made from 
Komoro, a station on the Karuizawa 
— Naoetsu railway. The path leads 
straight across the fields towards 
the highest visible point of Asama, 
and in Ij hr. fair talking brings 
one to the crest of a ridge, beyond 
Y\'hich is a deep ravine with a 
3^ellow brook at the bottom, while 
the iiath from Oiwake is at the 
same level on the other side. 
The brook is crossed after 35 min. 
walking, when the jjath joins that 
from Oiwake, described above. 
The actual time taken by a good 
walker to make the ascent from 
Komoro was 5| hrs., exclusive of 
stoppages, the last 1^ hr. being an 
extremely rough and steep climb. 

One of the most interesting ex- 
cursions from Karuizaw^a is to the 
Lava Stream of 1783 {OsU-dashi- 
gaicara), referred to in the small 
type on p. 178. Some travellers 
pressed for time combine this with 
the ascent of the mountain, doing 
both in one day ; but this is too 
fatiguing. The way to the lava 
stream goes oft immediately behind 
the Wakasare-no-Chaya rest-house 
(where a guide can generally be 
engaged), thence 1. through the 
pine-wood which borders the lava 
stream ; time, 50 min. The huge 
blackish grey blocks lie piled up 
in extraordinary confusion to a 
height of from 20 to 25 ft. from 



the edge of the wood. Time has 
covered them with a coating of 
lichen, and owing to surface dis- 
integration they break away easily 
in parts, so as to make scrambling 
over them difficult. Emerging, as 
one does suddenly, from the peace- 
ful shade of the forest, with its 
carpet of moss, on to this terrible 
evidence of subterranean force, the 
spectacle is weirdly imi^ressive. 
The view, too, from the top of the 
boulders, esjjecially of Shirane-san 
and of the range dividing the 
provinces of Shinshu and Kotsuke 
is very fine. On the way back, the 
guide will point out a curious fissure 
in the ground extending for a long 
distance, doubtless due to some 
later eruption. 

3. — SShakusonji. 

The train takes | hr. from Karui- 
zawa to Komoro, v/hence over 
1 hr. walk to the temple of 
Shakusonji, commonly known as 
Nandbiki no Kicannon, which lies 
X)erched on the side of one of the 
high bluffs that overlook the Eiver 
Chikuma. It is a romantic spot, 
approached by a narrow gorge lead- 
ing from the river bank. The 
priests have tunnelled through the 
rocks in several places, making 
passages which lead to the various 
shrines and form a continuous 
corkscrew X3ath round the perpen- 
dicular cliff. The white-painted hut 
close by the bell-tower on the sum- 
mit commands a superb view of 
the Asama range and the valley of 
the Chilcuma-gav,-a. The monastery 
belongs to the Tendai sect of 
Buddliists. 



4. — Myosexji. 

This is another temple of the 
Tendai sect, commonly known as 
Akaru-san-no-Kimnnon, standing at 
the foot of splendid cliff's. The way 
there is by rail to Miyoda (J hr.), 
whence over the plain in hasha or 



180 



Route 1*2. — Karaizaiva and Amma-yama. 



jinrildsha (better order in advjince) 
via Iwamurata on the Naiasendo 
in 2 J brs. more to the viil. of Ko- 
saka, -svhere the temple is sitimted. 
From it a road winds np for 8 clto 
through fine cryptomerias and other 
trees to the Oku-no-ln, but the best 
viev,' of the valley and its castel- 
l.ited clitis is obtained from a rocky 
promontory to be reached by a 
further short climb up a narrow 
defile. Close by is a rocking-stone. 
The white and purple wistaria 
comes into flower here in early 
June. 

5. — Bessho. 

Summer residents at Karuizawa, 
desirous of getting a peep of life 
at a typical bathing resort of the 
good old kind, might visit Bess ho, 
a little Till, lying in a fold of the 
pine-clad hills, at the foot of 
Ogami-dake, 3 rl by jinrikisha to 
the W. of Ueda station (1^ hr. by 
train). The .best inn, Kashivra-ya, 
a three-storied building which ad- 
joins a small but pretty temple 
sacred to Kwannon, sprawls up and 
down the hillside, commanding a 
lovely view. Another temple, with 
a massive thatched roof, called An- 
rakuj'i, boasts a pagoda of the un- 
usual number of four storeys, 
vrhich is 700 years old. A festival 
takes place at the summit of Ogami- 
dake every 15th July, when each 
house in the vill. has to send a 
representative bearing some gar- 
ment as an oifering to the god. 
The neighbourhood of Bessho af- 
fords many pretty wallvs, among 
others one to the Ildfukvji-toqe, 
(i,400 ft. high), 2^ hrs., on the old 
highway between Ueda and Matsu- 
moto. There is little view from the 
summit in the direction of Matsu- 
moto, but on looking backwards, a 
fine panorama of mountains. 

6. — OVEB THE WAMI-T5a2 TO 

Shimonita. 
This expedition can best be made 



either on horseback or on foot as 
far as Shimonita, and the return 
by train via Takasaki ; 7^ hours 
will be a good allowance for 
catching the last train. The w-ay 
leads over the Wami-t5ge (p. 177), 
and down a narrow, jiicturesque 
valley between lofty, precipitous 
crags to the vill. of Hatsudoya. 
Jinrildshas with two men might be 
availed of all the way, or, at any 
rate, from this place by ordering 
them beforehand from Shimonita ; 
or else from the next vill. of Moto- 
juku, the first one M'hich affords 
accommodation. The whole walk 
is lovely, the valley only beginning 
to open out a little about Motojuku, 
while Shimonita stands, so to say, 
at its mouth. For further notice of 
Shimonita, see p. 173. 

The distances are approximately 
as follows : — 

KAEUIZAWA to Ri Cho M. 

Top of Wami-toge. 2 18 6 

Hatsudoya 28 2 

Motojukii 1 26 41 

SHBIONITA 2 27 r>| 

Total 7 27 19 



7. — From Kabuizawa to 

Ktjsatsu. 

This is a day's journey of 10 rl 
approximately, just practicable 
for jinrikishas ; three men may be 
necessary. Horses with foreign 
saddles are also obtainable at Karui- 
zawa. The path to Kusatsu di- 
verges to the r. before descending 
to Kose (p. 177), and, emerging 
from the forest, jmsses over the 
grassy slopes of Hana-magari and 
the other mountains to the N. of 
the Usui-Pass. Asama looms up 
over the wide moorland to the 1. 
At about 4^ ri from Karuizawa, the 
old road to Kusatsu (12 ri) via Wa- 
kasare-no-Chaya join3_in, whence 
on to the poor vill. of Okiiu:a, 1^ /•/, 
the way lies through park-like 
country, part of which is utilised for 



(W 




J 



Route Vd.—lkao, Kusatsa, and Neif/Jibourhood. 



181 



a liorRe-breeding farm owned by 
the Imperial Household. Tlie next 
stage takes one in about 1 hr. 
down to the bed of the River 
Agatsuma, which is crossed on a 
suspension bridge of about 180 ft. 
span, made of telegraph v.'ire. On 
the far side stands the vill. of 
Haneo. The remainder of the way 
is mostly a gradual ascent through 
v/oods and fields, commanding at 
intervals splendid views of the sur- 
rounding monntflins. For Ku.satsu, 
see p. 185. 



EOUTE 13. 

IkAO, KiTSATSr, AND 

Neighbourhood. 

1. ikao. 2. walks and excitrsions 
from ikao : haruna, etc. 3. ku- 
satsit. 4. walks in thk neigh- 
bourhood of kusatsu. ascent of 
8hirane-san. 5. from kusatsu 
to nagano over the shtbu-toge 
or torii-toge. 

1. — Ikao. 

Ikao is a short day's journey 
from T6k3'^(3 (Ueno station). The 
first stage is by rail to Mae- 
bashi in 3J hrs., whence tram to 
Shibiikawa {Inn, Yamada-ya), about 
1^ hr. The tram-cars start from 
the railway station, but if a special 
car is desired, the Basha Tdsudo 
Kicaisha should be notified before- 
hand. The last stage from Shibu- 
kawa up to Ikao (2 n 15 cho, or 6 m.) 
is done by jinrildsha with two men 
in a little under 2 hrs. — Shibukawa 
can also be reached from Takasaki 
station by tram direct ; but the 
distance is longer (2 J hrs.). In 
summer time a private car is almost 
a necessity both on this and on the 
Maebashi tramway. 



Ifofels. — Ibio Hotel, Kindayu ; 
both Europ. style. There are also 
the Bndayu, Chigira, and other good 
inns in Japanese style. 

Ikao, one of the beat summer 
resorts in Japan, is built on ter- 
races along the N. E. slope of 
Haruna-san, at an elevation varying 
from 2,500 to 2,700 ft. llie pictur- 
esque main street, which divides the 
vill. into an eastern and a western 
part, consists of one nearly con- 
tinuous steep flight of steps. The 
houses W. of the steps border on a 
deep ravine called Yusmca, through 
which a road has been made for the 
benefit of summer visitors. Ikao 
enjoys the advantage of cool nights, 
few mosquitoes, and an unusually 
beautiful situation, which offers 
from nearly every house a grand 
view of the valleys of the Agatsuma- 
gawa and Tonegawa, and of the 
high mountain-ranges on the border 
of the great plain in which Tokyo 
is situated. From few places can 
the Nikko mountains be seen to 
such advantage, while conspicuous 
in the foreground rise the three 
l^eaks of Onoko-yama. 

No summer resort in Japan can 
show such a wealth of wild-flowers. 
During July and August, the lilium 
auratum, the tiger-lily and several 
other lilies, the iris in many col- 
ours, three species of clematis, 
three species of spirea, the hy- 
drangea, the funkia, asters, cam- 
panulas, and numerous others car- 
l^et the ground. The rare fern 
Aspidium tripteron, too, grows abun- 
dantly close to the stream below 
Eenten-daki. Earlier, especially in 
May, this whole country-side re- 
sounds with the song of birds, — • 
nightingales and cuckoos in the 
woods, larks on the open moorland. 
Ikao is famous for its mineral 
springs, w^hich have a temperature 
of 11 3"^ F., and which contain a 
small amount of iron and sulphate 
of soda. They have been known 
since prehistoric times, and the 
bath-houses, pouring out clouds of 
steam form a striking feature of 



182 



Roule 13. — Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 



the i)recipitou.s village street. The 
Japanese use the hot baths several 
times daily. 

2. — Walks and Exct'rstoxk 
FROM Ikao. 

1. Along the YusaMa rapine to 
Yumoto, abont J m., nearly level. 
{yu-moto means lit., " the Source of 
the Hot Water "); retiu-n by the Yu- 
sawa ravine road, which lengthens 
the M-alk a little. Seats are erected 
for the accommod;\tion of visitors, 
who resort there to drinlc of the 
mineral spring {nomi-yu). The 
water, which at its source is quite 
clear, has a shghtly inky taste, but 
it has little more effect than pure 
hot water. On being exposed to 
the air the carbonic acid evaporates, 
and part of the iron which the 
water contains is precipitated as a 
yello-o-ish mass. This covers the 
bed of the river and the bottom of 
the aqueduct, and gives to the 
water in the baths a thick, dis- 
coloured appearance. The people, 
who have great faith in the strength- 
ening effects of this precipitated 
iron salt, place large strips of cotton 
cloth in the stream. ^\Tlen the 
cloth has assumed a deep yellow 
colour, it is taken out, dried, and 
used as a belt. Gowns thus dyed 
(yu-aka-zome) are offered for sale, 
and to wear one of these for twelve 
hours is declared to be equal to 
a whole course of baths. The mine- 
ral water is led down to the inns 
in bamboo i^ipes. 

2. Up Kompira-san, I hr. climb 
under shade. Though of no great 
height, the top commands an ex- 
tensive view, stretching from 
Shirane-san near Kusatsu to 
Tsukuba-san in Hiti\chi, and 
including the Mikuni and Nildco 
ranges, Akagi-san, and the valley of 
the Tone-gawa. 

3. Up to Mushi-yu, (lit. " Ya- 
130ur Bath"), so called from the 
sulphurous gases which here ema- 
nate from the ground, \\-here 
huts have been erected for the 



treatment of rheumatic patients : - 
time, by the Haruna road, f hr. — 
A longer way, — somewhat over 1 hr., 
— but offering more extensive views, 
is uj) the hill by a zigzag path 
behind the village temple {Ikao 
J'lnja). After ^ hr. it joins the 
path from Kompira-san, whence 
the rest of the ^s-ay leads by the 
cliffs overlooking the vallej's al- 
ready mentioned, and across the 
ojoen moorland. — The naked people 
sometimes standing about at Mushi- 
yu make this place unsightly. 
Among the rocks by the side of 
the ijath just below Mushi-yu are a 
number of holes from which cold 
air issues, seeming to testify to the 
presence of ice within. A notice 
board marks the largest of these 
holes. 

4. To 2\~anae-no-faki ("the Seven- 
fold Cascade "), J hr. down through 
a vrood ; thence for f hr., also 
mostly up and down through the 
wood, to Benten-daki, a pretty 
fall of the stream that flows fi'om 
Lake Haruna. The retru-n may be 
varied by taking either of the walks 
described_under No. 5. 

.5. To Odaki, a cascade below 
Benten-daki, 40 min. The path 
diverges at Xanae-no-taki down the 
valley r. to the vill. of Yunakago, 
where there is a fine avenue of 
ancient cryptomerias leading to a 
deserted shrine ; thence 1. through 
the wood. The walk may be leng- 
thened by following the path along 
the r. bank of the stream, which 
ultimately joins the main Benten- 
dald path, 15 min. distant from that 
fall. — The above walk being mostly 
under trees, another may be taken 
from Y'unakago to Benten-diild, 
which discloses charming views in 
every direction. The road leads 
from l^uiakago over the deep tor- 
rent bed to the 1. up to the hamlet 
of Okamki Jlnja, whence a good 
path 1. takes one round to Benten- 
daki, 1^ hr. from Ikao. About half- 
way it forks ; keep to the 1. branch 
skirting the stream, which is cross- 
ed just above the faU. 



Walks and Excursions from Ikao. 



183 



G. A long but delightful walk may- 
be taken via tbe N. end of Lake 
Hamna to Benten-daki, by fol- 
lowing the stream which forms the 
falls (about 1.J hr. from the lake to 
the fall). In spring there is a 
wealth of flowering trees, ground 
orchids, and ^^ild wistarias. 

7. Mizusawa no Kwannon, 
a Buddhist temple in which, though 
dedicated to Kwannon, the chief 
interest is aiforded by six bronze 
images of Jizo, life-size, on a 
revolving case. The way there 
leads for a few cho down the Shibu- 
kawa road, then diverging r. through 
the wood at the foot of Sengen- 
yama ; time to the temple, 50 min. 
One can proceed on from Mizusawa, 
a further distance of 1 hr. to the lofty 
Waterfall of Funao, in a rocky fold 
of a mountain of the same name. 
Take the path r. at the bottom of 
the vill. until it comes to the river 
bed, where a track diverges abruptly 
over the hillside to the r. This 
leads in 20 min. to the side of a 
ravine. To the 1. a line vista of the 
Tonegawa valley opens out ; to the 
r., the ravine runs down to an angle 
in the hills where a good, though 
somewhat distant, view of the 
waterfall appears. The final rough 
scramble up the river-bed to the 
foot of the fall is hardly worth do- 
ing. The return may be made by 
a path over the hills, that leads 
between Sengen-yama r. and 
Futatsu-dake 1., — J hr. This 
would be a good occasion for 
ascending Sengen-yama, the steep 
path up which is well-defined. 

8. Garameki boasts a tepid 
mineral spring and two tea-houses. 
At the top of the zigzag immediate- 
ly behind Mushi-yu the path 
tlivides : — r. to Soma, 1. to Gara- 
meld, lying in a deep gorge, 1^ 
hr. from Mushi-yu. Allow 3 hrs. 
for return by the horse-track, which 
passes by the Tsurushima-ma into 
the Haruna plain. 

9. Haruna, — 6} m., of which 4.} 
m. to the lake. Though the first 
part of it is rough, this is by far 



the prettiest walking expedition 
at Ilvao. " Chairs " may, however, 
be taken. 

Lake Haruna, which apparently 
occupies one comer of an extinct 
crater, has been stocked "«dth 
salmon-trout and carp. On its 
border is a tea-house (Kohan-tei) 
where one may liinch or spend 
the night. The mass of rocks 
resembling a tower at the N. W. 
end is called Siizuri-iwa, and can 
be easily climbed from the back. 
From the lake it is a short and easy 
ascent to the top of a pass called 
Tenjin-toge, 1,000 ft. above Ikao, 
commanding a fine view. From 
the Tenjin-toge the path descends 
a luxuriantly wooded glen to the 
ancient Temple of Haruna, situated 
amongst precipitous and overhang- 
ing volcanic rocks, in a grove of 
lofty cryptomerias. Over the prin- 
cipal building, which is decorated 
with excellent wood-carvings (es- 
pecially two dragons twined round 
the side beams of the porch), hangs 
a huge rock supjMrted on a slender 
base, which seems every moment 
to threaten the temple with destruc- 
tion. The whole site is fantasti- 
cally beautiful. 

The date of the original foundation of 
the temple of Haruna is unknown. The 
earliest records date back only five cen- 
turies, when the Yamabushi (a sect of 
Buddhist exercisers and fortune-tellers), 
who then had possession of the place, 
were involved in the ruin of Nitta Yoshi- 
sada (see p. 81), with whom they had sided 
in the civil wars of the time. More 
latelj' it came under the jurisdiction of 
the Imperial Prince-abbot of Ueno. The 
present main shrine was erected about 
A.D. 1725, and since the revolution of 
1868 it has been re-dedicated to the 
Shinto deities Ho-musubi the God of 
Fire, and Haniyasu-Hime the Goddess of 
Earth. 

A short way below the temple 
is a remarkable formation of rock 
like a flying buttress, called Kura- 
kake-iwa. A few minutes further 
on stands the village, where reside 
the families of the priests ; for even 
in old times, a local exemption 
existed from the Buddhist rule of 



184 Route 13. — IkaOy Kmatsu, and Neighbourhood. 



ceKbacy. Hanina-maclii, as the 
vill. is called, possesses good 
country inns. 

10. Futatsu-dake, Soma- 
yama, and Haruna Fuji. These 
three hills all lie on the -way to 
Lake Haruna. The -w-ay up Fuiatsi.i- 
dake diverges 1. ^ hr. out of Ikao, 
where a x>ost marks 5^ cho to the 
summit. From this post, 25 min. 
more take one to the spot where 
the way to Soma-yama branches off 
1. from the Haruna road, close to the 
second tea-house. From here it is 
20 min. along the base, and 2.5 
min. more up an arete to the top, 
chains being fixed in the rock at 
the two steepest places to assist 
climbers, though there is no danger. 

The Hamna Fuji lies to the r. of the 
road, close to the lake, its steep and 
stony ascent occupying f hr. from 
the place where the path diverges. 
The view from these various heights 
is very extensive, particularly that 
from the shrine on the summit of 
Soma, 4,850 ft. above sea-level, 
and 2,150 ft. above Jki\o. The 
summit of Fuji appears over the 
Chichibu mountains nearly due S. 
To the W. of it are seen the Koshu 
Shirane, the Koma-ga-take's of 
Koshu and Shinshu seemingly in 
close proximity, then Yatsu-ga-take, 
Ontake about W. S. W., Asama- 
yama a little to the S. of W., 
Yahazu-yama W. N. W,, then the 
Shirane of Kusatsu, and a part of 
the Hida-Shinshu range. Eastwards 
rise ^Tsulmba-san and the Shirane 
of Nikko, with Kurobi-yama — the 
highest peak of Akagi-san — half-way 
between them. ITio town of Mae- 
bashi is visible to the E. S. E., with 
the Tonegawa half encircling it 
before pursuing its course through 
the plain. 

Soma may also be ascended from 
Mushi-yu; but on that side the 
chmb is more precipitous, eleven 
chains in rapid succession and one 
iron ladder helping the chmber on 
the steep portion just below the 
summit. Pilgrims sometimes 

prefer it for that very reason, as 



gaining for them greater religious 
merit. — Another way up, from the 
direction of Takasaki, joins the 
Mushi-yu ascent shortly before the 
final climb. It has seven chains 
and an iron ladder about 30 ft. 
long. The ascent of Soma from 
the Haruna side, with descent on 
the Mushi-yu side, occupies alto- 
gether 4 hrs. from Ikao. 

As a variety in the day's work, 
good walkers might combine one 
of these hills with Excursion No. 9 
(Haruna), or with No. 6 (Benten- 
daki). 

11. Seagen-yama, Thismoiin- 
tain, which assumes so many forms 
as seen from different j^arts of 
the plain, can be ascended from 
Ikao via Mushi-yu in 1^ hr. The 
path is steep, and the sides slope 
away precipitously from the top, 
which is a long knife-like ridge. 
See also end of No. 7. 

12. Akagi-san is the collective 
name of a circular range of peaks, 
surrounding the basin of an old 
crater, now a lake, about 2.f m. in 
circumference. The mountain may 
be ascended from various x>oiiits, 
but is recommended as a 2 days' ex- 
pedition from Ikao. The first stage 
takes one by jinrikisha to Shibu- 
kawa, where the Tonegawa is cross- 
ed by ferry to Hassakl. Horses, 
ordered beforehand, should here be 
in waiting for the next stage of 3 
hrs., chiefly over shadeless moorland 
which leads to a ridge surrounded 
by pretty peaks. A short distance 
further, at a cairn marking the 
junction of several piths, begins 
the only stiff portion of the ascent, 
the Ubago-toge, from the top of 
which, in about 1 hr., the path 
descends into the park-like 
country on the S. side of the lake 
( Onuryia), ^ hr. more. The lake is 
enclosed by small hills, whose lower 
slopes are covered with woods con- 
sisting principally of birch, oak, 
and alder. From its E. end rise 
the highest of the peaks, — Kurdbi- 
san 6,300 ft., and Jizo-san, 5,600 ft., 
easy climbs of 30 cho and 12 cho 



Akagi'San. Baths of Shima and Kusatsu. 



185 



respeotively, affording magnificent 
panoramic views : — Fuji S. S. "W., 
Kaigane-san (part of the Kosliu 
Shirane) S.W., the niimerons peaks 
of Yatsu-ga-take with Tateshina 
nearly W. S. W., Asama-yama due 
W., and the Kusatsu Shirane about 
W. N. W. Nearly due N. rises 
Hodaka-san, one of the loftiest 
peaks in Kotsuke, easily recognised 
by its double top. A large hut 
close by the temple [Baidb], on the 
margin of the lake, affords rough 
shelter for the night to man and 
beast. The god of Akagi is wor- 
shipped under the form of a two- 
edged sword. Twenty min. walk 
beyond the temple lies a much 
smaller tarn [Konuma). 

For those wishing to take Akagi- 
san on the way from Niklco to Ikao 
or Maebashi, the path leading up 
the Torii-toge from Mizunuma on 
the Eiver Watarase (see Ete. 18), 
and the descent by the path 
described above, is recommended. 

13. The hot-springs of Shima lie 
nearly 8 ri from Ecao, so that a trip 
there involves staying the night. 
Shima may most conveniently be 
taken on the way to Kusatsu, the 
road being the same as far as 20 
cho past Nakanojo. Jinrildshas 
are available, but it is occasion- 
ally necessary to alight. Shima 
includes two hamlets, called respec- 
tively Yamaguehi Onsen and Arai- 
yu, 8 cho distat f nrom each other ; 
the latter (Inns, Sekizen, and Ta- 
mura Mosaburo) is the better. The 
hamlet is picturesquely situated 
close to the river, on whose bank 
the springs which supply the baths 
gush forth. Travellers not return- 
ing to Eiao, but going on to Kusa- 
tsu, need not pass again through 
Nakanojo, as there is a short-cut 
from a place called Kimino. It is, 
however, scarcely passable for jin- 
rildshas. 

14. To Myogi-san. It is a long 
day's walk via Haruna-san to 
Matsuida on the Takasalri-Karui- 
zawa Eailway, about 9 rl, whence 



1 ?^i more to tlie vill. of IMyogi (see 
p. 174). 

3. — Kusatsu. 

The favourite way from B:ao to 
this place leads down over open 
country to the Hakojima ferry, and 
thence along the main road through 
Nakanojo and Nagano-hara, after 
which by a steeper gradient to the 
uplands of Kusatsu. 

Itinerary. 

IKAO to:— Iti Clio M. 

Hakojima 2 13 5f 

Murakami 18 1^- 

Nakanojo 2 — 5 

Haramachi 20 1^ 

Iwashita 2 4 5^ 

Kawara-yu 1 28 4|- 

Nagano-hara 1 24 4 

KUSATSU 3 4 7^ 

Total 14 3 34^ 



Jinrildshas with two or three men 
are practicable the whole way. 
Most persons will prefer to walk 
the steeper and more picturesque 
stages at either end, but may 
advantageously take basJia along 
the flat from Murakami to Naka- 
nojo. The whole trip makes an 
extremely long day. Should a 
break be found necessary, goo<l 
accommodation may be had at 
Nakanojo {Inn, Nabe-ya), or else 
at Kav:ara-yu {Inn, Hagiwara). 
The 'scenery is delightful, the 
way from Hakojima tenj leading 
up the beautiful valley of the 
Agatsuma-gavra. Beyond Hara- 
machi, it grov>'s somewhat tamer ; 
but about Kauxira-yu the gorge 
narrows, mountains rise precipi- 
tously, and the roadway cut out of 
the solid rock winds hundreds of 
feet above the roaring stream. 
Here hot-springs issue from a place 
high up on the river bank. 

An alternative road from Ikao to 
Kusatsu branches off r. at Nakano- 



186 



Route 13. — Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 



j6, througli (be small Lcitbing vill. 
of Smrataii {Inn, Shin-Kano-ya) and 
over the Kure.9aka-tdge. Jinrikishas 
jiracticable ; but tbe billy portions 
^vill be found nncoinfortable. Dis- 
tance to Sawatari, 7 ri, 21 cho, 
^\•bence to Iviisatsn, 5 ri 9 cJio more. 
Instead of going yia Murakami and 
Nakanojd, one may take tbe Haruna 
Lake route, and_by turning to tbe 
1. at tbe Till, of Odo, join tbe Hara- 
macbi route a little beyond Kauara- 
ya. 

But tbe favourite way of reaching 
Knsatsu for tbose wbo do not \^isb 
to make any stay en route is tbat 
described under Karuizawa (see 
p. 180). 

Kusatsu {Inn, Sbirane Hotel, 
Avitb j)rivate batbs ; Yamamoto- 
Icwan, semi-Europ.), 3,800 ft. above 
sea-level, -whose trim, cleanly ap- 
pearance strongly recalls that of a 
village in tbe Tyrol, is the coolest 
of eTapan's summer resorts. Tbe 
tine three-storied and gabled inns 
forming the village square give an 
unusual aspect to the place. The 
carving of the brackets which 
support tbe overhanging galleries 
combines similarity of outbne with 
clever diversity of pattern, — fans 
with various crests, birds, fishes, 
rats, goru'ds, etc., being introduced. 
The centre of the square is occui^ied 
by springs of boiling sulphur water, 
led in troughs to collect the sulphur. 
Baths, public and private, are very 
numerous. Visitors who, attracted 
by these considerations, may think 
of spending any time here, should 
however bear in mind that the 
mineral waters are specially effi- 
cacious — not only in rheumatism, 
and, as discovered by Dr. E. Baelz, 
in gout — but in syi:>hibs, lejDrosy, 
and other loathsome diseases, and 
tbat tbe first effect of tbe free 
sulphuric acid in the water is to 
bring out sores on the tender parts 
of the body. The chief constitu- 
ents of tbe Kusatsu springs are 
mineral acids, sulphur, iron, alum, 
and arsenic. Tbe temperature of 
the springs is extremely high, rang- 



ing from 100° to 160^ Fahrenheit, 
while the baths are generally 113" 
to 128°. The chief pubbc bath, 
called Xetsu-no-yn, has three divi- 
sions of increasing grades of tem- 
perature. Even the Japanese, in- 
ured as they are to scalding water, 
find their courage fail them ; and 
tbe native invalids are therefore 
taken to bathe in squads under a 
semi-military discipline, to which 
they voluntarily submit. This 
system is known as Jikan-yn, or 
"time bath," because the hours 
are fixed. Soon after daybght a 
born is blown and tbe bathers as- 
semble, dressed in white cotton 
tunics and drawers, as many as can 
find room taking their first daily 
bath. They begin by beating the 
water with boards in order to 
cool it somewhat, -- a curious 
scene ; and then most disrobe, 
while tbe greatest sufferers swathe 
themselves in white cotton. Each 
bather is provided with a wooden 
dipper, and the "bath-master" 
directs the patients to pour 250 
dippers of water over their heads to 
prevent congestion. Attendants 
are on tbe watch, as fainting fits 
sometimes occur. To keep up their 
courage, a kind of chant takes 
place between the bathers and 
their leader on entering and while 
sitting in tbe bath, — a trial which, 
though lasting only from 3 J to 4 
minutes, seems an eternity to their 
festering bodies. After the lapse 
of about one minute, the bath- 
master cries out, and the others all 
answer with a hoarse shout. After 
a little he cries out, " Three minutes 
more ! " After another short inter- 
val, "Two minutes more!" then 
" One minute more ! " the chorus 
answering each time. At last the 
leader cries " Finished I"' whereupon 
the whole mass of bodies rise from 
the water with an alacrity which he 
who has witnessed their slow, pain- 
ful entry into tbe place of tortiu-o 
would scarcely credit. Two more 
baths are taken during tbe fore- 
noon and two in the afternoon, 



Kusatau. Ascent of Skirane-san. 



187 



maldng five altogether, at each of j 
which the same routine is observed. 
The usual Kusatsu course includes 
120 baths, spread over four or five 
weeks. Most patients then proceed 
for the "after-cure" to Sawatari, 
5 ?'i 9 cho (12 1 m.) distant, where 
the waters have a softening effect 
on the sldn, and quickly alleviate 
the terrible irritation. Some go to 
Shibu (see next page) instead. The 
lepers' bath {Goza-no-yu) has no 
fixed hours. Fearful sights may be 
witnessed there at all times. It 
stands in the lower jmrt of the vil- 
lage, which forms a sexmrate leper 
(juarter. 

Kusatsu seems to have been first lieard 
of as one of the villages belonging to the 
great chieftain, Takeda Shingen, in the 
16th century; but its importance dates 
only from about A.D. 1700, when the 
springs were enclosed under straw huts. 
The inhabitants mostly bathe twice a 
day, in a temperature of 110°, but in 
winter three or four times to keep warm, 
and they experience no liad effects. Skin 
diseases are said to be unknown among 
them. 



4. — Walks in the Neigheotie- 
HooD or Kusatsu. 

1. To Sai-riC-Kawara, 8 cho. 
The meaning of the name Sai-no- 
Kawara is " the Kiver-bed of Souls." 
On its numerous rocks and 
boulders, small stones have been 
l^iled up by visitors as offerings to 
dead children (see p. 47). Among 
these rocks are some called yuriigi- 
IsJu, which, notwithstanding their 
being huge boulders, are so nicely 
balanced that ihej can be moved 
by the hand. Hot yellow streams of 
sulx)hur water, and green coj^per 
streams flow into the river bed. 
Twelve cho further on over the 
moor is Kori-dani, so called from 
the frozen snow to be found there 
even in the dog-days. 

2. To the soKatara of Sessho- 
gawara, on the slope of Moto- 
Shirane, about 1 ri. 

3. Via Suwa-no-jinja, Higane, 
Kiyozuktx, and Hikinuma, to 



Hanashiki near Iriyama, with 
hot springs spurting up near a 
cold stream. About 2^ r'l. 
4. Shirane-san, 7,500 ft. high, 

Slnra-ne signifies " White Peak," which 
accounts for there being several moun- 
tains of this name in Jai^an. 

a frequently active volcano, (last 
eruption in 1905) forms a short 
day's expedition via Scssho-gai'-'ara, 
the path leading through a remark- 
able skeleton forest, blasted by the 
fumes exhaled during the eruption 
of 1882. The main crater (since the 
eruption of 1902) is oval and 
about 1,000 yards long, running N. 
and S. It is divided into three 
parts, each separated by a wall and 
containing a lake, two of which are 
cold, while the middle one emits 
steam. Shme, one or two inches 
thick, surrounds the outer slope of 
the crater, which may nevertheless 
be climbed on the N. side in a few 
minutes, and the descent made to 
the hard ash floor within. The 
lakes consist of hydrochloric acid, 
with iron and alum, only needing 
to be diluted and sweetened in 
order to constitute an excellent 
lemonade. — About ^ m. to the S.E. 
of the main crater is a subsidiary 
one, also containing a cold lake ; but 
the slime round it is very deep. A 
jet of boiling sulphurous mud 
which stands close by, deserves 
insi)ection. 

Sturdy pedestrians may conve- 
niently take Shirane-san on the way 
to Shibu ; but 2 1 hrs. extra should 
be allowed for that object, as it lies 
off the main road. Horses go to the 
foot of the crater wall above-men- 
tioned. Beware of the water of the 
stream crossed on the way up, 
which is poisonous. 



5. — Kusatsu to Nagano ovee the 
Shibu-toge. The ToEn-TdGE. 

Itinerary. 

KUSATSU to :— Jii Cho Jf. 
Top of Shibu-toge. 2 32 7 



188 



Moule XL— The Shimizu-goe ami Mikimi-toge. 



SHIBT^ 



9^ 



Toyono (Station). 5 — 12^ 
Total 11 32 29 



On foot or on horseback as far 
ii8 Shibii (2,250 ft. above the sea), 
whence hasha or jinrildsha to Toyo- 
no ; thence train to Nagano in \ hr. 

This route afiords splendid 
scenery. The best plan is to sleep 
at the hot springs of Shibii [Inns, 
Kanagn-ya, Tsubata-ya), catching 
the train at Toyono next day, the 
good road thither from Shibu being 
traversed by hasha in 2| hrs. 
Quince jelly is a specialty of the 
place. (Should Shibu be full, good 
accommodation and hot baths will 
be found at Yudanaka, 12 cho 
further down the valley. ) Travellers 
who have not time to visit the 
temple of Zenkoji at Nagano can 
continue on by rail to Karuizawa 
and T5kyo. 

The picturesqueness of the road 
from Kusatsu to Shibu is purchas- 
ed at the cost of a long and 
steep climb. The descent from 
the toj) of the pass (7,150 ft.) to 
the vill. of Shibu is also very long. 
The rocky gorge {Tsuhame-uca, or 
the "Swallow's Rock") IJ rl before 
Shibu is impressive. Half a ri 
fui-ther, where a j)lacard points 
out the trail 1., it is worth descend- 
ing for a few min. to view the fine 
Kamman waterfall. The road can 
be rejoined below. The panorama 
before entering Shibu is extensive, 
including My5ko-zan, Togakushi, 
and Izuna, and towering behind 
them again the northern part of the 
great granite range on the borders 
of Etchu. The river twisting 
through the plain is the Chikuma- 
gawa, of which the Hoshi-kawa 
flowing through Shibu is an affluent. 
A little over ^ ri from Shibu is a 
small but constantly active geyser 
{djigoku) in the river-bed. 

An alternative way to Nagano 
from Kusatsu leads over theYamada- 
ioge, which is comparatively short, 



and where the baths of Yamada 
may be visited. Another is over 
the Torii-toge, 6,520 ft. above the 
sea. Both of these descend to the 
vill. of Suznka. The itinerary of 
the Torii-toge route is as follows : — 

KUSATSU to :— III Chd M. 

]VIihara 2 6 51- 

Gzasa 1 31 4| 

Tashiro 2—5 

Torii-toge 30 2 

Nire 3 28 9^ 

Suzaka 1 10 3^ 

NAGANO 3 5 7* 

Total 15 2 36| 



This so-called pass is but a gentle 
ascent of 50 chd. The prettiest 
part of the route is on the far side 
of it, where, after leaving the vill. 
of jS'ire, the monotony of grassy 
hills shutting out all distant pros- 
pect is exchanged for charming 
views of the mount^iins on the 
borders of Echigo. 



ROUTE 14. 



i The SHi:\nzu-GOE and 

]VIiEr>n:-TorTE. 

AcqTiaintance with a represen- 
tative portion of Japan's central 
mountain range may be made by 
going due N. from Ikao over the 
Shimizu-goe, and returning by its 
neighbour, the Mikuni-toge. Snow 
hes on the higher sections of the 
route till early in July. The time 
should be divided as follows : — 
first day, jinrildsha o Yubiso ; 
second day (very long) on foot to 
Nagasaki, whence jinrildsha to Mui- 
ka-machi ; third day, jiniikisha to 
Yuzawa at the foot of the IVIikuni- 
t5ge, and walk to Futai ; fom-th 



Along the Tonegmva to the Sliimizu Pass. 



189 



day, on foot to Saru-ga-kyo, or to 
Yu-no-shuku a little short of Fuse ; 
tifth day, walk to Esao. Accommo- 
dation is also to be obtained at 
Yubara, Shimizn, Nagasaki, Asakai, 
and Nakayama. 

Itinerary of the Slundza-goe. 

IKAO to :— m Oho M. 

Shibukawa- 2 15 6 

NTOIATA 4 20 lU 

Yubara 4 28 11^ 

Yubiso 1 10 Sj 

Buno 2 27 G^ 

Top of Pass 26 1^- 

Sliimizu 2 18 i)\ 

Nagasaki 1 27 4^ 

iMUIKA-MACHI 2 15 

Total 23 2 56j 



After descending to Shibukawa, 
the highway leads up the valley of 
the Tonegawa, with the great mass 
of Akagi-san to the r., and the cen- 
tral range ahead and to the 1. Just 
beyond the hamlet of Tanashita, 
where the river runs in a deep 
gorge between perpendicular rocky 
cliffs, the scenery becomes pictur- 
esque. Time is gained by leaving 
Numata (see Eoute 17) to the r., 
and diverging 1. at the hamlet 
of Togano at the junction of the 
Katashina-gawa with the Tone- 
gawa. The main road from Numa- 
ta, which is soon regained, is ex- 
cellent, and the scenery even more 
charming. Hills rise on every side, 
repeating themselves in an endless 
succession of green cones. Yubara 
(1,350 ft.) is prettily perched on 
either side of the stream which 
flows far below, with rocks vrashed 
v/hite by some hot springs. But 
the crowning beauty of this day is 
at the end, where the mountains 
are all forest-clad, and each valley 
is dominated by a lofty peak which 
remains snow-streaked till past mid- 
sTimmer. Shortly before reaching 
Yubiso, we turn sharp 1., and at 
last leave the Tonegawa to follow 
a tributary stream flowing from 



the narrow and sombre valley that 
leads to the Shimizu-goe. The 
prominent peak rising due E. of 
the junction of the two streams is 
Hodaka-yama, where the Tonegawa 
has its source. 
i Yubiso [Inn, ^\-ith hot springs) 
I lies 1,G50 ft. above sea level. About 
2 m. further on, we leave the good 
road hitherto followed for a track 
through a glorious forest of beech 
and chestnut-trees to Buno, which 
consists of three or four poverty- 
stricken inns at the foot of the 
Shimizu-goe. Steep and stony 
is the climb hence, but it affords 
IHcturesque glimpses. At 4,000 ft. 
a rest-house is reached, from which 
lX)int the road winds round the 
mountain side for about 1 m. more 
to a small shrine at the actual 
summit of the pass, 500 ft. higher, 
which marks the boundary of the 
provinces of Kotsuke and Echigo. 
In front, mountain ridges, rising 
one behind the other, stretch away 
towards the horizon, the most 
prominent being Naeba-san to the 
W. of the Mikuni-toge, On the 
descent to the vill. of Shimiiu 
short cuts may be availed of 
through the grass and trees. The 
remainder of the way is an almost 
mathematically straight line down 
an easy gradient between parallel 
ranges of hills to Nagasaki and 

Muika-machi {Inn, Ebisu-ya). 
This is a typical Echigo town, v/ith 
its arcaded pathways to keep a 
clear passage amid the deep snows 
of winter. 

[Passenger-boats go down the 
river hence (an affluent of the 
Shinano-gawa) to Nagaoka on 
the railway (see P^ute 27), in 
7 to 10 hours. They are un- 
comfortable, shoals and rapids 
niirnerous, and the stoppages 
frequent. The jinrikisha road, 
14 ri, is preferable. Hakkai-zan 
stands out conspicuously on 
the r. during a great portion of 
the way.] 



190 



Route 15. — Oyama-Maehashi Railway. 



Itinerary of the Mikuni-toge. 

MUIKA-MACHI to: J.'i Cho 21. 

Shiozawa ^3 2^ 

Seld 1 29 4J 

Yuzawa 1 16 3J 

Mitsiimata 2 20 6|- 

Futai 2 3 5^ 

Asakai 1 29 4J 

Nagai 3 32 9^ 

Saru-ga-ky5 22 1.^ 

Fuse 1 31 4i 

Nakayama 2 3i 7 

IKAO (approximately) 5 — 12| 

Total 25 4 61| 



The jinrikislia road from Ivluika- 
machi leads up a gradual incline 
to Yuzawa, where the ascent of 
the Mikuni-toge begins. Proper- 
ly spealdng, four passes are included 
under this general name, the first 
being the Siiihahara-tdge, 2,135 ft. 
above the sea. Descending to the 
bank of the Kiyotsu-gawa, we 
arrive at the vill. of Aliisumata 
and mount again to reach the 
top of the Nakano-toge, 2,800 ft., 
amidst lovely viev\^s of river, forest, 
and mountain. We now go down 
a little, and mount again to a height 
of 3,200 ft., whence far below is 
descried the vill. of Futai. A short 
descent then leads to Asakai, 
which stands at a height of 2,820 ft. 
in the midst of gentle slopes crown- 
ed by densely wooded summits. 
Here comes the ascent of the Mi- 
kuni Pass properly so called, 4,100 
ft. above the sea, whence are seen 
Akagi-san, Futago-yama, and 
Kwannon-dake to the S., and on 
the N. the long ridge of Naeba-san. 
Nagai stands in a picturesque 
gorge. A spur of the hills is cross- 
ed on the way to Saru-ga-kyd, 
where there are hot springs. The 
scenery beyond Fuse is magnificent, 
the way leading through a precipi- 
tous gorge to the top of the Eiri- 
ga-kubo-toge, 2,700 ft., at v.'hose far 
side nestles the hamlet of Naka- 
yama. The path now rises by a 
gentle gradient over the moorland 



stretching between Komochi-zan 1., 
and Onoko-yama r., to the Naka- 
yavia-toge, 2,170 ft., and comes in 
full view of the Haruna mountains, 
with Ikao perched far up above the 
valley. 

The regular path descends 1. 
through Yokobori to Shibukawa, 
while that to be followed diverges r., 
crossing the Agatsuma-gawa by 
ferry at ifakojima, and ascending 
thence over open country to Ikao. 



ROUTE 15. 



The Oyama-Maebashi Railavay. 



TEMPLE-CAVES OF IZUKU. 



m 


Names 


1 


of 


Remarks 


g^H 


Stations 


1 
1 




TOKYO (Ueno) 




48m. 


OYAMA JCT.... 


See Rte. 69. 


541 


Tochigi 




57* 


Tomiyama 




60 


Iwafune 




64,t 


Sano 


(Alight fori 


674^ 


Tomita 


I caves of 
( Izurii. i 


71! 


Ashikaga 




74i 
771 


Yamamae 




Omata 




803 


Kiryu 


(Road to Nik-; 


831 


OMAMA 


kobyWata-j 
( rase-gawa. 


87i 


Kiinisacla 


1 


91 


Tsezaki 




941 


Komakata 




984- 


MAEBASHI 





This line of railway, branching 
oil from the Northern line at Oya- 
ma, which is reached in 2^ hrs. 
from Toky5, traverses the provinces 
of Kotsuke and Shimotsuke. It 



Caves of Izuru. Ashikaga to Maebaslii. 



191 



affords the easiest way of reaching 
Ikao in one day from Nildko. The 
scenery is pretty all along the 
line. 

Tociiigi [Inn, Koiyasu) is an 
important town whose chief product 
is hempen thread. 

Sano [Inn, Saito), also called 
Temmyd, is another prosperous 
place, possessing the ruins of a 
castle 900 years old. 

From Tomita an excursion may 
be made, Ih ri, to the cnrioiis lime- 
stone Caves of Izuru, where a 
temple dedicated to Kwannon was 
founded by Shodo Shdnin in the 
8th century. In these caves the saint 
is fabled to have taken up his abode, 
and to have passed three years in 
pniyer and meditation, Jinrildshas 
are jj^'^cticable most of the way. 
From the vill. of Izuru, it is a walk 
of 2 eho up a ravine to the cave 
called Dalshi no Iicaya, the mouth 
of which lies high up amongst the 
precipitous rocks, and is only to be 
reached by ladders. Further on is 
the cave sacred to Kwannon, reach- 
ed by climbing over steep rocks 
with the assistance of chains, and 
then by ladders up to a platform 
on which stand images of Daikolcu 
and Shodo Shonin. The guide 
lights candles and shows the way 
into the cave, which contains a 
large stalactite supposed to resem- 
ble a back view of the body of 
Kwannon. The cavern is evidently 
much decider, but pilgrims do not 
usually go further in. Close by is 
a hollow in the rock, with two 
issues. The guide climbs up a 
ladder to the upper hole, gets inside, 
and after a minute or two appears, 
head first, out of the lower. Half a 
eho further is another cave, named 
after the god Dainichi Nyorai, and 
having two branches, — one about 
50 yds. deep, the other penetrating 
for an unknown distance into the 
mountain. 

Ash.ikag'a [Inn, Hatsugai) is a 
centre of the trade in native cotton 
and silk goods, the former, however, 
mostly woven from foreign yarns. 



Ashikaga was celebrated for its Aca- 
demy of Chinese Learning, the foundation 
of which institution ia traditionally 
ascribed to the eminent scholar Ono-no- 
Takamura (A.D. 801—852). It reached the 
zenith of its prosperity in the time of the 
Shoguns of the Ashikaga dynasty, its last 
great benefactor being Uesugi Norizane 
who died in 1466. This academy pos- 
sessed a magnificent library of Chinese 
works, and was the chief centre of Chinese 
erudition and of the worship of Con- 
fucius, until the establishment of the 
Heido at Yedo (p. 125). 

Most of the books are now dis- 
persed, but the bronze tablet wdth 
a portrait of Confucius remains, 
and rubbings of it are sold to 
pilgrims, who also pay their respects 
at the temi^le. A side shrine con- 
tains effigies of the Shoguns of 
the Ashikaga dynasty {p. 61). 

Kiryii {Inn, Kaneki-ya) lies about 
2 ri from its station. The chief pro- 
ducts are crape, gauze, and habutai, 
a silk fabric resembling taffety. The 
large manufactory here, called the 
Nippon Orimono Kwaisha, merits 
inspection. It is furnished with 
French machinery for the manufac- 
ture of satins in European style. 

Omania {Lm, Toyoda-ya) is 
situated near the foot of Akagi-san, 
The Tjicturesque road from here t(3 
the copper mines of Ashio by the 
valley of the Watarase-gawa is de- 
scribed in Eoute 18. Omama itself 
is a dull town J m. long, entirely 
devoted to sericulture. Inconveni- 
ence is caused by the fact that the 
railway station hes 1 ri 8 eho distant 
from the town. Travellers coming 
down the Watarase-gawa must allow 
for this. 

Maebashi, see p. 173. 



192 



Route 16. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 



ROUTE 16. 



Xikk5 and ChC'zenji. 

1. genehal infobmation. 2. chief 
objects of intekest. 3. objects 
of minor interest. 4. walks 
in the neighbourhood. 5. chu- 
zenji and neighbourhood, 6. 
yumoto. ascent of shirane-san 
and other mountains. 

1. — General Information. 

A Japanese proYerb says, " Do not 
use the word magnificent till yon 
have seen Nikko : " 

Nikko ICO minai uchi wa, 
" Eekkb " to iu na ! 
Nikko's is a double glory, — a glory 
of nature and a glory of art. 
Mountains, cascades, monumental 
forest trees, had always stood there. 
To these, in the 17th century, were 
added the mausolea of the illustri- 
ous Shogun leyasu, founder of the 
Tolragawa dynasty, and of his 
scarcely less famous grandson le- 
mitsu. Japanese wood-carving 
and painting on wood being then 
at their zenith, the result was the 
most perfect assemblage of shrines 
in the whole land. But though 
there is gorgeousness, there is no 
gaudiness. That sobriety, which is 
the key-note of Japanese taste, 
gives to all the elaborate designs 
and bright colours its own chaste 
character. 

Properly speaking, Nikk5 is the 
name, not of any single place, 
but of a whole mountainous dis- 
trict lying about 100 miles to the 
N. of T5ky5. Nevertheless, when 
people speak of going to Nikk5, 
they generally mean going to one 
of the villages called Hachi-ishi and 
Irimachi, between which stand the 
mausolea. Lying 2,000 ft. above 
the sea, Niklvo is a delightful sum- 
mer resort, for which reason many 
foreign residents of Tokyo have 
villas there, or else at Chuzenji 



7^ m. further on. The sole draw- 
back to the climate is the frequent 
rain. Within a radius of 15 miles 
there are no less than twenty-five 
or thirty pretty cascades. Nikl?:6 is 
noted, among other things, for the 
glorious tints of its fohage at the 
beginning of November. 

Nikkd is reached in 5 hrs. from 
T5ky6 by the Northern Eailway, 
cars being changed at Utsunomiya, 
where the Nikko hne branches o£f. 
Travellers from Yokohama change 
cars previously at Shinagawa and 
Akabane ; but as these connections 
often fail, time and trouble may 
be saved by going on to Shimbashi, 
and driving thence across Tokyo 
to Ueno station. 

Ntkk5 Branch Line. 



1^^ 


Names 




of 
Stations 


Remarks 

1 

1 






1 




TOKYO (Ueno) 


See Northern' 


653m. 


UTSUNOMIYA.. 


Railway,! 
Route 69. i 


68 i 


Tsaruta 




Ui 


Kanuma 




79| 


Fubasami 




86J 
90| 


Imaichi 




NIKKO (Haclii- 






i8lii) 


1 



The railway diverges to the W., 
in order to tap the Beiheishi Kaido 
at the thriving town of Kanuma. 
Following that highway lined 
with ancient cryptomerias, it does 
not come in sight of the other and 
still more imposing avenue {Mkko 
Kaido), 20 m. in length, which leads 
from Utsunomiya to Nikko, until 
Imaichi is reached, where the two 
roads join. 

The Reiheishi Kaido was so called, be- 
cause in old days the Reiheishi, or Envoy 
of the Mikado, used to travel along it, 
bearing gifts from his Imperial master to 
be oQ'ered at the mausoleum of leyasu. 
Both avenues, though anciently contin- 
uous, now show many breaks, mostly the 
result of mischief done by the peasantry. 



, \ 



General Information. Histoiy. 



193 



Fine views of the Nikko moun- 
tains are obtained on the r. be- 
tween Utsunomiya and Kannma ; 
later, Nantai-zan alone is seen 
towering above a lower range in 
the foreground. Then thick vegeta- 
tion shuts out the prospect until a 
break occurs 10 min. beyond 
Fubasami, when the whole moun- 
tain mass appears to the 1. ahead. 

The village of Hachi-ishi being a 
long one, and the riiilway only 
touching its lower end, there 
remains a stretch of from IJ m. to 
2 m. to be done by jinriMsha from 
the station to the hotels. 

When leaving Niklid, travellers 
are recommended to take jinrildshas 
for the 4 miles leading to Imaichi 
station, as a means of seeing the 
great avenue, the servant or guide 
being meanwhile sent from Nikko 
station with the luggage. 

Hotels. — * Kanaya Hotel, with 
landscape garden on hill behind, 
*Nikk5 Hotel (Arai), both Europ. 
style ; Konishi-ya, Kamiyama, Jap. 
style. 

Fine Art Gallery (Bljutsu-kican). 
—Opposite Post Office in Hachi-ishi. 
Also contains productions of adja- 
cent prefectures. There are some 
excellent curio shops. 

English Church. — Near the public 
park. 

Means of Conveyance.—" Chairs," 
kagos, or saddle-horses can be 
taken to such places as are not 
accessible by jinrikisha. The tram- 
way running up the valley is not 
for passengers, but only for the 
private use of the Ashio Copper 
Mine (see p. 211). 

Guides are in attendance at the 
hotels, and will arrange for the 
Ijurchase of tickets of admittance 
to the mausolea. Membership of 
the Hoko-kwai, or Nikko Preser- 
vation Society (5 yen), confers the 
permanent privilege of admission 
to all the temples without further 
fees. The mausolea of the Shoguns 
are open daily from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Visitors must remove their hoots at 
the entrance to the main shrines. 



Nikko is a mart for skins of the 
badger, deer, marten, wild-boar, 
etc., and for various pretty articles 
made of a black fossil wood {jindai- 
hoku) brought from Sendai in the 
north. 



History.— The range of mountains 
known as Niklio-zan lies on the N. W. 
boundary of the province of Shimotsuke. 
The original name was Futa-ara-yama, 
which, when written with Chinese ideo- 
graphs, may also be pronounced Ni-ko- 
zan. According to the popular account, 
the name was derived from i^eriodical 
hurricanes in spring and autumn, which 
issued from a great cavern on Nantai-zan, 
the mountain to the iSi. E. of Chuzenji. 
In A.D. 820 Kobo Daishi visited the spot, 
made a road to the neighbourhood of the 
cavern and changed the name of the 
range to Nikko-zan, or " Mountains of the 
Sun's Brightness," from which moment 
the storms ceased to devastate the 
country. Another explanation of the 
name Futaara-yama is that it means 
'* The Two Raging Mountains," in allusion 
to the two volcanoes which form part of 
it, viz. Nantai-zan, and Shirane-san 
beyond Yumoto. But though the latter 
breaks out at frequent intervals, no 
eruptions have taken place from Nantai- 
zan within the memory of man. 

From the earliest ages a Shinto 
temple existed at Nikko, which was after- 
wards removed to Utsunomiya. In the 
year 767 the first Buddhist shrine was 
erected by the saint Shodo Shonin. 
At the beginning of the 9th century, 
Kobo Daishi, and in the middle of the 
same century the abbot Jikaku Daishi, 
added to the holy places. The following 
account of Shodo Shonin is summarised 
from a memoir written by his immediate 
disciples. He v.'as born at Takaoka in 
Shimotsuke, in A.D. 735. His parents 
had long desired to have a son, and 
at last their wish was granted by the 
Thousand- Handed Kwannon of the Izuru 
Caves, to whom they had prayed for 
offspring. Various portents accompanied 
his birth : loud thunder was heard, a 
miraculous cloud hung over the cottage, 
flowers fell from heaven into the 
courtyard, and a strange perfume filled 
the air. From his earliest years the 
saint was devoted to the worship of 
the gods, and amused himself by raising 
toy pagodas and shrines of earth and 
stones. In his twentieth year he secretly 
quitted his father's house, and took up 
his abode in the cave of the Thousand- 
Handed Kwannon at Izuru. After 
passing three years in prayer and medi- 
tation, he dreamt in mid-winter of a 
great mountain N. of Izuru, on the top 
of which lay a sword more than 3 ft. 
in length. On awaking, he left the cave. 



194 



Route IQ.—Xikkd and Chuzenji. 



and endeavoured to make his way in 
the direction indicated; but the deep 
snow opposed difficulties almost insur- 
mountable. Vowing to sicrifice bis life 
rather than abandon the enterprise, he 
persevered, and at last reached a point 
from which he beheld the object of his 
search. Ascending to the top of the 
mountain, he gave himself up to austere 
discipline, living on fruits which were 
brought to him iiy a supernatural being. 
After" thus passing three more years, he 
returned to Izuru" and in 762 visited the 
teriiple of Yakushi-Ji, not far from Ishi- 
bashi on the Oshii Kaido, where, meeting 
some Chinese i>riests, he was admitted 
by them as a novice. He remained in 
the monastery for five years, and then 
returned to "the mountain now called 
Kobu-ga-hara. From its summit he be- 
held, on the range to the N., four 
miraculous clouds of different colours 
rising straight up into the sky, and he 
at once set off to reach them, carrying 
his holy books and images in a bundle on 
his back. On reaching the spot whence 
the clouds had seemed to ascend, he 
found his advance barred by a broad 
river, which poured its torrent over huge 
rocks and looked utterly impassable. 
The saint fell upon his knees and prayed, 
whereupon there appeared on the oppo- 
site bank a divine being of colossal size, 
dressed in blue and black robes, and 
having a string of skulls hung round his 
neck. This being cried out that he would 
help him to pass the stream, as he had 
once helped the Chinese pilgrim Hsiian 
Chuang across the River of Flowing Sand. 
With this promise, he flung across the 
river two green and blue snakes which 
he held in his right hand, and in an 
instant a long bridge was seen to span 
the waters, like a rainbow floating among 
the hills : but when the saint had crossed 
it and reached the northern bank, both 
the god and the snake-bridge suddenly 
vanished. Having thus attained the ob- 
ject of his desires, Shodo Shonin built 
himself a hut* wherein to practise his 
religious exercises. One night a man 
appeared to him in a vision, and told him 
that the hill rising to the north was called 
the Mount of the Four Gods, and was 
inhabited by the Azure Dragon, the Ter- 
million Bird, the TSTiite Tiger, and the 
Sombre Warrior, who respectivelv occu- 
pied its E., S., W., and N. peaks. He 
climbed the hill, and found that he had 
arrived at the goal of his journev : for 
there were the four clouds which he had 
originally set out to seek, rising up around 
him. He proceeded accordingly to build 
a shrine, which he named the Monasterv 
of the Fonr Dragons iShi-fion-ryu-ji). In 
the year 767 he resolved to ascend the 



* Ita remains are in the grounds of the 
Kanaya Hotel. 



highest peak of tbe group, and after duly 
preparing himself by religious exercises, 
he set out upon this new enterx^rise. After 
ascending for a distance of over 40 ri 
(probably the ancient ?-i, of which 4=1 
mile), he came to a great lake (Chuzenji) 
on the flank of the mountain {Xa7}tai- 
raw) ; but in spite of his prayers found it 
impossible to proceed any further, on 
account of the deep snow and the terrific 
peals of thunder which roared about the 
mountain top. He therefore retraced his 
steps to ^^ikko, where he spent fourteen 
years in fitting himself, by the repetition 
of countless prayers and the performance 
of penances, for the task which he was 
unwilling to abandon. In "SI he renewed 
the attempt unsuccessfully, but in the 
foilo-ning year he finally reached the sum- 
mit, accompanied by some of his dis- 
ciples. It seemed to bim a region such as 
gods and other superhuman beings would 
naturally choose for their residence, 
and he therefore erected a Buddhist 
temple called Chuzenji, in which he 
placed a life-size image of the Thousand- 
handed Kwannon, and close by it a 
Shinto temple in honour of the Gongen 
of ^'ikko. He also built a shrine to the 
"Great King of the Deep Sand"' (Jinja 
Dai-b) at the point where he had crossed 
the stream. Shodo Shonin died in 817 in 
the odour of sanctity. MangiL-anji or Rin- 
nbji is the modern name of the monastery 
founded by him at 2sikko. 

In A.D. 1616, when Jigen Daishi was 
abbot, the second Shogun of the Toku- 
gawa dynasty, acting on the dying in- 
junctions of his father leyasu, sent two 
high officials to ^Tikko to select a rest- 
ing-place for his father's body, which had 
been temporarily interred at Euno-zan, 
a beautiful spot near Shizuoka on the 
Tokaido. They chose a site on a hill 
called Hotcke-iwa, and the mau.=oleum 
was commenced in December of the same 
year. The mortuary shrine and some of 
the surrounding edifices were completed 
in the spring of the succeeding year, and 
on the ■20th April the procession bearing 
the corpse started from Kuno-zan, reach- 
ing 2sikko on the Sth May. The coffin 
was deposited in ihe tomb, with impres- 
sive Buddhist services in which both the 
reigning Shogun and an envoy from the 
Mikado took part. In the year 1614 Jigen 
Daishi died. The next abbot was a court 
noble, the next to him was a son of the 
Emperor Go-Mizuno-o, since which time 
down to the revolution of 1868 the abbot 
of Nikko was always a prince of the Im- 
perial blood. He usually resided at Ueno 
in Yedo, and visited 2sikko three times 
annually. (Conf. small type on p. 127.) 

A great festival is held annually 
on the 1st and 2nd June. The 
sacred paLanc[nins {mlkosJti) con- 
taining the divine symbols are then 



Mangwanji. Sorinto. 



195 



borne in procession, when ancient 
costumes, masks, and armonr are 
donned by the yillagers, old and 
yonng alike taking part in the dis- 
play. Another, bnt less elaborate, 
ceremonial is observed on the 17 th 
Sei)tember. 

2. — Chief Objects of Interest. 

On issuing from the upper end of 
the village, one of the first objects 
to arrest attention has always been 
the Mihashi, or Sacred Eed Bridge 
spanning the Daiya-gawa, a stream 
abont 40 ft. wide between the stone 
walls which here confine its course. 

Washed away in the great flood of 1902, 
it is now in course of re-construction. It 
was originally erected in 1638 in connec- 
tion with the shrines, and was closed to 
all persons except the Shogun, save twice 
a year when pilgrims were allowed to 
cross it. The site is that where, according 
to the legend above related, Shodo Shonin 
passed the river. 

Forty yards lower down the 
stream, is the so called " Temporary 
Bridge," which is open to ordinary 
mortals. Crossing this and turning 
to the 1., the visitor ascends a paved 
slope through a grove of cryptome- 
rias, and reaches the enclosure in 
which formerly stood the Homho, or 
Abbot's Palace. This is commonly 
spoken of as Mang-wanji or Bin- 
nojl, names "v^hich, however, proper- 
ly denote all the Nilvko temple 
buildings collectively. The road to 
be taken sldrts the S. wall of this 
enclosure, and then follows its "NV. 
side. On the 1. of the avenue is the 
Choyo-kican, formerly used for the 
reception of grandees of the Tolai- 
gawa family, but now the summer 
residence of two Imperial Prin- 
cesses. 

Within the Mangwanji enclosure 
stands the Samhutsu-do, or Hall of 
the Three Buddhas, so called from 
gigantic gilt images of the 
Thousand-handed Kwannon r., 
Amida in the centre, and the 
Horse-headed Kwannon 1., which 
are enshrined on the main altar 



behind spht bamboo blinds. There 
are other images, and a silk mandara 
of Dainichi Nyorai and the 36 
Buddhas. At the back of the build- 
ing is a row of small painted 
images, among which Fudo and 
his followers, coloured blue, occupy 
the place of honour. The shrine 
behind, where little carved charms 
are sold, is dedicated to Ey5 Daishi. 
Close by is a pillar called Sorinto, 
erected in 1643 for the sake 
of averting evil influences. It 
consists of a cyhndrical copper 
column 42 ft. high, of a black 
colour, supjjorted by horizontal 
bars crossing through its centre, 
which rest on shorter columns of 
the same material. The top is 
adorned with a series of four cups 
shaped like lotus-flowers, from the 
petals of which depend small 
bells. Just beneath the lowest 
of these cups are four small 
medallions, with the Tokugawa 




'TU^:^^;^^ 



19G 



Route 16. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 



crest. Notice the two liandsome 
bronze lanterns dating from 1648. 
On the opposite side of the road is 
the new Public Park. 

Mausoleum of leyasu. As- 
cending some broad steps between 
two rows of cryptomerias, we come 
to the granite torii presented by 
the Daimy5 of Chikuzen from his 
own quarries in the year 1818. Its 
total height is 27 ft. 6 in., and the 
diameter of the columns is 3 ft. 6 
in. The inscription on the columns 
merely records the fact of their 
presentation and the name of the 
donor. On the 1. is a five-storied 
pagoda of graceful form, painted 
in harmonious colours. It rises to 
a height of 104 ft., and the roofs 
measure 18 ft. on each side. This 
monument was the offering in 1659 
of Sakai Wakasa-no-Kami, one of 
the chief supporters of the Toku- 
gawa family. Eound the lower 
storey are life-like painted carvings 
of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 
Opposite the pagoda, and standing 
amidst the trees to the r. of the 
st^ps, is the Kari-den, a building 
used to hold the image of leyasu 
whenever the main temple is under 
repair. From the torii, a pavement 
leads to the bottom of the steps 
crowned by the Xi-o-mon, or Gate of 
the Two Kings. The gigantic 
figures of these gods, which former- 
ly occupied the niches on the out- 
side of this gate, have been removed, 
and their places taken by gilt Ama- 
inu and Koma-hm. On the tops of 
the pillars, at the four external 
angles, are representations of a 
mythological animal called haku. 

One of the most ancient Chinese 
classical books says of this animal : " In 
shape it resembles a goat ; it has nine 
tails, four ears, and its eyes are on its 
back." According to another authority, 
"It resembles a wolf, with the trunk of 
an elephant, the eyes of a rhinoceros, the 
tail of a bull, and the legs of a tiger." It 
is credited with the power to avert evil, 
and is therefore sometimes depicted in 
gold lacquer on the pillows used by the 
nobility, because it will be able to devour 
any bad dreams that may pass before 
their sleeping eyes. 



The heads on the central pillars 
of the two outer ends of the struct- 
ure are lions ; in the niches r. and 1. 
of the lion at one end are unicorns, 
and in the corresponding niches at 
the other end are fabulous beasts 
called takujfi, which are sujDposed 
to be endowed with the power of 
speech, and only to appear in^,the 
world when a virtuous sovereign 
occupies the throne. The doorwa3^s 
are ornamented with elephants' 
heads ; the first i3ortico has lions 
and peonies, and the second tigers. 
The interiors of the niches on the 
outside of the gateway are decorated 
wdth tapirs and i)eonies, those on 
the inside niches with bamboos. 
The carvings of tigers under the 
eaves on the interior side of the 
gateway are excellent. Notice also 
the fine old bronze flower-vases 
from Luchu. 

Passing through the gateway, the 
visitor finds himself in a court-yard 
raised high above the approach, 
and enclosed by a timber wall 
painted bright red. The three 
handsome buildings arranged in a 
zigzag are storehouses, where 
various utensils employed in the 
religious ceremonies performed in 
honour of leyasu, pictures, furni- 
ture, and other articles used by him 
during his life-time, and many other 
treasures are deposited. The third 
is remarkable for two painted 
carvings of elephants in relief in 
the gable of the nearest end, v.hich 
are ascribed to Hidari Jingoro, the 
drawing having been made by the 
celebrated artist Tan-yu. It will be 
noticed that the joints of the hind- 
legs are represented bent in the 
wrong direction. 

On the 1. of the gate stands a 
conifer of the species called kdya- 
maki, surrounded by a stone 
railing. 



8ome say that this is the identical tree 
which leyasu was in the habit of carrying 
about with him in his palanquin, when it 
was still small enough to be held in a 
flower-pot. 



Mausoleum of leyasu. 



197 



Close to this tree is a stable for 
the horse which carried Prince 
Kita-Shirakawa in the Formosan 
campaign of 1895. This gateway, 
like the others to be noticed further 
on, is beantifully carved. 

Over the doors are some cleverly 
executed groups of monkeys, for 
whose signification see Koshin (p. 
48). An interesting object is the 
On Chdzu-ya, containing a holy- 
water cistern cut out of one sohd 
piece of granite, and sheltered by a 
roof supported on twelve square 
pillars of the same material. It was 
erected in 1618. The pediment of 
the roof contains a pair of winged 
dragons, carved in wood and paint- 
ed. The beautifully decorated 
building beyond the holy-water 
basin is called the Kyozb, and is 
the depository of a comi^lete col- 
lection of the Biiddhist scriptures, 
contained in a fine revolving octag- 
onal book-case ^^'ith red lacquer 
panels and gilt pillars. In front are 
smiling figures of Fu Daishi and his 
sons (see p. 45), whence the name 
of Waral-do, popularly applied to 
this edifice. Paintings of angels 
on a gilt ground occupy the clere- 
story of the interior. In the centre 
of the court stands a fine bronze 
tori'i, with the Tokugawa crest in 
gold on the tops of the pillars and 
on the tie-beam. 

A flight of steps gives access to 
a second court, along the front of 
which runs a stone balustrade. 
Just inside are tv/o stone lions in 
the act of leaping down, presented 
by lemitsu. On the r. stand a bell- 
tower, a bronze candelabrum pre- 
sented by the King of Luchu, 
and a bell given by the king of Ko- 
rea, called the "Moth-eaten Bell," 
because of there being a hole in the 
top, just under the ring by which it 
is suspended. On the 1. stand a 
bronze lantern from Korea, a can- 
delabrum from Holland, and a 
drum-tower, no unworthy compan- 
ion to the bell-tower opposite. (Be 
it remarked that Holland, Korea, 
and Luchu were considered to be 



Japan's three vassal states.) The 
lantern is a fine and soHd piece of 
workmanship ; but its style and 
construction indicate that it does 
not owe its origin to Korea. The 
two candelabra and the lantern, as 
well as the bronze candle-brackets 
fixed upon the interior wall of the 
court, r. and 1. of the steps, probably 
came from Europe through Dutch 
or Portugiiese traders. Two iron 
standard lanterns on the r. of the 
steps, presented by Date Masa- 
mune, Daimyo of Sendai, and the 
sam.e number on the 1. given by the 
Daimyo of Satsuma, merit atten- 
tion. They are dated 1641. The 
total number of lanterns contrib- 
uted by various Daimyos is one 
hundred and eighteen. 

At the 1. extremity of this same 
platform stands the Temple of 
YakusJd, dedicated to Horaji Mine- 
no- Yakushi, the patron saint of 
leyasu, for which reason its Bud- 
dhist emblems have been left intact, 
while Shinto influence has more or 
less modified the other shrines 
during the present reign. A native 
guide-book truly remarks, " Though 
the exterior of this temple is but 
ordinary black and red, the orna- 
mentation of the interior has no 
parallel in Nikko." It is a blaze of 
gold and harmonious colours. On 
either side of the altar stand images 
of the Shi-Tenno, flanked by Yaku- 
shi's twelve followers. The monster 
dragon in sepia occupying the whole 
ceiling is by Kand Yasunobu. 

Proceeding towards the steps that 
lead up to the platform on which 
stands the exquisitely beautiful gate 
called Yomei-mon, observe the fence 
on either side, with fine medallions 
of mountain birds in the upper pan- 
els, and of water-fowl in the lower. 
The columns supporting the gate 
are carved with a minute geometri- 
cal pattern, and painted white. 
The marking of the hair on the two 
tigers {moku-me no tor a), in the 
central medallion of the 1. hand 
pillar, is obtained from the natural 
vein of the wood. The pillar next 



198 



Route 16. — NUcko coid CJiuzeiyi. 



beyond has the pattern carved 
upside down, Vvhich was done pur- 
posely, o^^'ing to a superstitions 
notion that the flawless perfection 
of the whole structure might bring 
misfortune on the House of Toku- 
gawa by exciting the jealousy of 
Heaven. It is called the Ma-yoke 
no Hashim, or Evil- Averting 
Pillar. The side niches are lined 
A\-ith a pattern of graceful arabes- 
ques founded upon the peony ; those 
on the outside contain the images 
of Sadaijin and Udaijin, armed 
with bows and carrying quivers full 
of arrows on their backs ; the inner 
niches have Ama-inu and Koma- 
inu. The capitals of the columns 
are formed of unicorns' heads. The 
architrave of the second storey 
is adorned with white dragons' 
heads where the cross-beams inter- 
sect, and in the centre of each side 
and end is a magnificently involved 
dragon with golden claws. Above 
the architrave of the lower storey 
projects a balcony which runs all 
round the building. The raihng 
is formed of children at play 
and other subjects. Belov/ again 
are groups of Chinese sages 
and immortals. The roof is sup- 
ported by gilt dragons' heads with 
gaping crimson throats, and from 
the toj) a demon looks down. The 
Indian ink drawings of dragons on 
the ceilings of the two porticoes are 
by Tan-yu. 

Passing through the Y5mei-mon, 
we enter a third court in which 
the Buddhist priests used to recite 
their liturgies at the two great 
annual festivals. Of the two build- 
ings on the r., one contains a stage 
for the performance of the sacred 
karjura dances, and in the other, 
called Goma-do, was an altar for 
burning the fragrant cedar while 
prayers were recited. On the 1. is 
the Mlkoshi-do, containing the 
palanquins borne in x^rocession on 
the 1st June, when the deified 
spirits of leyasu, Hideyoshi, and 
Yoritomo are suj^j^osed to occupy 
them. So heavy are they that each 



requires seventy-five men to carry 
it. By the side of the INIikoshi-do 
there is an Exhibition of relics con- 
nected with leyasu. 

The next object of interest is the 
Kara-mon, or Chinese Gate. It 
gives admittance to the main 
shrines, the enclosure being sur- 
rounded by the iamagaki, or fence, 
forming a quadrangle each side of 
which is 50 yds. long, and is con- 
structed of gilt trellis with borders 
of coloured geometrical designs. 
Above and beneath these again are 
carvings of birds in groups, about 
8 in. high and 6 ft. long, with back- 
grounds of grass, carved in rehef 
and gilt. The pillars of the Kara- 
mon are composed of Chinese 
woods inlaid with great skill and 
beauty, the subjects being the 
plum-tree, dragon, and bamboo. 
The two white figures under the 
roof are Chinese sages, while the 
lower row represents the Emperor 
Gyo (Yao), the founder of the 
Chinese monarchy, surrounded by 
his court. 

The folding-doors of the Honden, 
or oratory, are lavishly decorated 
with arabesques of j)eonies in gilt 
rehef. Over the door and v,indows 
of the front are nine comiDart- 
ments filled wdth birds carved in 
relief, four on each side of the 
building ; and there are four more 
at the back, on each side of the 
corridor leading to the chapel. The 
interior is a large matted room, 
42 ft. long by 27 ft. deep, with an 
ante-chamber at each end. That 
on the r., which was intended for 
the Shogun, contains pictures of 
hons on a gold ground, and four 
carved oak panels of phfjenixes 
which at first sight seem to be in 
low relief, but prove, on closer 
examination, to be figures formed 
of various woods glued on to the 
surface of the panel. The rear 
compartment of the ceiling is of 
carved wood, with the Tokugawa 
crest in the centre siirrounded by 
phoenixes and chrysanthemums. 
The opposite ante-chamber has the 



Tomb of leyasu. Fata-ara Temple. 



199 



same number of panels, tlie sub- 
jects of which are eagles executed 
with much spirit, and a carved and 
l^ainted ceiling with an angel sur- 
rounded by chrysanthemums. The 
^old paper gohei at the back of the 
oratory, and a circular mirror are 
the only ornaments left, the Bud- 
dhist bells, gongs, sutras, and so 
forth, having been removed. Four 
steps at the back lead down into 
the Stone Chamber, so called because 
paved with stone under the matted 
wooden floor. The ceiling consists 
of square panels, with gold dragons 
on a blue ground. 

The HoliJ of Holies of this mauso- 
leum is accessible only by special 
]3revious arrangement and the pay- 
ment of 10 yen, or 7 yen per head 
for each member of a i^arty. The 
three chambers composing it are 
called respectively Go Helden, Go 
Naijln, and Go Nai Naijin. 
Japanese Buddhist art will here 
be found at its acme, in a blaze of 
gold and resplendent colours, with 
elaborate paintings of mythological 
beings and ancient court person- 
ages, precious woods inlaid and 
carved, richly lacquered pillars, 
si^lendid metal-Vv^ork often super- 
imposed layer upon layer, — the 
whole a marvel of minute detail and 
in flawless jireservation. Here also 
are set up the gold and silk gohei, 
an oifering of the present Emj)eror, 
flanked by gilt sprigs of the sacred 
sakaki tree. The gorgeous gold 
lacquer shrines in the Nai-Naijin 
contain images (never shown) of 
leyasu, Hideyoshi, and Yoritomo. 
Shinto priests in full canonicals 
will conduct the visitor with a 
lantern through these narrow 
spaces, where such triumi^hs of art 
lie hidden from the light of day. 
Generally a short, but solemn, 
service is performed before entering. 

To reach leyasu's Tomb, we issue 
again from the Kara-mon, and pass 
between the Goma-db and Kagura- 
do to a door in the E. side of the 
gallery. Over this door is a carving 
called the Nemiiri no Keko, or 



Sleeping Cat, one of Hidari Jin- 
goro's most famous works, though 
visitors will perhaps be disappointed 
at its insignificance amidst so much 
grandeur. From this a moss-grown 
stone gallery and several steep 
flights — of about two hundred steps 
altogether — lead to the tomb on the 
hill behind. After passing through 
the torii at the top of the last 
flight, we reach another oratory 
used only when that below is under- 
going repairs. The tomb, shaped 
like a small pagoda, is a single 
bronze casting of a light colour, 
produced, it is said, by the admix- 
ture of gold. In front stands a low 
stone table, bearing an immense 
bronze stork with a brass candle in 
its beak, an incense-burner of 
bronze, and a vase with artificial 
lotus-flowers and leaves in brass. 
The whole is surrounded by a stone 
wall surmounted by a balustrade, 
the entrance being through a bronze 
gate the roof of which, as well as 
the gate itself, is a solid casting. 
Before it sit bronze Koma-inu and 
Ama-inu. 

On leaving the mausoleum of 
leyasu, we turn to the r. at the bot- 
tom of the stej)s, and pass along 
the avenue under the wall and 
through a torii, to an open space 
where stands r. the Shinto temple 
of Futa-ara Jinja, dedicated to the 
god Onamuji. 

When Shodo Rhoniu. in A. D. 782, 
reached the top of Nantai-zan, the tute- 
lary deities of the region aiDpeared to 
him, and promised to watch over the 
welfare of human beings and the pro- 
gress of Buddhism. Japan is believed to 
have been saved on many occasions 
from the perils of civil war and invasion 
by the intervention of these divine 
beings; and local tradition avers that it 
was owing to the efficacy of the prayers 
here offered that the Mongol invaders 
in the 13th century were repulsed with 
such terrible loss. — The picture of a 
Kite alighting on the war-ship "Taka- 
chi-ho " commemorates an incident of 
the China-Japan war of 1894-r>, from 
which an Order of IMerit— the "Golden 
Kite "—has been derived. The chief festi- 
val of the temple is held on the 17th 
April. 



200 



Route 16. — NikTco and Ghuzevji. 



In the prettily decorated Homlen 
behind, Yarious antique objects, 
such as swords, vestments, Lacquer, 
magatama, etc. are exhibited. In 
one corner of the enclosure stands 
a bronze lantern called the Bake- 
mono Toro, presented in 1292. 

This lantern owes its name to the tradi- 
tion that it anciently had the power of 
taking the form of a demon, and annoy- 
ing the inhabitants of the locality on 
dark nights, until a courageous man 
attacked it, and with his sword gave it a 
wound which is still visible on the cap. 

Turning to the 1. and descend- 
ing, we perceive two red-lacquered 
buildings {Futatsu-do), standing 
together and connected by a cover- 
ed gallery. The smaller is dedi- 
cated to Kishi Bojin and Fugen 
Bosatsu, the larger to Amida. 
Eound the sides of the interior are 
ranged a number of Buddhist im- 
ages. It is also called Yoritomo- 
do, because here are preserved the 
bones of Yoritomo, which were 
discovered near the site of the Ni- 
6-mon gate of leyasu's mausoleum 
about the year 1617. 

How this statement is to be reconciled 
with the existence of Yoritomo's tomb at 
Kamakura (see p. 104), must be left to 
archaeologists to determine. 

Passing under the gallery v\hich 
connects these temj)les, and going 
up the avenue, we come to a court 
on the extreme r. of which stands 
the resting-place of Jigen Dalshi, 
otherwise called Tenkai Daisojo, 
abbot of Nikkd at the time of le- 
yasu's interment. There is the 
usual mortuary shrine in front ; the 
tomb is a massive stone structure 
of stupa shape, guarded by life-size 
stone effigies of the Buddhist gods 
called collectively Eoku-bu-Ten. A 
small flight of steps 1. leads to the 
unpretending tombs of the prince- 
abbots of Nikko, thirteen in num- 
ber. On the extreme 1. of the court, 
behind a plain temple, lies the 
tomb of Prince Kita Shirakawa. 

Mausoleum of lemitsu. The 
building seen to the r., before we 



mount the great stone staircase, is 
Eynko-in, the residence of the 
priests attached to this temple. The 
first gate leading towards the mau- 
soleum is a JS'i-d-mon containing 
two pairs of Ni-o, those in the 
niches of the inner side having been 
brought here from the gate of 
leyasu's mausoleum. Under a 
beautiful structure r., supported by 
granite pillars, is a massive granite 
water-basin. The dragon on the 
ceiling is by Kano Yasunobu. 
A flight of steps leads to the gate 
called JSlten-mon. The niches on 
the outside contain a red statue of 
Komoku on the 1., and on the r. a 
green one of Jikoku, while the 
inside niches are tenanted by the 
Gods of Wind and Thunder. 
Three more flights conduct us to 
the Yasha-mon, or Demon Gate, 
whose niches contain the SJil-Tenno. 
The oratory and chapel of this 
mausoleum are less magnificent 
than those of leyasu. The former 
is crowded with the insignia of 
Buddhism. Two large horn lanterns 
pointed out as Korean are evidently 
Dutch. The Tomh is reached by 
flights of steps up the side of the 
hill on the r. of the chapel. It is of 
bronze, and in the same style as 
that of leyasu, but of a darker hue. 
The gates in front, likewise of 
bronze, are covered mth large San- 
skrit characters in shining brass. 



3. — Minor Objects op Interest. 

Besides the mausolea of the 
Shoguns, there are various objects 
at Nikko possessing a lesser degree 
of interest. Most of them lie amidst 
the splendid old trees behind le- 
yasu's mausoleum, and can be 
combined in a forenoon waUr, 
Api^roaching either by the road 
leading up on the r. of the Man- 
gwanji enclosure, or by that beside 
the Hongu (see below), v/e come in 
15 min. to the San-no-miya, a small 
red shrine surrounded by a stone 
balustrade. Women here offer up 



Minor Sights and Walks at Nikko. 



201 



pieces of wood, similar in shape 
to those used in the Japanese 
game of chess, in the belief that 
this will enable them to pass safe- 
ly through the perils of childbirth. 
Beside it is the Kaisaii-do, a red- 
lacquered building 35 ft. square, 
dedicated to Shodo Shonin, the 
" pioneer of the mountain," as the 
name implies. Peeping through 
the grating which forms the window 
on the E. side, we see an image of 
Jizo occupying a lofty position, with 
an effigy of the saint below, and 
those of ten disciples ranged r. and 
1. Behind are the tombs of the 
saint and three of his disciples. 
At the base of the rugged and pre- 
cipitous rock at the back of the 
Kaisan-do are some rude Buddhist 
images, from which the hill takes 
its name of Hotoke-ma. On the 
summit of this hill stands the tomb 
of leyasu. Proceeding along the 
stone-paved avenue, we pass a small 
shrine sacred to Tenjin. A large 
stone close to the path on the r., 
just beyond this, is called the Te- 
kake-ishi, or " Hand-touched Stone," 
said to have been sanctified by the 
imi^osition of K5bo Daishi's hands. 
Fragments of it are valued as 
charms. Further on is a stone 
bearing a half-effaced inscription, 
erected over the spot where lies the 
horse which carried leyasu at the 
decisive battle of Seld-ga-hara, in the 
year 1600. The next object to be 
noticed is an immense cryi^tomeria, 
7 ft. in diameter a little above the 
base, called the li-morl no sugi, 
from a supposed resemblance of its 
branches to a heaj) of boiled rice. 
Close to the path on the 1. is the 
8dmen-ga-taki, or " Vermicelli Cas- 
cade," also called 8hira-ito, or 
" White Thread." 

Betracing our steps for a few 
yards, we take the path (seen on 
the 1. as we came up the avenue) 
leading over the hiil to Futa-ara 
Jinja. At the top of the ravine 
stands a small shrine called Gyd- 
ja-do, where there is a fine image 
of En-no-Shokaku, and where tin 



sandals are hung up by pilgrims 
who pray for the muscular develop- 
ment of their lower limbs. The 
path leading up behind the Gyoja- 
do is that taken for the ascent of 
Nyoho-zan, described on p. 203. 

The Hongfi, which stands on an 
eminence near the bridge, is a small 
temple erected by Shodd Shonin in 
A.D. 808, close to the Buddhist 
monastery founded by him. It is 
reached by ascending the stone 
steps that face the end of the bridge 
and then turning to the r. The 
same enclosure contains a three- 
storied pagoda. 

4. — Walks in the Neighboue- 

HOOD. 

1. The Park and other landscape 
gardens ; also a Botanical garden 
with specimens of Alpine plants ; 
—all within a few minutes of the 
hotels. 

2. Gamman-ga-fuchi. About 
20 min. walk from the bridge, along 
the course of the Daiya-gawa, is a 
deep pool called Gamman-ga-fuchi. 
A hut has been erected here close 
to the boiling eddies, opposite to a 
precipitous rock on which is en- 
graved the Sanslcrit word Hdmman. 
It seems impossible that any one 
should have been able to get across 
to perform the work, and so it is 
ascribed to Kobo Daishi, who ac- 
complished the feat by throwing his 
pen at the rock. But there is authori- 
ty for attributing it to a discijDle of 
Jigen Daishi, in the l7th century. 
On the r. bank of the river stand 
some fifty images of Amida ranged 
in a row, some of them, alas ! muti- 
lated forty years ago by native 
vandausm, others injured by the 
hand of time, which has borne on 
this neighbourhood with exceptional 
heaviness. 

These are all that remain of a much 
greater number carried away by various 
floods, notably by the dreadful visitation 
of 1902, which, as mentioned on p. l'J5, 
also destroyed the famous Sacred Bridge. 
The largest of the images was washed 



202 



Route 1Q>.—Nikhd and Chuzenji. 



down by a previous flood as far as Tma- 
icbi, arriving tliere intact. It now stands 
ut the E. end of that town, with its face 
towards Niklio, wearing a pink bib and 
receiving much adoration from the 
country folk. It used to be asserted that 
the images always counted up differently, 
however often the attempt were made. 

3. Toyama. The nearest emi- 
nence from which an extensive view 
of the plain can be obtained is To- 
yama, a hill rising up somewhat 
in the form of a huge animal con- 
chant on the 1. bank of the Inari- 
gawa, which flows down by the 
side of the temples. From the 
bridge to the top is | hr. chmb, the 
last bit of the ascent being steep. 
The large mountain seen on the 
extreme 1. is Keicho-zan, one of the 
jDeaks of Takahara-yama ; directly 
opposite is the long ridge of Haguro- 
yama ; Tsulaiba's double peak is 
unmistakable. Turning round, we 
see the whole of the magnificent 
range formed by Nantai-zan, O- 
Manixgo, Ko-Manago, Nyoho-zan, 
and Akanagi. 

4. Kirifuri-no-takl, or the 
Mist-falling Cascade. By taking a 
wide sweep round the base of To- 
yama and over undulating country 
to the S., this cascade may be 
reached in 1)- hr. A tea-house on 
the hill above commands a good 
view of the fall ; and from the 
top of a knoll just beyond the tea- 
house, a grand view is obtained of 
the country towards the E., S., and 
W. A steep and rough path leads 
down to the foot of the fall. 

5. Makkura-daki, or Pitch- 
dark Cascade. On leaving Kirifuri, 
we retrace our M-ay for a few steps, 
and then follow another path to 
the r. for about 2. m. This crosses 
the stream above Kirifuri three 
times, and then passing over a hill, 
leads to another stream. 

[Just before the first crossing, a 
path down the stream leads in 
2 or 3 min. to a small fall called 
Choji-taJci] 

Here we leave the path and plunge 
into a thicket, keeping the stream 



on the r., a short rough climb loring- 
ing us to Makkura-daki, a fall of 
about 60 ft. in height. The best 
view is obtained from a point a few 
yards up the hill to the 1. The 
fall shows prettily through the 
trees as it is approached, and al- 
together well repays the toil of 
reaching it. As the path is easily 
mistaken, it is advisable to procure 
a guide, who v/ill also be able to 
lead one back to Nildio a different 
way. 

6. Ja,kko (and the Xana-ta.kl 
cascade). The way lies through the 
village of Irimachi, where the Crown 
Prince has a palace, and turns off 
at right angles just before descend- 
ing to a bridge, from which it is 
40 min. walk further to the site of 
the former temple of Jakko. Behind 
is a cascade, or rather a series of 
falls altogether about 100 ft. in 
height. It goes by various names, 
one being Nana-takl, and must not 
be confounded with the other falls 
of the same name mentioned on p. 
203. 

7. Urami-ga-taki, a fine 
waterfall 50 ft. high. The road, 1 
hr. on foot or by jinrikisha, leads, 
as in the previous wallv, through 
Irimachi, and straight on over the 
moorland. From the tea-house by 
the side of a stream, the remainder 
of the way is an easy climb of 7 min. 
Urami may also be conveniently 
visited on the way back from Chu- 
zenji, by taking a path which 
branches off 1. a little below Uma- 
gaeshi, and by turning to the 1. 
again at Klyoiaki, where a path 
leads through the woods for a 
distance of about 1 ri to the tea- 
house above mentioned. 

8. Jikwan-no-taki (cascade). 
After crossing the stream at the tea- 
house below Urami, a path will be 
found r. a fev,- yards beyond. It 
leads up the hill, for a little over 1 
mile, to a point where it divides, 
the r. leading to Jilcwan, the 1. to 
Nantai-zan. At Jikwan there is a 
pretty effect of water falling in a 
dozen streams over a ledge of rock. 



Naha-iwa. Ascent of Nyoho-zan. 



203 



The view from the top of the fall 
down the valley is very fine. About 
1 m. below Jilcwan, and visible 
from a small clearing at the edge 
of the hill on the way up, is another 
fall called Jlkican Hatsune. 

9. Naka-iwa. This excursion, 8 
miles from Nikk5, mostly on the flat 
and under shade, affords an oppor- 
tunity of seeing a portion of the 
great avenue, and can be done in 
jinrikisha. Naka-iwa, as the name 
implies, is a huge rock in the middle 
of the Kiver Kinugawa, at one of its 
most picturesque parts, where the 
divided stream is spanned by two 
bridges. The way lies down the 
avenue as far as the town of Ima- 
ichi, whence it turns N. along the 
main road leading to the district 
of Aizu. On an eminence close to 
the bridges and overlooking the 
Naka-iwa, stands a tea-house suit- 
able for picnicking. One may also 
visit the curious massive boulders 
called Kago-iica (" palanquin 
rocks"), 1 hr. further down the 1. 
bank of the river, or 45 min. along 
the r. bank. The latter way some- 
times involves the fording of a 
stream. On the other hand, it 
shortens the return journey, as the 
jinrildshas may be sent back to the 
hamlet of. Kura-ga-saki, which 
can be rejoined in 45 min. by a 
I)leasant path through the wood 
from the Kago-iwa direct. The 
railway from Imaichi may be avail- 
ed of on the return to Nikk5. 

10. Ascent of IQ'yoho-zan. 
This is the best, but hardest, of all 
the mountain climbs near Nildco. 
It is a whole day's excursion, and 
an early start should consequently 
be made. There are two ways up, 
one via Nana-taki — ("the Seven 
Cascades "), the other via the Fujimi- 
toge. By the former route, which 
commands the most extensive views, 
an average walker will require 5^ 
hrs., including stoppages, for the 
ascent, and 3 hrs. for the descent. 
There is no water on the mountain, 
except at a spring some 10 min. 
below the log-hut on the S. side. 



Snow may be found close to this 
hut as late as the first days of July. 
The way for pedestrians leads past 
the temple of Futa-ara Jinja and a 
shrine called the Cryoja-do. Here 
take a narrow track to the 1. through 
the wood, leading, after f hr. easy 
walking with a short climb at the 
end, to a large stone known as the 
Sessho-seki, Vv-hich bears an inscrip- 
tion to notify that the slaughter of 
game is prohibited on these hills. 
(The best way for horses and kagos 
leads a short distance over the Jak- 
ko road to a zigzag path clearly 
visible on the hill to the r. and joins 
the path already mentioned at the 
Sessho-seld.) Right ahead rises a 
peak called Akappori, conspicuous 
by its precipitous face of red vol- 
canic strata. The path continues 
up the grassy spur in front. In 
IJ hr. from the Sessho-seki we 
arrive at the ruins of a hut called 
Happu, near which a rough scram- 
ble leads to a rock at the edge of a 
precipice overlooking a gigantic 
chasm, apparently the remains 
of an ancient crater that has 
been broken away by water on the 
S. E. side, where the Inari-gawa 
has its source. From Akanagl-san, 
an almost unbroken crater wall 
extends westward to Alrappori. 
This secondary crater appears not 
to have been very deep, as its 
present floor, oiat of which descends 
one of the seven cascades that 
supply the Inari-gawa, is high 
above the greater chasm immediate- 
ly in front of us. A projecting 
spur divides the upper from the 
lower crater, and above it on the 
1, rises a lesser peak named Shaku- 
jo-ga-take. The falls are seen 
from the edge of the precipice ; 
and though they are insignificant, 
the walk to this point is delightful, 
affording splendid views. (The 
excursion as far as Nana-tald and 
back occupies from 5 to 6 hrs.) 
The path hence winds to the 1. not 
far from the edge of the chasm, at 
first very steeply, and then through 
the wood to a large hut in 1| hr. 



204 



Route 16. — Nikl'd and Chuzenji. 



We are now at the foot of tlie final 
climb, which will occupy not more 
than f hr. more, llie snmmit, on 
which stands a small shrine 
dedicated to Onamnji, is 8,100 ft. 
high. To the N. it commands a 
magnificent yiew over a sea of 
lower mountains, among which lie 
the secluded valleys of Kuriyama. 
To the N. E., Nasii-yama is ren- 
dered conspicuous by the smoke 
rising from its crater, while fur- 
ther N. is seen Bandai-san. To 
the E. is Takahara-yama, which also 
has the appearance of a Tolcano. 
On the immediate W. of the specta- 
tor is Akalmra, merely a continua- 
tion of Nyoho-zan, then Ko-Manago, 
0-Manago, and Nantai-zan. Be- 
tween Alvakura and Ko-Manago, we 
look across to Taro-zan. Senjo-ga- 
hara is partly yisible, and beyond 
it the bare yolcanic summit of 
Bhirane. Further to the S. W. are 
seen Asama-yama, Yatsu-ga-take, 
and numerous other peaks probably 
belonging to the Hida-Shinshu 
range. The upper half of Fuji 
rises S. over the long horizontal 
line of the Chichibu m^ountains. 
Away in the plain to the E. and S. 
are perceived the broad and deej) 
Kinugawa, stretches of the Tone- 
gawa, the vill. of Nikkd with 
avenues marldng the Nikkd Kaidd 
and Eeiheishi Kaido, and far away 
on the horizon, Tsulaiba-san. 

The way by the Fvjimi-toge is 
also beautiful, and offers the ad- 
vantage that a much further dis- 
tance may be ridden and less need 
be wallced, as horses go up as far 
as the tori'i at the entrance to 
the mountain precincts. Leaving 
Nildcd, the path turns r. close to the 
tea-house by the stream below 
Urami. For about 4 m. bej^ond 
Urami it is rough, — a portion to be 
avoided after dusk. Thence it leads 
for several miles through pleasant 
sylvan scenery, until it enters a 
forest of weird beauty 1^ m. from 
the foot of Nyoho-zan. The tor'd is 
reached in 3 hrs., whence the chmb 
by a winding path, mostly under 



the shade of fine trees, occupies 2^ 
hrs. more. 

11. Ascent of Nantai-zan via 
Urami. This is the easiest way of 
making the ascent, though the path 
has been washed away in places. 
It first takes one across the stream 
at the tea-house below Urami, and 
soon turns to the r., climbing up 
through a M'ood, on emerging from 
which Nantai-zan, 0-Manago, 
Nyoh5-zan, and Akanagi are seen 
in front. After ^ hr. walk, we 
cross the dry bed of a river, 
whence up a grassy valley for 
another | hr., and reach a sign-post 
where a path to the r. diverges to 
Nyoho-zan, while the 1. branch 
ascends and gradually winds to 
the r. Plunging among trees, it 
follows up a deep, thickly-wooded 
gully, and at last comes to a torn 
standing in the depression between 
Nantai-zan and 0-Manago. Here 
the path forks, the r. branch pass- 
ing the spot from which 0-Manago 
is ascended, and continuing on 
towards Yumoto, while the 1. climbs 
up to the Shizu huts (5,550 ft.), where 
the back ascent of Nantai-zan com- 
mences. Horses may be taken 
from Niklv5 to this spot ; time, 4 
hrs. From Shizu to the summit is 
2,600 ft. further, occupying 2 J hrs. 
on foot. The v.^ay back by the same 
route is an easy 5 hrs. walk. Those 
intending to return to Nikko, in- 
stead of descending to Chuzenji, 
must make a very early start, as the 
path below Shizu is much broken 
up, and unsafe after dark. 

12. Over the Hoso-o Pass to 
Ashio (see p. 211), and back over 
the Asegata-toge to Chuzenji (see 
p. 206). 

5. — Chuzenji and Neighbouehood. 
kegon wateefall. nantai-zan. 

ASHIO. 

One of the principal points of 
interest near Nikko is beautiful 
Lake Chuzenji. 



Waij to Chuzevji. Kegon Fall. 



205 



Lake Chuzenji lies at the foot of 
Nantai-zan, being Burrounded on the 
other sides by comparatively low hills 
covered with trees to their very eummit. 
Its greatest length from E. to W. is esti- 
mated at 3 ri, its breadth at 1 ri. Sound- 
ings show the extraordinary depth of 93 
fathoms, shallowing down towards Senju 
and more rapidly towards Kegon. The 
lake, formerly devoid of life, now abounds 
with excellent salmon, salmon-trout, 
iwana, and other fish, with which it was 
stocked between the years 1873 and 
1890 by the government. The salmon 
and salmon-trout can only be taken 
with rod and line, whilst the iwana, a 
species of white trout which never come 
to the fisherman's bait, are taken in the 
nets. The height of Lake Chuzenji above 
the sea is 4,375 ft. Several small temples 
add to the picturesquencs?, of its shores. 

The road is generally practicable 
for jinrikisbas witb two men, not 
only to the vill. of Cbuzenji, 3 ri 12 
cho from Nikko, but for 2 rl 27 chd 
further on to the hot springs of Yn- 
moto. But owing to the steepness 
of the hill which has to be passed 
on the w^ay, ladies and persons un- 
able to walk often take " chairs " or 
horses. Persons pressed for time 
may easily go to Chuzenji and back 
in one day ; it is even possible for a 
sturdy pedestrian, by making an 
early start, to do the \vhole distance 
to Yumoto and back within the 
limits of a day. Charming at all 
times, the way from Nikko to 
Chuzenji is seen at its best kite in 
May or early in June, when the 
azalea trees, some of which are from 
10 ft. to 25 ft. high, display their 
red, white, and purple blossoms, 
and the wistarias too are coming 
into bloom. Another glorious time 
is late October, on account of the 
tints of the maple leaves. 

Leaving Nikko, we follow the 
Ashio road along the course of the 
Daiya-gawa as far as Futamiya (Ig 
ri), where the road to Chuzenji 
branches off r., still continuing by 
the river-side. This river, v/hich 
issues from Lake Chiizenji, is for 
most of the year a quiet stream ; 
but at times it becomes a danger- 
l ous torrent, carrying away roads 

and embankments. The ascent 



is gradual and easy up to the 
hamlet of Uma-gaeshi, where there 
is a fair inn. Just before reaching 
this hamlet, the old path from 
Niklvo joins the new road. The 
road hence for some distance is cut 
out of the side of the overhanging 
cliff close by the brawling stream, 
and ov.ing to landslips is difficult 
to keep in repair. Formerly the 
path climbed along the face of 
the cliff, and was impassable even 
for horses, whence the name of 
Uma-gaeshi (see p. 164). The 
scenery between Uma-gaeshi and 
the Misaica tea-house at the foot of 
the actual ascent, 20 min. walk, is 
wild and picturesque. Leaving the 
rugged gorge, a winding path leads 
up to a narrov/ ridge, known as 
Ken-ga-mine where a tea-house 
commands a jjretty view of two 
cascades called Hannya and Hbdb, 
at the head of the ravine to the r. 
From this point the ascent to 
the top, which occupies f hr., is 
arduous. Pedestrians may advan- 
tageously take the short-cuts which 
the old road affords. At the charm- 
ingly situated tea-house called 
Naka no Ghaya half-^^^ay up, the 
coolies usually make a short halt. 
A local curiosity is the jishaku-ishi, 
or " lode-stone." On the summit, 
the road passes through a w^ood of 
oak, birch, and other trees, many of 
w^hich are being killed by the long 
trailing moss called sarugase 
[Lycopodium sieholdi). A path to 
the 1. leads to a platform command- 
ing a fine view of the cascade of 

Kegon-no-taki. The height of 
this fall is about 250 ft. In the 
earlier part of the year it occa- 
sionally runs almost dry ; but after 
the heavy summer rains, it shoots 
out over the edge of the over- 
hanging precipice in considerable 
volume. From the little tea-house 
a path leads down to a coign of 
vantage for seeing the fall. A 
grander vicAv of both fall and gorge 
can be obtained by taldng a path 
about 2 did E. of the tea-house. It 
winds down steeply almost to the 



206 



Route 16. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 



torrent bed, crossing on the way n, 
bridge over another fine waterfall 
called Shirakumo (" white cloud") ; 
^ hr. will suffice. Approaching it 
from behind the tea-house, a sr)len- 
did view opens out of maple-clad 
mountains and the plain beyond. 

Chuzenji (*Lake Side Hotel; 
Kome-ya ; Izumi-ya), 

This name, written ip j^^ which 
smacks of Buddhism, has been officially 
altered to Chugushi, ff ^ ^ which is 
Shinto ; but the old name is still current- 
ly used. 

which is thronged with pilgrims 
for a few days in July or August, 
the period for the ascent of Nantai- 
zan as a religious exercise varying 
from year to year according to the 
old lunar calendar. As many as 
ten thousand sleep at the vill. 
diiring those few days. At other 
times it is a quiet place, for which 
reason, and on account of its de- 
lightful surroundings, several of 
the European diplomats have here 
built villas. 

The prettiest walks involving 
little climbing are : — 

1. Along the S. E. shore of the 
lake to Ase-ga-hama. (The summit 
of the Asegata-toge, 15 min. chmb 
through the wood, affords an 
interesting view, see No. 5). The 
little peninsula close by, called 
Kdzv.ke-shima, has a pretty shrine. 
Return by boat. 

2. To Shohu-no-hama, a little more 
than half-way along the N. shore 
of the lake, 45 min. On the way, 
one passes the great scar on 
Nantai-zan, left bv the landslip of 
1902. Eeturn by boat. 

3. To a pretty temple at Senju, 
at the W. end of the lake, close to 
an icy brook,— 2| hrs. (Within J hr. 
walk of Senju lies Mshi-no-umi, 
a tarn nestling beneath the wooded 
hills, which at this end recede from 
the lake.) 

The following are expeditions for 
climbers : — 

4. Up the hill opposite Kegon, 
leading to Eobu-ga-hara. On 



reaching the top, 1^- hr., a short 
wallv on the level brings one to 
some huge granite boulders called 
Kago-ishl, which command a mag- 
nificent view. This makes an 
alternative vray of returning to 
Nikkd, by continuing on to the 
summit of the Hoso-o Pass, ^ hr., 
where the road from Ashio to Nikko, 
is joined, 8 miles more. 

5. To the Copper-mines of 
Asb.io (described in Eoute 18), 
which lie within the compass of a 
day's excursion from Chuzenji, 
but must be done on foot, the 
path being imi)racticable for coii- 
veyances of any kind. A boat is 
taken across the lake to Ase-ga- 
hama, h hr., whence a climb of 8 
chb leads through a wood to the 
crest of the Asegata-toge, command- 
ing a beautiful prosxject. Tier 
upon tier rise the forest-clad ridges 
that close in the valley of the 
Ywatarase. The way down the 
pass, for about IJ ri, leads through 
narrow valleys between steep and 
scantily wooded hills. A narrow 
l^ath, in x^ortions cut out of the 
cliff side, in others supjDorted by 
planks, has to be traversed before 
entering the valley in which the 
mines are situated. From here it is 
20 min. further to Akakura, the 
ujDper haff of the village, ojjposite 
which, on the r. bank of the stream, 
stand the various buildings con- 
nected with the mines. 

6. Ascent of M'antai-zan. 
This mountain is considered sacred, 
and the priests of the temx)le at its 
base insist on the immemorial rule 
whereby women are jirohibited 
from maldng the ascent. Ladies 
can, however, generally go up, 
provided they do not pass through 
the main gate. The temple, which 
stands at the far end of the village, 
is said to have been founded by 
Shodo Sh5nin in A. D. 816. The 
simce between the bronze torii and 
the shrine is holy ground, and 
persons in jinrikishas had better 
go along the lower road if they 
object to being required to alight. 



Ascent of Nantai-zan. Yumoto. 



207 



The gate leading to the moimtaiii 
is closed except during the pilgrim 
season, when entrance tickets can 
be jjnrchased for a small sum. The 
ascent, which will take a good 
walker about. 2 J hrs., is extremely- 
steep, and consists partly of log 
steps which are very fatiguing ; but 
the lovely view from, the summit 
(8,150 ft.) well repays the exertion. 
The best time to see it is at sunrise ; 
so a very early start should be made 
with lanterns. On the S. E. lies 
the plain stretching towards Tokyo; 
on the W. rises the lofty cone of 
Shirane-san ; further S. is Koshin- 
zan ; below we have the marshy 
basin of Senj6-ga-hara, with the 
stream meandering through it. Lake 
Chuzenji, a glimpse of Lake Yu- 
moto, and N^ of Shirane the peaks 
of Taro-zan, 0-Manago, Ko-Manago, 
and Nyoho-zan. Fuji, too, is visible 
in clear weather. The ascent can 
also be made from Yumoto in 5 
hrs. (see p. 209). 

6. — Yumoto and Neighboukhood. 

The road to Yumoto leads past 
Shdh'u-no-hama (2| m.), to which 
point boats may be taken, and from 
which Y'umoto is 4 m. distant. 
Leaving the lake, we soon cross 
the Jigoku-no-kawa, a slender 
stream ^^'hich hurries over smooth 
rocks. The Byuzu-r/a-taki, or Dra- 
gon's Head Cascade, the most 
curious of all the cascades in this 
neighbourhood, is close by. Beyond 
it we emerge on Senjo-qa-hara, or 
the Moor of the Battle-field. 

So named on account of an engagement 
that took place here in A.D. 1389 between 
the x^artisans of the Ashikaga Shogiins 
and those of the Southern dynasty of 
Mikados (see p. 72). An alternative name 
is Aka-numa-ga-hara, or Moor of the Eed 
Swamp, derived from the colour of the 
tall dying sedges in autumn. 

This wide solitude is bounded on 
all sides by forests, above which 
on the_r. rise the peaks of Nantai- 
zan, 0-Manago, Ko-Manago, and 
Taro-zan. Far away on the 1. is a 



wooded elevation, in the centre of 
which the cascade of Yu-no-taki 
api)ears like a silver thread. Above 
this rises the volcano of Shirane- 
san, the only bare peak in the 
vicinity. The irises cluster thickly 
here in July. The road crosses the 
plain to a point not far from Y''u-no- 
taki, which gushes over a smooth 
black rock at an angle of 60^, form- 
ing the stream that feeds Rytizu- 
ga-tald, and finally falls into Lake 
Chuzenji. Its perpendicular height 
is 200 ft. A steep path by its side 
leads up to the top, some 60 yds. 
from the shore of Lake Yumoto, 
which is so called from the hot 
springs at its further end. This 
lake, though smaller than Lake 
Chuzenji, is still more beautiful. 
In October, the mai:>les and other 
trees here display the most 
glorious tints that can be imagined. 
There is also some fishing, — chiefly 
carp. The road winds through the 
wood along the E. side of the lake 
to the small vill. of 

Yumoto (Namma Hotel, Europ. 
style, and numerous Jap. inns), 
5,000 ft. above the sea. Here the 
v>^ater is partially discoloured by the 
sulphur springs, whose source lies 
just behind the village. Permission 
to catch trout in the river connect- 
ing Lakes Y^umoto and Chuzenji can 
be obtained at the Hotel. — Yumoto 
is closed from December to April 
inclusive. 

The following are the best ex- 
cursions and mountain climbs in 
the neighbourhood.^ 

1. Kirigome, a large tarn, lying 
at an altitude of 5,600 ft. among the 
mountains to the N., 1 hr. walk up 
through the forest. Another tarn 
called Karigome, connected with 
it, is difficult of access. Forty min. 
climb beyond Kirigome leads to the 
top of a ridge (6,200 ft.) afEording a 
panoramic view of mountains to 
the N.E., including Takahara-yama, 
the Shiobara range, and distant 
Bandai-san. A sharp descent of 1 
hr. leads down a succession of 
torrent-riven gullys, mostly under 



208 



Route 16. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 



shade, to Mskizaim, where gold 
and silver mining is conducted on 
a small scale. 

2. The Konsei-toge and Lake 
Sug-anuma, etc. The Konsei- 
toge (U hr.) is the low pass to the 
W. of the vill., leading over to the 
province of Kotsnke (see next 
Koute). The way up is a continuous 
gentle ascent through a forest, the 
lower part of which is strewn T\dth 
bare and fallen tree-trunks, many 
having been swept down by floods, 
others killed by parasitic moss. 
The last part of the climb is steep. 
One hr. out of Yumoto, and close to 
the path 1., stands a small shrine 
dedicated to the phallic worship of 
the god Konsei. The top of the 
pass (6,770 ft.), affords little view ; 
but a magnificent one can be ob- 
tained b)'- means of a short scramble, 
for which 15 min. will suffice, up a 
ridge on the 1. and as far as a land- 
shp below the bare, rocky peak of 
Oizuru-yama. At the spectator's 
feet lie three secluded lakes, — Suga- 
numa, Marunuma, and Ojiri-numa 
— nestling in the virgin forest, 
while all around and beyond, rise 
lofty mountain ranges. The de- 
scent from the top of the pass to 
Suganuma (locally known as 
Shimizu) occupies 35 min. It 
affords good fishing for masu and 
iwana. There is no path around it, 
but a boat can be hired. 

To combine the other lakes in 
the excursion makes a very long 
and fatiguing day. There is a 
path from the far end of Suga- 
numa connecting them, but it°is 
rough, leading through the forest 
and high bamboo grass. On the 
way, ghmpses are obtained of a 
waterfall called Hatcho-daki (250 ft. 
high). Maru-numa is very pretty, 
its waters being of an intense blue- 
green and its banks lined with 
rockery and ferns. Ojiri-numa 
is the smallest of the lakes. A pic- 
turesque gorge leads hence out of 
the thick forest on to the Higashi- 
Ogawa road, whence 4 ri back to 
Yumoto. 



3. Shirane-san is a volcano 
8,800 ft. high, which was active 
in 1889. The climb is very rough 
and steep, and should not be at- 
tempted without a guide. For the 
ascent allow 4i hrs,, for the 
descent, 3 hrs. ; but considerable 
time is needed for a survey of the 
top, so that a whole day is none 
too much for the expedition. 
There is no water on the mountain 
side. The first part of the climb 
is the roughest of all, leading over 
3lae-Shirane ("Front Shirane"), a 
ridge which looks as if it had been 
part of the wall of a crater, and that 
within comparatively recent times 
a new and higher cone had been 
formed inside its Yv''. limb, which 
had nearly filled up the original 
crater, leaving only the interven- 
ing valley on its E. side, the bottom 
of which slopes off from the centre 
N. and S. The N. end contains a 
tarn of a remarkable green colour. 
Descending from Mae-Shirane, the 
way leads for J hr. along the ridge 
of the old crater, and then up 
Shirane proper [Oku- Shirane) | hr. 
a steep and roclcy climb, to a small 
bronze shrine and torii. The cone 
has a great rent down the side, 
vrhich is kept on the r. in going up, 
and a deep crater at the top whose 
edges are rotten. A surveying sta- 
tion marks the highest point, whence 
the prospect is superb, even distant 
Fuji and Asama being sometimes 
visible. _ 

4. The v.-ay to O-Manago leads 
past a sav>'-mill on the N. side of 
the Senj5-ga-hara moor. It then 
enters a thick wood and later bears 
up a water-course, but is very rough 
and difficult to trace. A stone im- 
age of Shozuka-no-Baba is passed, 
with a strange medley of ex-votos 
hanging outside. ^Vhere_ the path 
branches, the 1. leads to 0-Manago, 
the r. to the Shizu huts and on 
to Nikko. From the junction of 
the paths, it takes J ^^^l. ^^ reach 
the torli at the base of 0-Manago. 
The distance to the summit is 1 ri 
8 cho, the real ascent beginning at 



Route 17. — From Yunioto to Ikao over the onset Pass. 209 



a bronze image of Fudo. The last 
bit is over precipitous rocks, where 
chains are fixed to assist the climb- 
er. On the top stands a wooden 
shrine, with a bronze image behind 
it, said to. be Kuni-toko-tachi, the 
Earth-god. The view is less ex- 
tensive than that from Nantai-zan. 

5. Nantai-zan can be ascended 
from Ytimoto,_the way coinciding 
with that np 0-Manago, nearly as 
far as the Shizn huts {conf. No. 4). 
Time, about 5 hours. 

6. Taro-zan is an arduous 
day's expedition, 3 ri altogether 
from Yumoto to the top, of which 1^ 
ri steady climb, past big wash-outs 
and precipitous spots where the 
foothold is precarious. There is an 
extinct crater at the summit, and 
many rare Alpine plants. 

Japanese pilgrims make the round 
of the various mountains in the 
vicinity of Niklvd and Chuzenji by 
ascending first Nyoho-zan and then 
Ko-Manago, descending to a place 
called Sabusawa, and ascending O- 
Manago from the back. They sleep 
at the Shizu huts, climb Taro-zan 
in the forenoon, Nantai-zan in the 
afternoon, and descend to Chu- 
zenji. 



KOUTE 17. 



From Yumoto to Ikao ovek the 
KoNSEi Pass. 

Itinerary. 

YUMOTO to Ei Cho M. 

Top of Konsei 

Pass 1 18 3* 

HigashiOgawa ... 4 18 11 

Sukagawa 1 18 3f 

Okkai 2 — 5 

Ohara 18 3 



Takahira 1 5 21- 

NUMATA 2 13 sl 

Shibukawa 4 20 ll| 

IKAO 2 15 6 

Total 21 7 51| 

On this route an idea is gained 
of the dense forest that covers so 
large a portion of the central 
mountain range ; and the valleys of 
the Katashina-gawa and Tonegawa, 
down which most of the latter part 
of the way leads, are highly pictur- 
esque. The first night is sj^ent at 
Higashi Ogawa, and the second at 
Numata, Ikao being reached on the 
afternoon of the third day. There 
is also country accommodation at 
Okkai and Ohara. The means of 
transport for baggage on this route 
are : — coolies over the Konsei-t5ge 
to Higashi Ogawa, horses not being 
taken across the pass ; horses to 
Numata, and thence jinrilushas. 
Travellers wishing to return to 
Tokyo without visiting Ikao, can 
join the railway at Maebashi or at 
Takasaki by tram from Shibukawa 
(see p. 181). 

For the first 1^ hr. up the Konsei- 
toge, see p. 208. During the long 
walk down the other side of the 
pass, trees shut out all distant 
prospect ; neither is there any sign 
of human habitation in the forest, 
except a solitary hunter's hut. 
Even this is deserted during the 
summer, at which season alone 
the traveller will think of coming 
this way, since the road is 
l^ractically impassable from the 
end of November to well on in 
March. On nearing Ogawa no Yu- 
raoto, — a few huts with thermal 
springs about 1 ri from the vill. of 
Higashi Ogawa, — the path follows a 
stream flowing down from Shirane- 
san. 

Higashi Ogawa {Inn, Miyoshi- 
ya) stands 2,3U0 ft. above the sea. 
The Ogawa, from which this vill. 
takes its name, is a small tributary 
of the Katashina-gawa, itself an 
affluent of the Tonegawa. Leaving 



210 Route 17. — From Yumoto to Ikao over the Konsei Pass. 



Higashi Ogaw^i, and contimiing 
down the valley, whicli is dotted 
with hiimlets, we cross over a hill 
before reaching 

Sukagawa, in the valley of the 
Katashina-gawa. From a ridge at 
the foot of which lie two hamlets 
Math curious names, — Mikage Chi- 
dori, or Shady Chidori, and Ulna fa 
Chvdori, or Sunny Chidori, — there 
is a fine view, on looking back, of 
this valley stretching far away to 
the N. The two hamlets are 
situated on opposite sides of the 
stream, and connected by a bridge. 
Observe the terrace-Hke formation 
of the hills at the back of Hikage 
Chidori, and all the way on to 
below Xumata. Three terraces at 
least 2 miles long are distinctly 
marked, each of the lower two being 
a few himdred yards wide, and the 
uf»per one, surmounted by the 
usual irregular ridge, being from 
J to f m. wide. The course of these 
ridges, which seem to mark the 
successive positions of a river bank 
at different periods, is S.AY. by N.E. 
We next reach 

Okkai, near which the river 
dashes between perpendicular walls 
of porphyry. A hillock behind the 
inn afEords a delightful view of high 
rocks, with trees perched among 
them and cascades. There is also 
a pretty islet in the river, called 
Ukishbna. The path now leaves the 
valley of the Katashina-gawa, and 
crossing a well-cultivated upland, 
comes to 

Ohara, v.-hence it v.-inds over the 
hills and uj) the Kuryfi-toge. 
The view from this ix)int is superb, 
including Haruna-san, the Koshu 
Koma-ga-take, Yatsu-ga-take, Asa- 
ma-yama, Yahazu-yama, and the 
Shirane of Kusatsu. At 

Takahira, the road becomes 
level and i)racticable for jinrildshas. 

Numata {Inn, Maru-sugi) stands 
on a high jDlateau overlooldng the 
valleys of the Katashina and the 
Tonegawa. The view of the latter 
valley from the N.W. corner of the 



town is remarkable, — extensive rice- 
fields far below at one's feet, be- 
yond them the river, and beyond it 
again the mountains of the Mikuni- 
toge. Trout-fishing is carried on 
just below the junction of the two 
rivers, a i)ortion of the water being 
enclosed with stones and fences 
running out from each bank 
towards the centre of the stream, 
where a bamboo i:)latform, inclined 
at an angle of about 15°, is fixed 
ux)on baskets filled A^-ith stones. 
The water rushes up this platform, 
and leaves the fish at the top. 
They are then caught, and kept 
alive in perforated boxes which are 
placed on the- platform. The 
scenery onward continues pictur- 
esque, the road passing high and 
rugged cliffs that overhang the 
Tonegawa. Beyond TanasMta, the 
valley expands into a smiling fertile 
plain, 

[Pedestrians bound for Ikao may 
save over 1 ri by turning off r. 
at the hamlet of Kagasaka, and 
crossing the river at Kanai, 
whence up over the moor to 
Ikao.] 

and the river is lost sight of till near 

Shibukawa {Inn, Yamada-ya). 
This is a town of some size. 
Hence to Ikao is a gentle ascent 
all the way. For a detailed accoimt 
of Ikao and Neighbourhood, see 
Eoute 13. 



Route 18. — Valley of the Watarase. Ashio 
ROUTE 18. 



211 



From Nikko to Ikao via the Cop- 
per Mines of Ashio and the 
Valley of the Wataease- 
GAWA. Ascent of E5- 

SHIN-ZAN. 

Itinerai'y. 

NIKKO to :— in Cho M. 

Top of Hoso-o Pass 3 10 8 

ASHIO 4 11 10\ 

Sori 2 2L 6'- 

Godo 2 12 5| 

Hanawa 1 — 2^ 

OMAMA station ... 4 18 11 

Total 18 — 44 



From Omama by train in f lir. 
to Maebashi, whence see Route 13. 

The road from NiJdco to Ashio 
over the Hoso-o Pass, whose sum- 
mit rises 4,100 ft. above sea-level, is 
very rough, but generally practi- 
cable for jinrildshas. These should 
l^e engaged at Nikko for the whole 
way (2 days) to Omama, as they are 
scarce and expensive en route. 
Pedestrians may avail themselves 
of numerous short-cuts on the way 
up the pass. 

The IIoso-o Pass is charming, 
with maple-clad mountains and 
rushing rivulets, ending on the 
Ashio side (about 1 hr. before Ashio) 
in grand river scenery, where the 
road is cut out of a precipice with 
the river Watarase far below. Two 
telpherage lines stril^e the eye the 
whole way over. They carry copper 
from Ashio to Niklco, and bring 
back coke, provisions, etc., to the 
mines. 

Ashio is the general name of a 
collection of hamlets studding a 
district famed for its copper mines, 
which are the most productive in 
Japan, and are said to be the largest 
in the Far East. It lies at an 
altitude of about 2,300 ft. The 
chief worlcs are situated in a side 
valley off the main road where 



the new vill. {Inns, Cho-o-kwan, 
Tochimoto-ya), mentioned below 
has grown up around the mines. 
The old vill. of Ashio {Inns, Tsuru- 
ya, Izumi-ya), stands 2 m. further 
down the valley of the Watarase. 
The Mines, of which there are four, 
bear respectively the names of 
Honzan, Tsudo, Kotaki, and Sunoko- 
bashi. The greatest distance be- 
tween any of these is 1 ri, and all 
are connected by tramway. The 
hills have been denuded of every 
particle of wood. Gigantic iron 
pipes lead down from neighbouring 
heights to work the turbines, tram- 
ways run in all directions, the bare 
red hillsides are scooped out here 
and there for the houses of tlie 
miners, the air resounds with the 
clang of hammers, while the huge 
furnaces vomit forth clouds of 
smoke which, on a hot still day, 
hang like a pall over the valley. 
Mato is the name of the lower half of 
the vill. and Akakura, of the upper. 
On the opposite side stands the 
forest of chimneys of the smelting- 
works, together with the main office, 
engine-rooms, workshops, and other 
buildings. 

The ore is found in a matrix of clay, 
calcite, and quartz, and is almost entirely 
the pyrite or copper sulphide, although a 
small quantity of oxide also occurs. The 
lodes vary from 6 to 20 ft. in width. The 
average yield is 15 per cent of metal, and 
the total annual product of finished 
metal from the three mines reaches the 
remarkable figure of 7,000 tons. Elec- 
tricity of 10,000 h. p. is derived from 
water-power Ibrought by tunnel and iron- 
piping 2,000 ft. long, from the Hannya 
waterfall, near Nikko, 5 miles distant. 
Owing to damage done to the crops by 
the poisonous discharges from the mine, 
and to consequent agitation amongst the 
farmers living along the course of the 
Watarase-gawa, into which the stream 
flows, an ingenious series of filters has 
been fitted up for the purification of the 
water after it has done its work. 

[An extra day at Ashio may v/ell 
be devoted to visiting the 
wonderful rocks of Koshin- 
2,an. Accommodation at the 
temple office {Shamusho). Jin- 
rikishas may be taken as far 



212 



Boute 18. — Valley of the Watarase. Ashio. 



as the Kotaki mines, about 
3 m., whence to the point called 
Bessho, 4,500 ft., where the 
rock scenery begins, the dis- 
tance is estimated at 6 m. It 
is necessary to engage the 
services of a guide who lives 
at the hut. The whole round 
takes about 2|^ hrs., and is 
perfectly safe except for those 
who are apt to be troubled with 
dizziness. 

Leaving the hut by the path 
on the S. side, we commence 
by scrambling up and down 
the steepest places imaginable, 
traversing deep ravines on 
rough log bridges, and crawl- 
ing round the face of preci- 
pices by the aid of iron chains 
and of steps cut in the sohd 
rock. For such hard work, 
icaraji are a great convenience. 
A point called Mi-harashi com- 
mands a magnificent prospect 
of the mountains below, and 
Tsukuba-san in the distant 
plain. Behind, the eye rests 
upon the gigantic rock-work, 
amidst which conifers have 
perched themselves in inacces- 
sible nooks and crannies. To 
the various features of the 
landscape, more or less fanci- 
ful names have been given. 
The most striking are the 
San-ju-san-gen, a mass of 
Ijrecipices dedicated to Kwan- 
non ; the Sirring dedicated to 
Yakushi, the waters of which 
are believed to be efficacious 
in cases of eye disease ; the 
Kinoko-seki, or Mushroom 
Kock, beyond which comes the 
Yagura-seki, supposed to re- 
semble the tov.^ers on the walls 
of a fortress ; next the TJrami- 
ga-taki, or Back View Cascade, 
which falls from a ledge above 
in silvery threads. The huge 
l>recipice close by is called the 
Go-sldki no seki, or Bock of 
the Five Colours. The guide 
points out a rock, the Men-sekl, 
in which a remote likeness to 



a human face may be traced. 
Above this is the Go-ju 7io To, 
or Five-storied Pagoda, and 
near it, a small natural arch 
called Ichi no mon. Crawl- 
ing through this, we come to 
the Bonji-seki, or Sanskrit 
Letter Bocks, next jmssing 
the Baiko-dani, a deep gully 
supposed to have some relation 
with the origin of thunder- 
storms ; the Toro-iica, or Stone- 
lantern Bock ; the Fuji-mi-seki, 
v.'hence the upper half of Fuji 
is seen ; the Shishi-seki, or 
Lion Bock ; the Ogi-iicaya, or 
Fan Cavern : and the Zo-seki, 
or Elephant Bock. Next we 
come to where a huge natural 
bridge, called the Ama no 
hashi, or Bridge of Heaven, 
used to span the ravine until 
destroyed by an earthquake in 
1824. On the other side is a 
hole about 6 ft. in diameter, 
called Ki no mon, or Second 
Gate, where the bridge termi- 
nated. From this point, as- 
cending a very narrow crevice 
by the aid of chains, the path 
reaches the Mi-harashi already 
mentioned. Then passing be- 
hind a precipitous detached 
rock, called Bydhu-iica from its 
resemblance to a screen, we 
ascend a gorge, and finally 
reach the Oku-no-in (5,450 ft.), 
where, in three caverns, are 
small shrines dedicated to the 
three Shinto deities Onamuji, 
Saruta-hiko, and Sukuna-biko- 
na, to the second of whom this 
mountain is sacred. On turn- 
ing the corner just beyond, we 
see the tojDS of Nantai-zan and 
0-Manago bearing about N., 
and descending the hillside, 
reach Bessho again in 25 min. 
from the Oku-no-in. The des- 
cent to the huts at the base of 
the moimtain will take nearly 
2^ hrs.] 

>Totv,-ithstanding deforestation 
along its upper reaches, the scenery 



Route 19. — Valley of the Kinugaioa. 



213 



the whole way along the banks of 
the Watarase-gawa is very 
pretty, and especially between 
Ashio and Godo quite romantic. 
Sometimes hurtling rocks overhang 
the road which itself carried out on 
piles, actually overhangs the river. 
The latter flows on in a perfectly 
pkcid course, v/hile in other i:>laces 
it foams and dashes amidst tremen- 
dous granite boulders. The ox 
tram seen on the opposite side of 
the river connects at S5ri with a 
telpherage system over the moun- 
tains to Awano, which brings down 
wood for the mines. Beyond 

Sori [Tan, Komatsu-ya), a glade 
of fine cryptomerias attests the 
priestly care formerly bestowed on 
the temple of Tenno. The road 
then winds up and down the green 
valley, high above the rushing 
waters of the river to 

Godo (f/m, Tama-ya) and 

Hana wa ( Inn, Nakachi-ya ) . The 
vill. seen on the r. bank of the river 
beyond Hanawa is Mlzunumxi, {Inn, 
Midori-ya), from which it is possible 
to ascend Akagi-san by a shorter, 
though rougher, route than that 
given on p. 184. The beauty of the 
route suddenly ceases at Kirihara, 
a liamlet some 10 clio before 

Omama, see p. 191. 



EOUTE 19. 



From "Wakamatsu to Nikk5 by the 
Valljiy op the Kinitgawa. 

[Conf. maps facinfj pp. 99 and 193.) 

For Wakamatsu, see Eoute 70. 

This route, lying amongst some 
of the finest river scenery in 
Eastern Japan, is recommended to 
those who wish to diverge from 



the beaten tracks ; but the accom- 
modation is indifferent except at 
Taj'ima and at the hot springs of 
Eaicaji, near Takahara. The au- 
tumn foliage from mid-October to 
mid-November is especially beauti- 
ful. The trip will occupy from 2.^ 
to 3 days. Jinrikishas can be taken 
as far as the Sanno-ija Inn, 1^ ri 
beyond Itozawa at the foot of the 
Sanno-toge ; they are not impractic- 
able over the pass, but it is prefer- 
able to go on horseback or on foot. 

Itinerary. 

WAKAMATSU to :— Bl C/.-.d N. 

KamiMiyori 3 20 8.} 

Kiiwabara 2 IG G 

Yimoue 2 — 5 

Toyonari 1 18 3.^ 

Tajima 3 18 Sh 

Itozawa 2 13 6 

Yokogawa 3 — 7^ 

Kami Miyori 1 9 3 

NakaMiyori 18 3 

Ikari 1 21 4 

Takahara 2 — 5 

Fujiwara 2 3 5 

IMAICHI 4 14 10| 

Total 30 35 75^ 



After passing Kami Miyori the 
road leads through a beautiful 
gorge of the Tsuruma-gawa. The 
portion most celebrated locally is 
known as Tono-hetsuri, near the 
vill. of Yagoshima, where many 
small shrines in the rock adorn the 
bank of the river. 

Tajitna is prettily situated in a 
plain protected by hills on all sides. 
The houses are so thatched that the 
eaves show alternate bars of black 
and white. The Sanno-toge is of 
inconsiderable height. 

[A road leads S. E. over the hills 
from Kami Miyori (in Shimo- 
tsuke) to Stiiohara, 5 ri 21 cho.l 

The descent on the Shimotsuke 
side leads into the valley of the 
Kimigauxi, along which, between 



214 



Route 20. — Shidboro and Nasu. 



the villages of Ikai'i and Fujlwara, 
lies the prettiest part of the route, — 
delightful river scenery as far as 
Takahara. The road descends a 
ravine, and in many parts over- 
hangs the river, resting on logs 
which project from the rock and 
are siipported by uprights. After 
Fujiwara, the country becomes more 
open. The Kinugawa is crossed at 
the Nakii-iwa described on ix 203, 
and the road hence leads over lofty 
cultivated upland to Imaichl, on the 
Utsunomiya-Nikko Eaihvay, for 
which see p. 192. 



ROUTE 20. 



Shiobara axd Nasi'. 

FUEUMACHI. ASCEN'T OF KEICh5-ZAN. 
NASU-YAMA. 

{C'onf. map facing p. 193.) 

Nislii Nasuno {Inn, Yamato- 
ya) reached by the Northern Kail- 
way from Tokyd in 4.} hrs. (see 
Koute G9), is the nearest station to 
the various hot spring resorts of the 
district of Shiobara, which are 
much frequented by the Japanese. 
The autumn foliage among these 
mountains is very striking. The 
itinerary of the road {hasha and 
jinrikishas available), is as folloM'S : 

NLSm NASUNO to :— 

ni Cho M. 

Sekiya 3 — 7^ 

Owami 1 18 3^ 

Fukuwnbi 24 1^ 

Shiogama 13 1 

FUEUMACHI 8 ^ 

Total 5 27 14 



As far as Sekiya, at the foot of 
the mountains, the road is level 
and runs straight across the plain, 
— a p>art of the journey apt to be 
trying in summer, owing to the 
total absence of shade. Shortly 
after Sekiya, we enter the pictur- 
esque valley of the Holdgawa, with 
lofty and densely wooded hills on 
either side. At various points 
delightful views are afforded of the 
river rushing over its boulder- 
strev.-n bed, while numerous cas- 
cades lend variety to the landscape. 
The Owami springs, with a hut or 
two, are seen from the roadway, at 
the bottom of a precipitous descent. 
They lie in the bed of the river, and 
are used only by the poorest class 
of patients. 

Fukuwata {Inns, "^'Shofuro and 
others) is, next to Furumachi, the 
most popular bathing resort in the 
district. A few min. from Fukii- 
wata, on the opposite side of the 
river, is a spot known as Fudo-ga- 
sawa. With its crystal-clear water, 
its rocks and cascades, and a 
promenade under the shade of 
variegated trees, it produces the 
imi^ressipn of landscape gardening 
on a large scale. At the entrance 
to the hamlet of Shiogama, a stone 
has been erected to the memory of 
the famous courtesan, Takao, who 
was born near this spot. 

She was mistress of Date Tsunamunc, 
second Daimvo of Sendai who lived in the 
latter half of the 17th century. The 
family broils and crimes, of which this 
particular intrigue formed one link, are 
dramatised in a play called Sendai Hagi. 

Here a bridge crosses the river, 
leading to the hot springs of Shio- 
no-yu, 16 cJtd, situated in the bed of 
an atiiuent of the Holdgawa, a place 
chiefly resorted to by poor folks. 

Furumachi {Inns, Fusen-r5, 
Kome-ya) lies on the r. bank of the 
river, and is the principal vill. in 
the district. It is shut in by moun- 
tains which rise in beautifully 
wooded peaks, one above another, 
aroimd it. Although situated at 
no great height (1,850 ft.), Furu- 



Various Spas. Ascent of Keicho-zan. 



215 



maclii is cooler than many places 
at higher altittides, and suffers less 
from mosquitoes and other insect 
])ests. The whole vicinity is dotted 
with thermal springs. The water 
at Furumachi is moderate in tem- 
perature and mostly free from 
mineral deposit ; the other springs 
are somewhat saline. A favourite 
midday resort for visitors at Furu- 
machi is Siimakl or Taki-no-yu 
(9 cho), in a hollow of the hills. 
Here the water is led in i^ij^es from a 
S])ring just above the inn, and a hot 
douche may be taken. Amongst 
the prettiest cascades in the neigh- 
bourhood are : Senshin-no-tald, H6- 
ko-no-tald, Ohata-no-taki, and Heki- 
reki-no-taki. 

A pleasant excursion may be 
made to Arayu, lit. " the Violent 
Spring," 2 ri from Furumachi. 
The path leads directly behind the 
Kome-ya inn at the head of the 
vill., and over the hills in sharp 
zigzags. Distant views are obtained 
on the way, — an exception to the 
generally shut-in character of all 
this neighbourhood. 

[Near the tox) of the pass, on the 
1., is a tarn called Onuraa. A 
smaller, called Konuma, situat- 
ed in a deeper hollow, is not 
visible from the road. A path 
follows the upper edge of these 
tarns down to the Shio-no-yu 
springs, and also makes a 
good walk from Furumachi.] 

Arayu, consists of a number of 
mediocre inns, built on the side of 
a hill rendered barren by the sul- 
phurous water that bubbles forth 
in several spots, giving the place a 
desolate aspect. It lies on a moun- 
tain road to Nikko. The distances 
are approximately as follows : — 

ARAYU to:— Pd Cho M. 

Fujiwara 5 — 12| 

Olmwa 3 — 7| 

Imaichi 1 14 3| 

Total 9 14 23 



Thence train to Nikl^o in \ hr. 
The inns on the way are poor. — For 
the itinerary of another road from 
Shiobara to either -Nikko or Waka- 
matsu, see \}. 213. 

Arayu is the best starting-point 
for the ascent of Keicho-zan, 3| 
ri, one of the peaks of Talcahara- 
yama (5,880 ft.) a sacred mountain, 
and one of the highest of the 
range separating the j)rovinces 
of Shimotsuke and Iwashiro. The 
climb is somewhat rough and 
monotonous for about 1 hr., all 
view being shut out by woods and 
low ridges until the bed of the 
Akagawa is reached, where the 
ascent of the Takahara-t5ge begins. 
From the top of the pass to the 
small lake of JBenten-r/a-ike is a 
distance of 1 ?-i, and to the oummit 
a steep pull of 20 cho more. The 
view thence is extensive, embracing 
Fuji, Nantai-zan, Gwassan, lide-san, 
Bandai-san, and numerous minor 
X^eaks. The shrine on Keich5-zan 
is dedicated to Saruta-hilco. Those 
wishing to make the ascent from 
Farumachi in one day must start 
early. An alternative is to take it 
on the way to Nikko. 

The active volcano of Nasu-yama 
(6,300 ft.) is best reached from 
Kuroiso {Lm, Tabako-ya) on the 
Northern Eailway, whence jin- 
rildsha with tMO men — or pack- 
horse — for 4 rl 20 cho (11 m.) to 
Nasu (Inn, *Komatsu-ya), at the 
mountain's base, 2,750 ft. above 
sea-level. A good deal of sulphur 
is produced in the neighbourhood. 

The baths of Naau are very ancient, 
having been established in the reign of 
Jomei Tenno (A.. D. 629-C41), and have a 
high local reputation for efficacy in skin 
diseases. The inns formerly stood a little 
higher up the river, at a spot called Yit- 
moto, but were removed to their present 
site a few years ago. The Komatsu-ya has 
been in the same family for over six 
centuries. 

Other bathing resorts on Nasu- 
yama, which is literally honey- 
combed with solfataras, are Asahi 



216 Boute 21. — The Provinces of Sliimosa, Kazusa, and JBoshii. 



Onsen (3,700 ft.), Benten (4,200 ft.), 
Omaru, a little further np, and 
Sando-goya on the other side of the 
pass leading to the district of Aizu. 
Seven cho from Nasu, in a bleak 
spot near the river-bed, once stood 
the Sessho-seki, or "Death-stone," 
famoias in a legend wliich has been 
dramatised as one of the No, or 
Lyric Dramas, of mediasval Japa- 
nese literature. 

The story is that a Buddhist priest, 
Genno by name, while journeying across 
the desolate moor of Nasu, pauses to rest 
beneath this rock. A spirit forthwith 
appears and warns him that, by remain- 
ing in this place, he ia risking his life, for 
that not men only, but even birds and 
beasts perish if they do but touch it. The 
spirit and the chorus then recount to him 
in verse how once upon a time there lived 
a maiden, as learned and accomplished 
as she was surpassingly beautiful, whom 
the Emperor Toba-no-In took to himself 
as his favourite concubine, and for her 
sake neglected all the affairs of state. At 
last one evening, on the occasion of a 
banquet at the Palace, the lights suddenly 
went out, and from the girl's body there 
darted forth a supernatural coruscation 
that illumined the whole scene, while 
the Mikado himself was struck down by 
disease. On the representations of the 
court magician, Abe-no-Yasunari, the vile 
witch — for the pretended beauty was 
evidently nothing better than a witch — 
was driven from the Imi^erial presence, 
and flew away through the air to the 
moor of Nasu, where she resumed her 
original shape, that of a fox. In the 
second act of the play, the si^irit, appear- 
ing again, confesses to the good priest 
that itself is none other than the WTaith 
of the witch whose story has just been 
told, and relates furthermore how, after 
escaping from the Palace, she was hunted 
by dogs over the moor of Xasu,— the 
origin, as the chorus obligingly stops to 
explain, of the Japanese sport of inu ou 
mono, or " dog-hunting." The priest then 
exorcises the evil spirit by m.eans of 
Buddhistic incantations. 

The stone itself no longer exists ; 
but the poisonous exhalations 
which still issue from the ground 
on which it stood are destructive 
to insect and bird life. 

The ascent of Nasu-yama will 
occupy a little iinder 3 hrs. from 
Nasu, the last ^ hr. leading over a 
wild chaos of boulders, from 
amongst hundreds of which sul- 



phurous vapour constantly rises 
The view from the summit includes 
all the higher peaks of this central 
range, the Nikko mountains, Asa- 
ma, and Fuji. A huge cloud of 
steam and vapour, accompanied 
by incessant roaring, marks the 
present active crater formed by a 
destructive outbreak in 1881. It is 
situated on the W. side of the 
mountain, a little above the pass 
which separates Isasu-yama from 
Asahi-dake, and by which the de- 
scent is made. This is a delightful 
walk of about 2j hrs., leading past 
several of the mineral springs men- 
tioned above. 

The baths of Shiobara may con- 
veniently be reached from Nasu by 
a path through the forest to Sekiya 
(see p. 214), 6 ri. Horses abound 
in this district. 



KOUTE 21. 



The Provinces of Shimosa, 
Kazusa, and Boshu. 

1. chiba, choshi, and the lagoons. 
2. through the peninsula to 
ka.tsu-uea, and round the south 
and west coasts to kominato, 

NOKOGIEI-YAMA, AND KAn5-ZAN. 

These three provinces form a natural 
division of the country. The opinion of 
geologists is that a great part of this 
district, whose sands seem to have been 
washed up by the sea, together with the 
wide Tokyo plain which is formed by 
alluvium washed down from the central 
mountain-ranges, was submerged in quite 
recent times, and that only the southern 
half of the peninsula of Kazusa-Boshu 
stood up out of the waves. This process 
of rising and drj-ing is still going on. 
The large lagoons on the lower course of 
the Tonegawa gradually shrink in size, 
and the same is true of Tokyo Bay. From 
these considerations, it will be inferred 



Tokyo to Choslii and Cape Inuhoe. 



217 



that the northern parts of this district 
are somewhat dreary travelling. The P. 
portion from Kano-zan downwards, with 
tuff ranges which, though not exceeding 
1,200 ft., seem higher because rising al- 
most directly from the sea, will best 
reward the tourist's trouble. The coast 
of Boshu in particular atfords lovely 
views, as well as a mild winter climate. 



-Chiba, Choshi, and the 
Lagoons. 

The Sobu Eailway. 





Names 




g 3 >> 


of 


Eemarks 


5- 


Stations 






T0KY5 (nyo- 






goku-bashi) 




Im. 


Honjo 




2 


Kamedo 




34^ 


Hirai 




6 


Koiwa 




74 


Ichikawa 




lo' 


Nakayama 




12i 


Funabashi 




14' 


Taudanuma 




17^- 


Makuhari 




20j 


Tnage 


I Change for 


22| 


CHIBA Jet 


JMobara and 
(ichinomiya. 


27i 


Yotsukaido 




32^ 


Sakura Jet 


( Change for 
\Narita. 


41 


Yachimata 




42| 

451- 


Hyuga 




Naruto 




49 


Matsuo 




51,^ 


Yokoshiba 




56i 


Yoka-ichiba 




59f 


Hikata 




62i 


Asahi-machi 




64 


lioka 




67i 


Saruda 




70,^ 


Matsugishi 




73 


CHOSHI 





This whole line traverses flat 
ooiintry. Before reaching Ichi- 
kauri, we cross the Yedo-gawa 
where there is often a pretty view 
of boats sailing np the river. The 
high wooded blufiE on the 1. bank is 
Konodai, the seat of a military 
academy. Five c/io from Nakayama 
stands Hokekyoji, a popular temple 
devoted to the worship of Kishi 
Bojin (see p. 48). 



Funabashi is a large town. 
Inage has a bathing establishment 
called Kaiki-kwan. 

Chiba {Inns, Kan5-ya, Urne- 
matsn-ya) is a prefectural capital. 
This prefecture ranks next to Yezo 
in the abundance of its marine 
prodiicts, the district of Kn-ju-lm-ri 
to the S. of Cape Innboe affording 
the richest field. At Chiba the line 
leaves the coast, and strikes N.W. 
for 

Sakura {Inn, Kome-ya), a garri- 
son toM-n, and Narita (p. 146). 
From Yokoshiba onwards, the 
country is very sandy, yet green, 
owing to cultivation and pine- 
woods. 

Choshi {Inn, Daishin, over 1 m. 
from the station) extends for 2^ m. 
along the r. bank of the Tonegawa, 
which here contracts, and rolls be- 
tween sharp rocks into the sea. 
The Temple of Kicannon, crowning 
an eminence which divides the 
town into two halves, commands 
an agreeable prospect. Choshi is 
noted for its soy, the manufacture 
of which may be seen at Tanaka 
Gemba's establishment, which 
supplies the Imperial Household. 
The chief occupation of the inhabi- 
tants is fishing. Immense quanti- 
ties of iicashi, a fish resembling the 
pilchard but smaller, are caught 
here and all along the coast. They 
are boiled in huge cauldrons to 
obtain the oil, which is used for 
lamias ; and the residue, dried in 
the Sim, is sent inland for manure. 
The odour may be better imagined 
than described. 

Visitors to this portion of the 
coast will find it pleasanter to put 
UX5 at Cape Inuhoe, 1 ri 18 cho from 
Choshi station. There is a good 
iim, the Gy5kei-kwan, situated in a 
small bay close by the lighthouse, 
and much frequented during the 
summer months. The whole coast 
called Ku-ju-ku-ri no hama, stretch- 
ing S. from Choshi, is flat, sandy, 
and uninteresting. 

Travellers desirous of seeing 
something of the large lagoons on 



218 Route 21.— The Provinces of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Bdshu. 



the lower course of the Tonegawa, 
might \arj the retm-n to Tokyo T^y 
taking steamer up the river to O- 
funatsu on the Ktta-ura lagoon, 
thence also by steamer to Tsnchi- 
nra on the Easumi lagoon, and 
home by train in 2| hrs. There is 
daily communication. 

The lagoon called Kita-ura is 6 ri loug 
from N. to S. and 1 ri wide. Kasunii-ga- 
ura is 36 ri in circuit and of a verj- 
irregular shape. Its shores are flat and 
well-wooded, and it contains sixteen 
islands, of which Ukishima on the S. E. 
side is the largest. Pearls are found in 
the vicinity. 

The poor vill. of Ofanaisu stands 
near the S. extremity of the Kita- 
ura Lagoon, 18 cJto by jinrikisha 
from the ancient temple of Ka- 
sliima, a noted i^lgrim resort. A 
broad avenue leads to the temple, 
which is surroimded by a grove of 
fine cryptomerias. 

The name Ka-shima means "Deer Is- 
land;" but the district is an island no 
longer, and the deer are extinct. The 
temple is usually said to have been 
founded in the "Age of the Gods," and 
certainly dates from the prehistoric 
epoch. The yearly festival takes place 
on the 9th March ; a greater festival once 
in thirteen vears, the last occasion having 
been the 1-3' Sept. 1906. 

A small enclosure behind con- 
tains the Kaname-isld, or " i^ivot 
stone," supposed to he a pillar 
whose foundation is at the centre 
of the earth. This, though cele- 
brated, is insignificant as a sight, 
as one sees nothing but a few 
inches of stone. 

One account is that under this spot lies 
confined the gigantic fish called namazu, 
whose contortions are the cause of earth- 
quakes, and that the stone acts as some 
restraint on the creature's movements. 
Mitsukuni, the second Daimyo of Mito, is 
said to have dug round it for six days 
without finding the lower end. 

About 1 m. from the temple is a 
stretch of moorland called Takama- 
no-hara, literally, "the Plain of High 
Heaven," where the gods are sup- 
ix)sed to have assembled in days of 
yore, and where stone arrow-heads 
may still occasionally be found. 



A canal connects the Jwo big 
lagoons. The trip from Ofunatsu 
to Tsuchlura (see p. 223) occupies 
about 6 hrs. The mountain con- 
stantly seen ahead is Tsukuba. 

2.— Through the Peninsula to 

Katsu-uea, and round the S. and 

^y. Coasts to Kominato, Noko- 

GIEI-YAMA, AND Ka.n6-ZAN. 

This makes a good winter trip 
either on foot or by jinrikisha, as 
the climate is mUd and the ac- 
commodation good. There being 
steam communication daily "wdth 
Tokyo from Katsu-ura, Amatsu, 
Hojo, and the various villages on 
the W. coast of the peninsula, 
travellers -^ashing to curtail their 
journey can do so at almost any 
X)oint. 

The first stage is by train to Chi- 
ba, whence by_ another line, — that 
running to Ohara (Inn, Katsuo- 
kwan) on the E. coast, — as far as 
Mobara. The itinerary onwards is 
as follows : — 

MOBARA to :— El Cho M. 

Chonan 2 — 5 

Odaki 3 20 8| 

Katsu-ura 5 16 Vi\ 

Kominato 3 21 8"| 

Amatsu 1 3 2.| 

Kamogawa 1 27 4| 

Emi 2 12 5i 

Wada 17 3 

Matsuda 1 18 3,f 

Shirako 15 2| 

Asahina 33 2^ 

Shirahama 2 27 5| 

Mera 1 31 4^ 

TATE YAM A 2 20 (S\ 

H6j5 13 i 

Kachiyama 1 fi 10} 

Hota 33 21- 

Kanaya 1 8 3 

Take-ga-oka 1 21 4.^ 

Tenjin^-ama (Minato) 34 2^ 

Kan5-zan 3 — 7.3 

KISARAZU 4 23 11^ 

Total 48 31 119} 



Temples of Kasamori and Kominato. 



219 



From Mobara southwards to the 
coast the road leads through numer- 
ous small valleys, cultiyated and 
well-wooded. 

Chonan [Inn, Koji-ya). The 
noted Temple of Kasamori, dedicat- 
ed to the Eleven-faced Kwannon, 
1 ri E. of this town by jinrikisha, 
is a curiosity worth turning aside 
to see. It stands among patriarchal 
pines and cryptomerias, and is 
iDuilt on a platform resting on the 
point of an irregular conical rock 
some 50 ft. in height, the edges 
being suiijwrted by stout wooden 
scaffolding. Three flights of stairs 
lead to the toj). Of the numerous 
votive offerings brought by rustic 
vorshippers, the most touching are 
suits of tiny children's dresses 
hung up in glass cases. There is a 
fair inn at the bottom of the hill 
on which the temple stands. 

The holy image here worshipped, say 
the temple i-ecorcls, was carved out of 
camphor wood by Dengyo Daishi ; and 
though the minor buildings have been 
burnt down at various times, the main 
shrine, which dates from the year 1028, 
subsists unhurt to this day,— a proof of 
the goddess's special grace. The annual 
festival is celebrated on the 17th August. 

Retracing our steps to Chonan 
(nothing is gained by attempting a 
short cut), we next reach 

Odaki [Inn, Odaki-ya), a fair- 
sized country town. On approach- 
ing the coast, the road becomes 
smooth and firm. It has been cut 
out of the low rounded hills formed 
of sea sand which characterise this 
region, while the intervening val- 
leys have been filled in and built 
up to the necessary level. The sea 
comes in sight just before reaching 

Katsu-ura [Inn, Kozen), a clean 
and thriving little seajwrt town. 
The temple-crowned hill above it 
commands an extensive view. 

The fishermen all along the coast of 
these provinces of Kazusa and Boshu 
occasionally wear gorgeous gowns ad- 
orned with stamijed coloured designs of 
the rising sun, birds, fishes, singing-girls, 
etc. These are rewards bestowed by 
their employers on the occasion of large 



catches, and are brought out on high 
days and holidays. 

Turning westwards, it is a 
pretty walk hence along the coast, 
with Cape Nojlma standing out 
clearly in the distance. Consider- 
able tunnelling through the soft 
limestone rock, and cuttings in the 
cliffs, save many U]os and downs on 
the way. The long vill. of 

Kominato ( Inn, Seikai-r o ) 
fringes the shores of a small bay. 
The western \)nxi is Kominato 
l^ro^Der, the eastern is called JJchi- 
ura, at the entrance to which stands 
a temple famous throughout Jai^an 
as the birthplace of the great Bud- 
dhist saint, Nichiren (see p. 80). 

According to some, the original site of 
the temple founded by Nichiren himself 
on the very spot which gave him birth, is 
now under a stretch of sea called Tai-no- 
ura, said to be the resort of numbers of 
tai fish, which are held sacred by the 
fishermen. Another tradition is that 
from the day of the saint's birth until he 
was seven days old, two of these fish five 
feet long used daily to appear in the pond 
in his father's garden, whence the spot, 
since covered by the waves, took its 
name of " 2'ui Bay." 

The temple raised to the memory 
of Nichiren is called Tanjoji, or the 
Temple of the Birth. The main 
temple is an un painted wooden 
building, 72 ft. square inside, erect- 
ed in 1846. The porch has some 
excellent carvings of tortoises and 
lions' heads. The birds in the 
brackets of the transverse beams 
and the dragons above are 
also good. The interior is 

simple, its only decoration being 
four large panels carved with 
dragons, and a coffered ceiling 
with the Mikado's crest painted in 
each compartment. On the altar 
stands a handsome black and gold 
shrine containing a life-like image 
of the saint, who is rei^resented as 
reading from a richly gilt scroll. 
The doors of the shrine are 
kept closed except during service, 
when they are thrown open in 
order that worshippers may gaze 
ujjon Nichiren's countenance. 



220 Route 21. — The Provinces of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Boshu. 



To the r., just inside the outer 
gate, is a small square building 
over the well which nominally 
supplied the water (tanjd-sul) used 
to wash the infant saint, — nomi- 
nally only, because the original spot 
was overwhelmed by a tidal wave 
in A.D. 1498.— The annual festi- 
val takes place on the 12th and 13th 
days of the 10th moon, old style. 

Amatsu [Inn, Abura-ya at the 
^y. end) is another very long vil- 
lage, and a better place to stay at 
than Kominato. 

A little more than 1 rl due N. 
of Amatsu, and approachable by 
jinrildsha, stands the mountain vill. 
of Kiyosumi (Inn, Yamaguchi-ya), 
1,090 ft. above the sea, celebrated 
for its temple to Kokuzo Bosatsu. 
The way leads up through x^ine- 
woods, which cover the hills as far 
as the eye can reach. The hand- 
some main shrine contains some 
good carvings of Buddhist deities. 
Its site too is remarkably beautiful, 
giant cryptomerias sheltering the 
grounds. The small eminence 
close by the temple commands a 
glorious prospect, both landward 
and seaward. The invigorating air 
and the absence of mosquitoes 
attract many Jajianese visitors 
during the summer. 

[From Kiyosumi, a direct road 
through pine-woods cuts due 
W. across the peninsula to 
Hoia, about 10 ?v".] 

Kamogawa (Imi, Yoshida-ya) 
is a place of some size. The chief 
object of interest on this part of 
the coast is Xiemon-jima, a tiny 
islet off Cape Nabuto. The road 
passes within a few rho of the 
ferry. 

During a reverse of fortune, Yoritomo 
was assisted by one Niemon, and shelter- 
ed in a cave on this islet. When he rose 
to supreme power, he granted the sole 
po.sse8sion of the islet (no wide domain 
certainly) to his benefactor, whence its 
present name. 

From here on to Emi [Tnn, 
Koike-ya) and beyond, daffodils 



and other flowers abound near the 
sea-shore, and till the air with 
their fragrance at Christmas time. 
Matsuda [Inn, Kav>'a-gishi). 

[Here there is a short cut across 
the tiny province of Boshu at 
its narrowest part to Hojo, 3 
rl 25 cho.'] 

The mineral springs of Chlgura 
Onsen, in the township of Asahina, 
offer good accommodation. 

[At Shlrahama again a road cuts 
across to Hojo, about 3 ri.'] 

On the low headland of Xojlma. 
stands a fine lighthouse, whose 
light is visible for 20 miles. During 
this part of the way Tries Island 
remains constantly in view, with its 
pillar of smoke by day and fire by 
night. The climate here is so mild 
that the village childi-en may be 
seen inlaying about almost un- 
clothed even in winter. 

Travellers not pressed for time 
might find it pleasant to stay over 
a night at the *Ydji-kican, an 
isolated inn perched on the hill- 
side rising above a pretty beach 
near the Mera lighthouse, and 
10 cho from the vill. of Mera. 
Fishing-boats jjut out in large 
numbers during the season to catch 
bonitos around Tries Island and 
the other isles of Izu. Su-no- 
sakl, lit. " sand cape," deserves its 
name, and the way round it is not 
recommended. Our inland route 
leads by a finely graded road to 

Tateyama and Hojo [Inns, 
*Kimura-ya, *Y^oshino-kwan). 
These two towns are practically 
continuous, being only separated 
by a small stream. H5j6 com- 
mands an incomparable view of 
Fuji across the sea. Nowhere else 
does the moimtain seem to rise to 
so great a height, completely dom- 
inating the Oyama and Amagi 
ranges which extend r. and 1., 
while on either hand the shores 
of the bay stretch round to form 
a fatting fi'ame for this lovely 



Nokogirl-yama. Kano-zan . 



221 



picture. The little bay of Tate- 
yama is known in Japanese as 
Kagami no ura, or " Mirror Keacli," 
and lias become a favourite bathing 
resort. 

A steamer leaves Hojo daily for 
Tokyo at about 10 A.M., calling at 
several xjlaces along the coast of 
Boshu and Kazusa, and reaches 
T61ry5 in 7 hrs. under favourable 
circumstances. Another leaves 
about noon, calling at Uraga. 

A good jinrildsha road leads 
along the coast through the towns 
of Kachiyama {Inn, Naka-jin), 
Hoia, and Motona, the two latter 
being continuous. The climb up 
Nokogiri-yama is made from 
Motona, the descent to Kanaya 
{\yoor inn), to which place the 
jinrikishas should be sent on. The 
detour is a shght one, occujDying 
only about 1^ hr. This mountain 
takes its name, which means " Saw 
Mountain," from the serrated ridge 
of peaks that follow each other in 
regular gradation, from the highest 
on the E. down to the sea-shore. 
Round the promontory thus formed, 
passes the highway to Kanaya. 
Scattered over the south side of the 
mountain are the remains of a set 
of stone images of the Five Hundred 
JRakan, many of them now head- 
less or otherwise mutilated. Be- 
sides these, there is a shrine hewn 
out of the living rock, with a stone 
effigy of the person to whose initia- 
tive the carving of the other five 
hundred images was due. The 
view from the point called 3Ii- 
harctrsJd, 850 ft. above the sea, is 
delightful. 

Tunnelling characterises this sec- 
tion of the road onwards for several 
miles. 

Tenjin-yama or Minato [Inn, 
*Suiryo-kwan). This prettily situ- 
ated place contains a few sake 
breweries and soy manufactories. 
About 1 m. off rises Myoken-yama. 
The way now ascends the valley 
of the Minato-gawa to Sakurai (not 
to be confounded with a similarly 



named vill. near Kisarazu men- 
tioned on the next page), and 
thence up the slopes ef Kano-zan, 
which have been planted with 
pine-trees in recent years. The 
vill. of _ 

Kano-zan [Lm, Marushichi), 
stands on the top of a mountain of 
the same name, which, rising to a 
height of 1,260 ft. on the borders of 
Kazusa and Bdshti, forms a con- 
spicuous object in the view across 
T6k>^o Bay. The inn faces W., and 
commands a superb prospect : — 
below, the blue waters of T5ky5 
Bay, beyond which rises Fuji ; to 
the L, the Hakone range ; to the r., 
the Oyama and Tanzawa ranges ; 
and further N. the Nikko moun- 
tains, Akagi-san, and Tsukuba. 
Even more comprehensive is the 
view from the hill just below the 
inn, used as one of the principal 
trigonometrical survey stations of 
Japan. Among the prettiest walks 
at Kano-zan is one to a waterfall, 
35 ft. in height, 1 mile from the vill. 
The volume of water is small ; 
but the basin into wiiich it falls is 
curious, having rocks on either side 
coming together hke the bows of an 
ironclad. 

A 10 min. walk, affording a view 
unique in its way, is as follows : — 
Passing through the lower street 
of Kan5-zan towards the N., we 
reach 1. a flight of 218 stone steps, 
at the top of which stands a small 
Shint5 shrine. This is the highest 
point of the mountain ; but, being 
overgrown with lofty trees, offers no 
■^w. Opposite the steps on the 
r., a short i)ath leads to the brow 
of the hill, whence there is a tine 
prospect towards the E. and N. 
The side of the mountain here 
slopes away abruptly ; and below, 
as far as the eye can reach, he low 
but sharj) ridges covered with 
brushwood, intersecting and meet- 
ing so as to form a multitude of 
tiny valleys. The view from this 
point has therefore received the 
name of Ka-ju-ku Tani, or the 
" Ninety-nine Valleys." 



222 



lioute 22. — The East Coast Bailumj. 



The descent to the foot of Kano- 
zan is about ^ hr. walk, whence 
through rural scenery to Sakurai, 
a small vill, 22 cho from the 
flourishing port of 

Kisarazu (In??, Torikai). From 
here there is daily steam com- 
munication with Tokyo (see p. 
Ill) ; also with Yokohama in about 
3 hrs. The boats leave Yokohama 
in the morning, and return the 
same afternoon. 



ROUTE 22. 



The East Coast Railway. 

{Conf. Eastern and Xorthern 
Japan Maps.) 

FROM TOKYO TO MITO, AND ALONG 
THE COAST TO TAIEA AND SENDAI. 



1 


Names 




PI g >> 






^li 


of 


Kemarka 


g^H 


Stations 






TOKYO (Ueno) 




lim. 


Nippori 




2| 


Mikawashima 




3i 


Minami Senjii 




^i 


Kita Senju 




^i 


Kameari 




H 


Kanamachi 




lOi 


Matsudo 




13i 


Mabashi 




18i 


Kashivra 




20,^ 


Abiko Jet 


For Xarita. * 


2i| 


Toride 




28i 


Fujishiro 




29^ 


Saiiuki 




32j 


Ushiku 




37 


Arakawa-Oki 


fAliglit for 


41 


Tsuchi-ura 


<Tsukuba, see 


44| 


Kandatsu 


(p. 146. 


49 


Takaham:i 


-M 


Ishioka 




58| 


Hatori 




Iwama 




62,^ 


Tomobe Jet 


For Oyaina. 


653 


Uchihara 




69| 


Akatsuka 




73 


MITO 




791 


Sawa 




821 


Ishigami 





862 


Omika 




891 


Shimo-Mago 




923 


Sukegawa 




98 1 


Kawajiri 




1024- 


Takahagi 




108' 


Isohara 




im 


8ekimoto 




115i 


Nakoso 




118 


Ueda 




1224 


Izumi 


( Koad to Shira- 


126i 


Yumoto 


< kawa on the 


1281 


Tsuzara 


( Xorthern Ey. 


131A 


TAIRA 




134^ 


Kusano 




13Tj 


Yotsiikura 




1404- 


Hisa-no-liama 




145| 


Hirono 




149i 


Kido 




155j 


Tomioka 




1611 


Ono 




16.5i 


Nagatsuka 




168i 


Namie 




1733 


Kotaka 




177 


Twaki-Ota 




1791 


Harano-maclii 




1841 


Kashima 




1921 


Nakamura 




1973 


Shinchi 




201 


Sakamoto 




2061 


Yoshida 




2091 


Watari 




2Ui 


IV/ANUMA 





This line, traversing the prov- 
inces of Shimosa, Hitachi, and 
Iwald, joins the Northern Railway 
(Eoute 69) just south of Sendai, 
and thus affords an alternative 
route for the traveller proceeding 
northwards. 

Eunning through the rice x>lains 
that surround Tokyo and Mito, it 
then passes along the narroAv strij) 
of cultivated ground bordering the 
Pacific Coast, which it closely skirts 
most of the way to Taira. Inter- 
esting ghmpses are obtained of 
some of the lagoons connected 
with the Tonegawa ; and although 
the coast line is sandy and mono- 
tonously straight, the breakers and 
occasional rocky inlets, v>dth fish- 
ing villages here and there, lend 
variety and colour. In the section 
north of Taira the Iwaki hills 
stretch in one low, unbroken hne 
on the 1. almost all the way to 
Iwanuma. The railway runs mid- 
way between the hills and the 
coast, and beyond Tomioka station 
the sea rarely comes in sight. 



Mito. Nakoso. 



223 



Diverging from the Northern 
Eailway at Tahata, the line strikes 
due E., passing through Senju, an 
extensive suburb of T5kyo. After 
crossing the Nakagav^a and Yedo- 
gawa, it turns northwards, and 
reaches the main stream of the 
Tonegawa, which is spanned by a 
long iron bridge at 

Toride {Inn, Yamaguchi-ya), a 
cleanly town on its 1. bank. The 
UshiJcu-numa, seen to the 1. beyond 
Fujishiro, is a long, narrow, and 
shallow lagooD. Tsukuha-san, with 
its twin peaks, also comes in sight 
1. before 

Tsuchi-ura {Inn, Matsu-ya). 
which stands at the W. end of 
Kasami-ga-ura (see p. 218), the 
largest of the lagoons. Small 
steamers start every morning, and 
call at the villages scattered along 
the shore. 

As the train approaches Mito, a 
number of cavities are seen on the 
1. in the high bluff on which a 
portion of the town is built. These 
galleries were hollowed out for the 
sake of the blocks used in the 
manufacture of soft-stone furnaces. 

Mito (In?zs, Mito Hotel, at sta- 
tion ; Shibata-ya, semi-Europ.), the 
principal town of the province 
of Hitachi and capital of the 
prefecture of Ibaraki, lies some 
3 ri inland from the shore of the 
Pacific Ocean, on rising ground in 
the midst of a wide plain. The 
town is in three divisions, the 
Lower Town, the Upper Town, and 
the Castle Enclosure which lies 
betv.^een the other two. The castle, 
where formerly dwelt the lords of 
Mito, is picturesquely situated on 
the crest of the high ground that 
rises from the plain. The defences 
consisted of deep trenches on the 
upi^er town side, and lofty banks — 
the edge of the hill in fact — on the 
other, with a small moat below. 
Three large gates and one tower 
still remain. It is worth while walk- 
ing round the castle and under the 
beautiful trees within the grounds. 
The large Garden, known as Tokhca 



Kden, on the W. of the upper town, 
overlooking the mere of Semba, is 
also prettily situated. 

It was laid ont some sixty years ago by 
Rekto, lord of Mito, as a retreat for 
himself after handing over the cares of 
government to his successor. See p. 79 
for the part played by this noble house 
in the modern history of Jai)an. 

A good view is obtained from the 
summer-house in the garden, where 
men of letters formerly assembled 
to write verses and practise calli- 
graphy. The staple manufactures 
of the province are cloth and paper. 
Tobacco is also made into cigarettes 
in large quantities, and a consid- 
erable export trade is carried on in 
both salt and fresh-water lish. 

The visitor with time to spare 
may run out by jinrildsha to the 
pleasant sea-side hamlet of Oara'i 
{Inn, Kimpa-ro), 3 ri. 

A short line of railway connects 
Mito with Ota, an important town 
some 14 m. to the N. 

Very httle of the town of Mito is 
visible from the train, which merely 
skirts the S. and E. suburbs. 
Leaving it, we cross the Nakagawa, 
noted for its salmon, and in f hr. 
ajjproach the Pacific Coast at Om'ika. 
kSukegaica has good inns situated 
close to the shore. The ancient 
highway will often be distinguished 
on the r. by its avenue of pine-trees. 
There are two pretty pieces of sea- 
beach on this section visible from, 
the carriage windows, — one at Iso- 
hara, where the small i:)romontory of 
Tcmpi-san, with its fine trees and 
rocks, recalls Enoshima in minia- 
ture, and another near 

Nakoso {Lin, 0-un-kaku), close 
to the boundary of the provinces of 
Hitachi and Iwald. At Nakoso also 
stood in ancient times one of the 
barriers erected by government in 
days when the object was, not to 
encourage travel, but to impede it. 
This spot was immortalised in verse 
by Minamoto-no-Yoshiie (p. 73, 
under Hachiman Tard), while on 



224 



Boute 22. — The East Coast Railway. 



his way back from conquests in tlie 
north. 

Every lover of Japanese poetry knows 
the lines by heart. They run thus : — 
Fuku kaze wo 

Nakoso no seki to 
Omoedomo 

Michi mo se ni chiru 
Yama-zakura kanal 

•which may be Englished as follows : — 

" Methought this barrier, with its gusty 
breezes, was a mere name ; but lo 1 the 
wild cherry-blossoms flutter do^Ti bo as 
to bloct the path." 

The railway leaves the sea near 
t>c7a,»to strike in amongst a maze 
of conical hills, which has neces- 
sitated much tunnelling. 1 ri 13 
dtb from Izumi lies the little x>ort 
of Ona-hama, almost the sole place 
of refuge on this inhospitable coast. 
Two miles to the N,W. of 

Yumoto {Inn, Sh5haku-r5, ^yit]l 
hot mineral baths), are the coal- 
mines of Onoda, near Yunotake 
(2,060 ft.), a conspicuous peak. 

Taira {Inn, Sumiyoshi-ya), situ- 
ated in a basin enclosed on every 
side by low hills, is the only town 
N. of Mito of any importance on 
this Hne. 

[Though the Province of Iwaki 

offers few attractions, the fol- 
lowing itinerary from Taira to 
Koriyama on the Northern 
Eailway is given for the benefit 
of such as may desire to traverse 
it. The road mostly leads N.W. 
up the course of the Katsui- 
gaica (charming in autumn with 
the maples lining its banks), 
and is practicable for jinriki- 
shas. The best stopping-places 
are Ono-Niimachi and Miltaru, 
the latter town being con- 
nected with Koriyama by tram- 
way. 

Itinerary. 
TAIEAto:— Hi Cho M. 

Uwadaira 2 2.3 ^ 

Kawamae 4 20 ll| 

Ono-Niimachi ... 4 14 10| 
Kadosawa 3 10 8^ 



Jliliaru 3 8 8 

KOKIYAMA 3 11 8 

Total 21 20 52;^] 

Between Yotsukura and Hirono 
hes the most picturesque ]X)rtion of 
this railway. Spurs of the hills 
run down to the shore ; and 
as the train emerges from the 
tunnels that have been cut through 
them, dehghtful sea views appear 
at every opening. In the vicinity 
of Hirono some coal-mining is 
carried on. Tunnelling continues 
at intervals on to Xamie, whence 
for man)'- miles low hills project in 
all directions like tiny peninsulas, 
and the intervening valleys are 
cultivated with rice. These give 
place after Hara-no-machi {Inn, 
Maru-ya), which is a fair-sized town, 
to an alternation of pine-woods and 
paddy-fields. 

Nakamura {Inn, Ise-ya). The 
hamlets of Matsukawa-ura {Inn, 
Ise-ya) and Ilaragama {Inn, Toyo- 
kwan) lie 1 ri 8 chb and 1 ri 20 cho 
respectively in the same direction 
from this station, with excellent 
sea-bathing and pretty scenery. 
Matsulcawa-ura stands on a large 
lagoon, separated from the sea 
by a long strip of sandy beach. 
Tiny islets covered with pine-trees 
dot the lagoon, whose shores are 
also hned v,'ith fine old specimens 
of the same tree. Haragama is on 
the sea-coast. These places are 
crowded Mdth visitors during the 
summer season. 

On leaving Shinchi, where we 
obtain our last peep of the sea, the 
double rows of pine-trees planted to 
screen the fields form an uniisual 
feature in the landscaj^e. Soon the 
Iwald hills draw in a little ; and on 
passing Yoshida, a rice plain stret- 
ches away to the north. The wide 
sandy bed of the Shiroishi-gawa is 
crossed just before entering the 
junction of 

Iwanuma (see Route G9). 





N 


:,^ 






- 




^ 





SECTION II. 

ROUTES CONNECTING TOKYO 
WITH KYOTO. 

(Routes 23 — 26. 



lioide 23.— The Tdkmdo. 



227 



KOUTE 23. 

The Tokaido by Eail, fkom Tokyo 
TO Kyoto and Kobe. 



FllOM OKITSU TO SHIZUOKA VIA THE 
TEMPLES OF KUNO-ZAN. WATEK- 
FALL OF YOKO. 





Najiics 




of 


Remarks 


i'-'^ 


Stations 






TOKYO (Shim- 




Miles. 


bashi) 




;3| 


8hinagawa 


• Soe lloutc 3. 


G 

10 


Omori 


Kawasaki 


12i 


Tsurumi 


16i 


Kanagawa 


17 


Hiranunui 




18 


YOKOHAMA .... 


( 8ce bottoui p. 
1 228. 


20i 


Hodogaya 




26 


Totsuka 


f C h a n g e f or 


2!)1 


OFUNA Jet 


< Kamakura & 


32.^ 


Fujisawa 


( Yokosuka. 


37 


Chigasaki 


Alight foil as- 


40] 


Hii-atsuka 


cent of Oya- 


42;; 


Oiso 


ma (p. 108). 


dC. 


Ninoniiya 


Alight for 


4!) 


KOZU 


. Miyanoshita, 
Hakone, and 




55] 


Matsuda 


Atami. 


58i 


Yamakita 




C4| 


Oyama 




71 


Gotemba 


(Alight for as- 
{ cent of Fuji. 


80J- 


yano 




83^ 


Mishinia Jet 


(Change for 
\ Shuzenji. 


8C4 


:Namazu 




9Ui- 


Kara 


Travellers 


90 


Suzukawa 


from the west 
alight for 
I Fuji. 

(Alight for 


101 1 


Iwabuchi 


{ Minobu(Rte. 
( 31). 


104] 


Kanibara 


110] 


Okitsn 


( Excursion to 
( Kuno-zan. 




113^- 


Ejiri 




120, 




SHIZUOKA 




128, 




Yaizu 




132^ 




Fujieda 




137 


Shimada 




UOi 


Kanaya 




146 




Hori-no-uclii 





1501 


Kakegawa 




156 


Fukuroi 




160 j' 


Naka-izunii 


/Travellers 
down rapids 
of Tenryu 


105 


Tenryu-gawa 


& bound E., 
■^ enter train 
here, but ex- 
press does 
V not stop. 

Tenryu travel- 


167.^ 


HAMAMATSU .. 


lers for the 
W. enter train 


174 


Maizaka 


^ here. 


179;; 


Washizu 




186 
1904 
195 a, 


Futagawa. 

Toyohashi 

Goyu 


(Branch to 
] Toyokawa. 


201 


Kamagori 




210] 


Okazaki 




215] 


An jo 




220] 


Kariya 


Branch to 


223] 


Obu 


Han da and 


227i 


Otaka 


Takctoyo. 


232] 


Atsuta 


r Change for Ise 


235] 


NAGOYA Jot.... 


\ and Kwaiisai 

( Ky. 


2374 


Biwajima 




241 1 


Tnasawa 




246 


Ichi-no-niiya . . . 


Branch to Ise. 


249^ 


Kisogawa 




254] 


GIFU 




258 


Hozuini 




263 
268 


Ogaki 

Tarui 


(Alight for 
( Yoro. 


2714 


Seki-ga-hara 


276 


Kashiwabara 




278^- 


Nagaoka 




281i 


Samegai 


f C h a u g for 
1 Nagahama & 
( Tsuruga. 


285] 


MAIBAEA Jet... 


289 


Hikoue 


292| 


Kawase 




297i 


Notogawa 




3021 


Hachiuiau 




308| 


Yasu 




313^ 


KUSATSU Jet... 


(Change for 
( Kwansai line. 


320 


Baba (OTSU) 




322 


Otani 




325] 


Yamashiua 




328] 


Inari 




330 


KYOTO 




334 


Mukoitiachi 




338 :^ 


Y'^amazaki 




3434 


Takatsuki 




347| 


Ibaraki 




352 


Suita 




3563' 


OSAKA 




3614 
366 


Kanzaki Jet 

Nishi-no-miya 


(Branch to 
\ Maizuru. 


371] 
376 


Sumiyoshi 
San-no-miya 


1 See caution at 
{ end of Route. 


377] 


KOBE 





228 



Pioule 23.— The Tokaidd. 



The word Tokaidd signifies "Ejietern 
f^ea Road." The name was given to this 
road at an early date on account of its 
running along the sea-shore in an easter- 
ly direction from Kyoto, which, being 
the old historic capital, was naturally 
regarded as the starting-point. From the 
17th century onwards, the Tokaido was 
traversed twice yearly by Daimyos coming 
with gorgeous retinues to pay their re- 
spects to the Shogun at Yedo ; and all 
the chief towns, here as on the other great 
highways of the empire, were provided 
with Jionjin— that is, specially fine hos- 
telries — for their lordships to sleep at. 
The greater portion of the beautiful 
avenue of pine-trees with which the road 
was lined still exists, and can be seen 
occasionally from, the windows of the 
railway carriage. The road itself is now 
comparatively deserted. "But what a 
scene it used to present ! How crowded 
with pedestrians; with norimons (the 
palanquins of the upper crust), and at- 
tendants ; with cangoes (the modest bam- 
boo conveyance of the humble classes) ; 
with pack-horses, conveying merchandise 
of all kinds to and from the capital or 
to the busy towns and villages along the 
route; with the trains of Daimyos or 
of lesser gentry entitled to travel vv'ith a 
retinue ; and with the commonalty, men, 
women and children, on foot, all with 
their dresses turned up for facility of 
movement, and for the most part taking 
the journey pretty easily; frequently 
stopping at the numberless tea-houses or 
)-esting sheds by the way, and refresh- 
ing themselves with the simple little 
oup of weak green tea, and a cheery chat 
with whomsoever might stop like them- 
selves to rest. It used to seem that dis- 
tance was no consideration with them. 
They could go on all day, and day 
after day, if only they were allowed 
(which they generally were) to take their 
own time and pace. The value of time 
never entered into their thoughts. . . 

The numerous trains of armed men pass- 
ing in both directions were the most 
striking feature of the scene. Never could 
one go out of one's house in any direc- 
tion, but these two-sworded men were 
met with ; but on the Tokaido, and in the 
streets of Yedo, they appeared to be more 
numerous than the common people : and 
it must be understood that at this time of 
which I am speaking, the crowds on por- 
lions of the road and in all the principal 
thoroughfares of the capital, were as great 
as in the most crowded thoroughfares of 
London. It took one forcibly back to the 
feudal times in Europe, when no noble or 
landed proprietor thought of going aln-oad 
unattended by his armed dependants. 
Added to this, there was a certain air of 
antiquity that imparted its chai-m to the 
pcene. The old Dutch writers described 
the road long ago, and it Avas even in their 



day, precisely as it was in ours. A good, 
well macadamised causeway, (except that 
the hard stratum was of pebbles, not of 
broken stones), pa.ssing through numerous 
populous villages, only divided from each 
other by short intervals, where fine old 
trees on both sides of the road were the 
sole division between the road and the 
paddy fields. The etiqiiette of the road 
was well and rigidly defined. When the 
trains of two princes met, it was incum- 
bent on the lesser of them — (measured by 
his income as recognised by the Govern- 
ment, and published in the oflicial list), 
to dismount from his norimon, if he 
happened to be riding in one, and draw 
with his followers to the side of the road 
whilst the other passed. Whenever it was 
possible, therefore, such meetings were 
avoided." * 

The railway was begun in 1872, and 
finished as a single line in 1839. The 
process of doubling it is still incomidetc. 
The journey from Tokyo to Kyoto, which 
formerly was an aflfair of 12 or 13 days on 
foot, is nov.^ reduced by express to 12 hours. 

Travellers with time on liund are 
advised to break the journey at 
Kozu, in order to visit Miyanoshita 
and Hakoiie (Rie. 6) ; at Okits^ii, in 
order to visit Kuno-zan on the way 
between that station and Shiznoka ; 
at SJdzuoka itself, and at Xagoya. 
Of these places, three, viz. Miyano- 
shita, Shizuoka, and Nagoya, have 
hotels in European style. Those who 
are hurried may console themselves 
for missing these interesting places 
by the knowledge that the scenery 
through "which they are to pass af- 
fords many charms, including su- 
perb views of Fuji. The least in- 
teresting iX)rtion of the hne is that 
between Shizuoka and Nagoya, a 
4 hours' run Avhich may with 
comparatively little disadvantage be 
done after dark, as most of it 
passes through flat country devoted 
to the cultivation of rice. 

The first half-hour of the jour- 
ney,— that between Tokyo and Yoko- 
hama,— having been already describ- 
ed in Pioute 3, calls for no further 
remark. Some trains run into Yoko- 
hama station to pick up passengers 
for the west, and run out again 
for a few min. over the same ground, 

* This description is quoted from 
Black's Young Japan, Vol. I., p. 163, ei seq. 



From Ofana to Golemla. 



229 



Hoon (liverging to the 1. Othei-s arc I 
run along a loop, and omitting the 
chief station of Yokohama, toiich 
only at Hiranuma. a snbnrb 2 miles 

to the N. At 

Ofuna Junction, a short branch 
line takes travellers to the famous 
Daibntsu at Kamakura (see pp. 
101-3). 

Fujisawa {Innfi, Inage-ya ; 
Wakamatsu-ya at station). The 
spacious temple of Yiigyo-dera, 8 chd 
from the station, is known far and 
wide for the wonderful ix)wers of 
healing, etc., ascribed to its suc- 
cessive abbots. The established 
custom is for the abbot to spend all 
his time in pious journeyings, and 
return to Fujisawa only at the 
approach of death. Fujisawa 
is the nearest station for the 
sacred island of Enoshlnia (see 
]). 105). After passing Fujisawa, 
the Hakone range, behind which 
towers the cone of Fuji, begins to 
come in sight r. Soon afterwards, 
the line crosses the broad, stony 
1 )ed of the Kiver Banyfi, \vhich rises 
in Lake Yamanaka on the N.E. 
Hank of Fuji. At 

Hiratsuka stands r. an Explo- 
sives Factory belonging to Messrs. 
Armstrong, covering ground 5 m. 
in circumference. 

Oiso {Ian, *Toryo-kv.'an ; Earop. 
resff. Miyoshi-ya) is a fashionable 
bathing resort. The coast from here 
onwards is well- protected from 
winter winds, an advantage to which 
the groves of orange-trees covering 
the surrounding slopes bear \\'itness. 

Oiso, though apparently so insignifi- 
cant a place, boasts considerable anti- 
quity. Mention of it occurs in the story 
of the 8oga Brethren's Revenge, in the 
12th century (see p. 84). Of recent years, 
it has again assumed a sort of imiior- 
tance. Here the leaders of the Japanese 
political world have their villas, where 
those informal meetings are held which 
foreshadow the creation or ovei'throv,- of 
coteries and Cabinets. 

At Kozu [Lin, Kozu-kwan), the 
line turns inland up the valley of 
the Sakawa-gawa, in order to avoid 



the Hakone mountains. The sce- 
nery now becomes hilly, with to the 
1. the chief peaks of the Hakone 
range, — Futago-yama (the " Twin 
Mountain," so-called from its 
double round summit), ]\Iyojin-ga- 
take, Kamiyama, and Kintoki-zan 
(tooth-shaped). An extra engine is 
X)ut on at 
Yamakita 

[From this station it is a pictur- 
esque, but easy, walk of a httle 
under 1 m. to a waterfall some 
200 ft. high, called Hirayama 
no Tak'i, The Sakawa-gawa 
here abounds with trout, which 
are brought to the station for 
sale in the form of rice sand- 
wiches [susJd).'] 
to help the train up to Grotemba, 
the highest point on the line, — 1,500 
ft. above sea-level. After Yamakita 
the scenery becomes wilder, and 
there is a rapid succession of tun- 
nels and bridges. The extensive 
buildings on the r. at Oyama station 
(not Jo be mistaken for jthe mount- 
ain OjT.ma, with a long O) belong to 
a cotton spinnery. Eeaching 

Gotemba {Inn, Fuji-ya at sta- 
tion ; the old vill. is 12 cho distant), 
the passenger finds himself in the 
broad and fertile plain surrounding 
Fuji's base,— a plain whose soil 
indeed has been formed by the 
outpourings of the great volcano 
during coimtless ages. Noth- 
ing here interrupts the view 
from base to summit. The long- 
ridged wooded mountain im- 
mediately to the 1. of Fuji is 
Ashltaka (see p. 171). The range 
to the spectator's 1. from the car- 
riage window is the Hakone range, 
the lowest point of which seen fi'om 
here is the Otome-toge leading over 
to Miyanosiiita. 

Gotemba (literally, "Palace Site") de- 
rives its name from having been the seat 
of the hunting-lodge of the great Shogun 
Yoritomo, when he came from his capital 
at Kamakura to hunt in the neighbour- 
hood of Fuji. The Fuji no maki-gari, as 
these royal hunting parties were called, 
are often represented in art, especially on 



230 



Bovte 23.— The Tdkoido. 



screens ; aud various localities in the 
Hnrrouncling country-side have names 
connecting them with incidents real or 
imaginary of the chase. 

Seven miles S. of Gotemba, at the 
hamlet of Kbyama, stands a lepers' 
home, condncted by the French 
Catholic fathers. 

At Sano, there is a semi-Enrop. 
Hotel close to the pretty waterfall 
[Sano no tali), 12 cho from the sta- 
tion by jinrildsha. Kei-ga-shima 
17 cho beyond the falls, is another 
l)ictnresqiie s^wt, remarkable for its 
curious rocks. 

The trareller still has Fuji and 
Ashitaka to his r., the other mount- 
ains from r. to 1. being Amagi-san 
in Izu, Yahazu-yama (a small peak), 
Higane-san, the Hakone range, and 
in front — isolated as if let drop 
independently into the i^lain — 
Kanold-yama. The railway turns 
west, and rejoins the old Tdkaido at 

Numazu {Inns, Sugimoto, Kikyo- 
ya), a considerable town. Most 
persons, rather than stay at Numa- 
zu itself, prefer to go on 25 min. 
by jinrikisha to a sea-side inn at 
Ushibuse. The Crown Prince fre- 
quently resides at a villa 1 rl out 
of Numazu. It is about 

Suzukawa {Inns, Suzuki -ya, at 
station ; Besso, near the sea) that 
the nearest and most j)erfect view 
of Fuji is obtained. Nowhere else 
does the " Peerless Mountain " so 
absolutely dominate its surround- 
ings ; the red chff a little over half- 
Avay up on the r. flank is Hoei-zan 
(see p. 1G3). The beauty of the 
stretch of shore from here to the 
mouth of the Fujikawa, called Tago- 
no-ura, has been sung by a hundred 
Japanese poets. The Fujikawa is 
noted for its rapids (Rte. 31). 
From 

Iwabuchi {Inn, Tani-ya, at sta- 
tion) to Oldtsu is very beautiful, 
the space between the sea and a 
r.auge of hills to the r. becoming so 
narrow as barely to leave room for 
the railway to skirt the shore. In 
the neighbourhood of 



Kambara {Inn, Tani-ya), fields 
of sugar-cane will be observed. 

The cultivation of the small but hardy 
Chinese variety of the sugar cane {Saccha- 
rum siyiense) is carried on with fair success 
in the warmer provinces of Japan, such as 
Mikawa, Owari, Kishu, Southern Shiko- 
ku, and Ratsuma. Being unable to with- 
stand the frosts of winter, it is planted 
out in March or April, and harvested not 
later than November. The cane, which is 
used for planting is buried in a drj' place 
to preserve it from the cold. In spring it 
is cut into i)ieces, which are planted out 
in the usual way. 

Okitsii {Inns, Tokai Hotel, semi- 
Europ. ; Minakuchi-ya) has good 
sea bathing and a lovely view of the 
Bay of Suruga, the large mountain- 
ous peninsula of Izu, and to the r. 
the point of land called Mio-7iO' 
Jfatsubara, celebrated ahke in x>o- 
etry and art. It is covered with 
pine-trees, is low and sandy, hence 
more pleasant to look at than to 
wall? on. Still further to the r. lie 
the Kuno-zan hills, with the white 
Httle seajxjrt town of Shimizu 
nesthng at their base. 

At Mio-no-Matsubara is laid the scene 
of Ha-goromo, or " The Robe of Feathers," 
one of the prettiest and most fanciful of 
the Japanese Lyric Dramas (Xb no Utal). 
A fisherman, landing on this strand, finds 
a robe of feathers hanging to a pine-tree, 
and is about to carry it oft" as treasure- 
trove, when a beautiful fairy suddenly 
appears and implores him to restore it to 
her, for that it is hers, and without it 
she cannot fly home to the Moon, where 
she is one of the attendants on the thirty 
monarchs who rule that sjjhere. At first 
the fisherman refuses to grant her re- 
quest. He only does so when, after many 
tears and agonies of despair, she pro- 
mises to dance for him one of the dances 
known only to the immortals. Draped 
in her feathery robe, she dances beneath 
the pine-trees on the beach, while celes- 
tial music and an unearthly fragi-ance 
fill the air. At last her wings are caught 
by the breeze, and she soars heavenward 
past Mount Ashitaka, past Fuji, till she 
is lost to view. There is still a small 
shrine on Mio-no-Matsubara dedicated to 
this fairy, where a relic of her robe is 
shown. 

The Temple of Seikenjl or Klyoml- 
dera at Okitsu, belonging to the 
Zen sect of Buddhists, merits a 
visit, partly for the sake of the 



Ki 



uno-zan. 



231 



view, partly for the temple itself 
and the temple grounds, which 
even the railway, though it cuts 
through them, has not entirely 
spoilt. The very plain altar in a 
small shrine near the Hondo — a 
large hall paved vidth tiles — contains 
funeral tablets of all the Shoguns 
of the Tolaigawa dynasty. The 
Apartments, built in 1865 for the nae 
of the Shogun lemochi, afford a 
good example of Japanese domestic 
architecture. Two stone praying- 
wheels will be observed in the 
grounds ; likewise some 300 stone 
images of llakan (p. 51). The 
creeping plum-trees in front of 
the temjDle are said to have been 
planted by leyasu's own hand. 

[A detour of G or 7 hrs. to Kuno- 
zan will afford the traveller a 
real multum inparvo, — si)lendid 
views, several temples, nearer 
acquaintance with Japanese 
town and country hfe off the 
beaten track. — The plan is to 
leave Yokohama by the first 
train, alight at Okitsu, and 
thence go by jinrildsha with 
two men, rejoining the railway 
at Shizuoka, where sleep. The 
temple of Seikenjl, described 
above, is first visited ; thence 
through Ejiri, one of those 
smaller Tokaido towns which 
the railway has paralysed, and 
Skimizu, a neat bustling seaport 
town. Then the way strikes 
inland to Tesshiiji, two small 
temples, one at the base, the 
other on the top of a low hill 
called Fudaraku-san. The view 
from the upper one, dedicated 
to Kwannon, is panoramic, re- 
calling a painting by Claude. 
At the beholder's feet stretches 
a green carpet of rice-fields, 
Avith the town of Shimizu and 
the curious square enclosures in 
the adjacent sea, used as fish- 
preserves to supply the needs 
of the inhabitants in stormy 
weather. The two promon- 
tories to the 1. are the Satta- 



toge and the point near Kam- 
bara, beyond which come Fuji, 
Ashitaka, and the Hakone 
range. The peninsula of 
Izu extends the whole way 
round from 1. to r., Hke a 
gigantic scythe, forming the 
Gulf of Suruga, while much 
closer and smaller, making a 
bay within a bay, stretches the 
pine-clad promontory of Mio- 
no-Matsubara, which is from 
here seen to divide at the tip 
into three ix)ints like claws. 
Near Tesshiiji stands another 
temple called liyugeji, noted 
for its sotetsu [Gijcas revoluta) 
and prickly pears, — the latter 
a great rarity in Jai3an ; but 
the view, though fine, is not 
comparable to that from Tes- 
shiiji. 

The way now leads back to 
the sea and along the sandy 
shore, lined with salt-jians, to 
the hamlet of Nekoya {Inn, 
Ishibashi), at the foot of Kuno- 
zan, one of a range of hills 
barely 900 ft. high, but 
fortress-like in steepness. This 
was the first burial-place of the 
great Shogun leyasu, and the 
shrine here erected in his 
honour was the original of 
which those at Nikk5 are but 
a more elaborate development. 
Travellers who are unable to 
go to Nikko, can therefore 
obtain an idea of what the 
Nikko temples are like by vis- 
iting Kun5-zan. 

According to some, leyasu's body 
still lies here, only a single hair or 
other minute portion having been 
transported to Nikko (1617). — All the 
temple buildings are being elabo- 
i-ately restored, — the carvings re- 
painted, the gates relacquered ; and 
as a necessary precaution, the reno- 
vated works of art are covered with 
plain wooden slabs, which are re- 
moved only on great festivals. But 
the guide will lift up some to show 
what is behind. The restoration is 
to be completed for the third cente- 
nary of leyasu's death. The festivals 
are held on the 17th day of the first 



232 



Boide 2S.— The Tdkmdo. 



moon (old style), on the 17tli April 
and 17th October. 

A Buddhist temple had stood on 
this site from time immemorial, 
but was pulled down by Takeda 
.Shingen (see p. 81) and a castle built 
instead. When Teyasu lay dying at 
Shizuoka in 1616, he ordered the 
castle to be razed and the ground 
again devoted to religious purposes. 

The ascent to the temples is 
by 1036 steps forming a zigzag 
path cut in the living rock. 
The tea-house will supply one 
guide ; another — a priest — ap- 
plied for at the Shamusho, or 
temple oface, near the top on 
the 1. A fee of 20 sen is 
charged ; but most persons 
give 35 or 50, and are presented 
on leaving \vitli some small 
memento. The view over the 
sea is glorious, especially from 
a venerable gnarled pine-tree 
called mono-mi no matsu. The 
headlands seen hence are 
T6me-no-saki, Wada-no-mi- 
saki, and Omae-zaki. The v/ell 
on the r. of the path at this 
level is said to be 108 ft. deep, 
and to have been dug by a six- 
teenth century warrior, Yama- 
mato Kansuke, the lame and 
one-eyed retainer of Take- 
da Shingen. The temples, 
though "purified" to a 
certain extent by the pro- 
Shinto party forty years ago, 
retain their Buddhist orna- 
mentation. The wooden effigy 
of a sacred horse 1. is by Hidari 
Jingord. Up a flight of steps 
hence, we come r. to the drum- 
tower, and 1. to the site of the 
five-storied pagoda, which was 
removed by the " purifiers " as 
savouring too much of Bud- 
dhism. Above these again, are 
r. the kagura stage, the 
treasure-house or " godown," 
containing arms and armour 
of each Tokugawa Shdgun in 
fine preservation, and a build- 
ing formerly dedicated to the 
Buddhist god Yakushi, and now 
to the Shinto god Oyamagui-no- 



Mikoto ; while 1. is the building 
where the sacred offerings are 
prepared. The Oratory proper 
{Go-Haiden) is painted red on 
the outside, black and gold 
within. The square fence [0 
Tamagaki) surrounding it has 
lovely painted carvings and the 
gate in the middle of each side 
is beautifully ornamented. 
Bound the interior hang 
pictures of the Thirty-six Po- 
etical Geniuses, and there is an 
elaborate bordering of phoe- 
nixes and chrysanthemums, 
besides gilt coffered ceilings. 
The arrangement of the Holy 
of Holies is similar to that at 
Mkko (see p. 199) ; unfortu- 
nately the nile against admis- 
sion to view it is absolute. A 
final flight of steps behind the 
oratory leads up to the stone 
tomb, which is an octagonal 
monolith. On leaving Kuno- 
zan, the road first follows the 
sea-shore, and then turns in- 
land, reaching Shizuoka in 
about 1 hr.] 

Between Okitsu and Ejlri, there 
is a view of Mio-no-Matsubara. 
After leaving Ejiri, the line turns 
inland to avoid the Kuno-zan hills. 

Sh.iz\ioka {Hotels, Daito-lrfS'a n, 
Europ. style ; Kiyo-kwan) is the 
capital of the prefecture of the same 
name, and of the province of 
Suruga. It is clean and airy, and 
noted for its manufactures of cheap 
lacquer-ware, delicate basket-work 
in curious and beautiful shapes, 
and fine bamboo plaiting iised to 
cover egg-shell porcelain cux^s, 
which are brought from the prov- 
ince of Mino. The tea produced at 
Ashikubo, a vill. 2 ri distant, ranks 
second only to that of Uji. In fact, 
the heights in all this district, and 
on to Fujieda, are covered with the 
low, thick tea-bush. 

Historically, Shizuoka, is remarkable 
chiefly aa the place where leyasu chose 
to spend the evening of his life in learned 
leisure, leaving his son Hidetada to carry 



Shizuol^a. 



233 



nn the government at Yetlo. Here for 
the first time many of the tr easurcB of 
Japanese literature, which had hitherto 
existed only in mannscript. were put 
into print. Shizuoka was, until 1897, the 
place of retirement of the ex-fthogun 
Keiki, who lived there in seclusion as a 
private gentleman. He now, in his old 
age, occupies a high position at Court in 
Tokyo. The castle enclosure is utilised 
for the garrison. The liveliest days at 
Hhizuoka are the lst-5th April, when 
festival cars in honour of the goddess 
Hengen parade the town. 

An afternoon is enough for the 
sights of Shizuoka, which consist of 
three fine temples, — Rinzaiji, Sen- 
gen, and Hodai-in. All that re- 
mains of the castle are the decay- 
ing walls and the moats. AYithin 
its enclosure stand the Prefecture 
and numerous other ugly official 
buildings. Just outside, in Ote- 
machi, is an elegant villa erected 
for the Emperor in 1901. 

It is a pretty drive of 8 clw from 
the city to the Buddhist temple of 
Binzaiji, which stands at the foot of 
a wooded hill, part of which has 
been turned into a landscape gar- 
den. It belongs to the Zen sect, 
and is noted for its connection with 
leyasu. The little room of only 4J 
mats {yo-jo-han), where he learnt 
to write, is shown, as are several 
scrolls, screens, pieces of lacquer 
and porcelain, etc., presented by 
him to the temple in his old age. 
There is also a number of kakemonos 
y>j Kano Masanobu, Chin Nampin, 
and other old masters. In the 
Hondo is a painted statue of Ima- 
gawa Yoshimoto, younger brother 
to Ujiteru, founder of the temi^le. 
Another painted statue represents 
the second abbot. The Honzon is 
Amida, a black image with a gold 
background. In a side shrine is 
preserved the wooden image of 
Mari-shiten, which leyasu — who, for 
all his political and mihtary genius, 
was not free from the superstitions 
of his tim.e — used constantly to 
carry about with him as a charm. 
The visitor will also be shown a 
gilt revolving bookcase, shaped 
like a pagoda and containing a 



complete set of the edition of 
the Buddhist scriptures, printed 
for the first time with movable 
type in 1888. The 1st and 2nd 
October are the great festiA^al days 
at Rinzaiji. 

The Temple of Bengen, which 
stands at the N. Umit of the town, 
was erected_under the superinten- 
dence of Okubo Hikozaemon, a 
personage famous in Japanese his- 
tory as the minister and confidant 
of the Shogun lemitsu. Though 
chiefly dedicated to the worship of 
Kono - hana - saku - ya - hime, alias 
Sengen, the Shinto goddess 
of Mount Fuji, it is constructed 
in the most ornate Buddhistic 
style and decorated with excellent 
wood carvings. The interior of the 
oratory proper {go haiden no obiro- 
ma) is a hall 63 ft. by 33 ft., with 
large sohd pillars of keyaki lacquer- 
ed red, two of which form at the 
same time the corner pillars of the 
upper storey. The two central 
compartments of the ceihng are 
painted with dragons, — one called 
the Shi-ho no Byd, or "Dragon of 
the Four Quarters," because, what- 
ever point of the compass it be 
viewed from, it seems to glare 
down directly at the spectator ; the 
other, Hap-po no Byd, or " Dragon 
of the Eight Quarters," because its 
glance is directed to every point of 
the circle. The former of these is 
by Yusen Hogan, the latter by 
Kano Motonobu. Eight other com- 
partments contain pictures of 
angels playing on musical instru- 
ments, also by painters of the Kano 
school. Two broad flights of steps 
behind the oratory lead up to a 
building containing two shrines, 
one_ sacred to Sengen, the other 
to Onamuji. The two shrines are 
connected by a room in which a 
nightly v\'atch was formerly kept 
by retainers of the Tokugawa 
family. Do not fail to notice the 
carvings on the gates leading to 
these twin shrines. One set re- 
presents a lioness with her cub, 
and on a second panel her royal 



234 



Boute 23.— The Tokaklo. 



mate, — both surrounded by f)eonies, 
the king of flowers, as the lion is 
the king of beasts. Another set 
represents hawks with pine-trees. 
Round the shrine itself are cars'ings 
of the pine-tree, bamboo, and plum- 
blossom by Hidari Jingoro. 

Near the main quadrangle is a 
smaller building called Sosha, 
formerly dedicated to Marishi-ten 
and now to the Shintd god Yachi- 
hoko. It is the newest of all the 
buildings, and the decorations 
are therefore in better repair. 
In the curved roof of the porch is 
a fine phcenix cut out of a single 
block of wood ; and all round, 
above the architrave, runs a series 
of delicate little groups representing 
the Twenty-four Paragons of FiUal 
Piety. Some Dutch pictures and 
relics of Yamada Nagamasa, a 17th 
century adventurer, are j)reserved 
inside. 

Escaping from Japan as a stowaway 
on Tjoarcl a mercliant vessel bound for 
Formosa, he obtained a passage thence in 
a foreign ship to Siam. That country 
being then at war with a neighbouring 
State, Jsagamasa laid before the King a 
sj'stera of military organization and tac- 
tics, for which he received an appoint- 
ment as general in the army. With the 
belt) of a number of other Japanese 
adventurers, he defeated the enemy 
in a bloody engagement, took their King 
prisoner and carried him back to Siam. 
The Siamese monarch, in recognition 
of these exploits, bestowed on him his 
daughter in marriage, together with a 
dukedom. He ultimately became Regent, 
a,s well as commander-in-chief of the 
Siamese forces. On the King's demise, 
however. Court intrigues brought his 
career to a close by poison in 1633. 

Beyond the Marishi-ten temple, 
a flight of 105 stone steps leads up 
to the OJcu-no-in, which affords a 
good view of the town. 

Hodai-in, in the town, a spacious 
temple, is the burial-place of the 
^nfe of leyasu. Besides several 
interesting objects of an earlier 
date, there is here a set of coloured 
statuettes (all portraits) of 95 soldiers 
of the Shizuoka x^ref ecture who fell 
in the China war of 1891-5, together 
with hospital nurses and Chinamen, 



— the whole producing a comical 
effect which was far from the inten- 
tion of the patriotic artist. Other 
figures in the garden, made of 
cement, represent cavalry-men. 

The best exciu-sion from Shizu- 
oka is that by jinrikisha to EJuno- 
mn (3 ri) ; see pp. 231-2. 

From Shizuoka to Nagoya, a 
distance of 115 miles, the line for 
the most part ceases to skirt the 
sea, and runs over a flat country 
\\dth low hills on one or both sides, 
or else among rice-fields. Spurs of 
the central range forming the back- 
bone of the country are, however, 
often seen away to the r. Just 
outside Shizuoka we cross the Abe- 
kawa close to its mouth, and obtain 
a pretty ghmpse of the sea, ^^dth 
the small promontory of Kuno-zan 
and the large peninsula of Izu, 
before entering two long tun- 
nels. The Oigai'-a is crossed 
after passing the station of Shimada. 
Like all the rivers on this coast, 
the Oigawa has a bed out of 
proportion to the small volume of 
water that generally flows down 
it, the bed being nearly a mile 
broad, while the actual stream is 
not more than some 50 yds., except 
in flood-time. 

_ In pre-railway days, the passage of the 
Oigawa was one of the most exciting por- 
tions of the journey along the Tokaido. 
No ferry-boats could be used on account 
of the swiftness of the current, and trav- 
ellers were carried across on small hand- 
platforms called rendai. The naked 
coolies who bore these aloft always cho.se 
the deepest parts of the stream, in order 
to impress their fares with a sense of the 
peril of the undertaking, and thus obtain 
the largest possible gratuity. This inci- 
dent of old-fashioned travel is pourtrayed 
in almost eveiy set of coloured prints 
representing the "Fifty-three Stages of 
the Tokaido" (I'okaido Go-Ju-san Tmr/i). 

Kakeg-awa {Inn, Fuji-ya) manu- 
factures kuzu-ori, a sort of linen 
cloth woven from grass. 

[The Temple of Akiha lies 
12 ri inland, of which the first 
6 ri 7 cho as far as the vill. of 
Mlkura are practicable for jin- 



From Hamamatsu to Atsuta. 



235 



rikislias. The visitor may eon- 
veniently sleep at Sakashita 
some 4^ ri furtlier on, at the 
base of the mountain on which 
the temple stands. The ascent 
is locally computed at 50 cJio. 

The temple of Akiha enjoj's a wide 
reputation for sanctity, and is visit- 
ed annually by crowds of pilgrims. 
Unfortunately all the beautiful Bud- 
dhist buildings in which Kwannon 
and other deities had for centuries 
been invoked, were destroyed by 
lire on the occasion of the great 
yearly festival in 1875, and the pre- 
sent temx)le was afterwards erected 
in the bare, iminteresting style of 
•'Pure Shinto." It has been dedi- 
cated to Kagutsuchi-no-Mikoto, who 
is regarded by some as the God of 
Fire, but is more correctly exi^lained 
as the God of Summer Heat.] 

Before reaching Hamamatsu, the 
line crosses the Tenryu-gawa, 
whose celebrated Bapids form the 
subject of Route 34. Tlie Tenryu 
is the first of the three great rivers 
from which the province of Mikawa, 
here traversed by the railway, 
takes its name. The other two are 
tlie Ogawa (also called Oya-gawa or 
Ohira-gawa) on this side of the 
station of Okazaki, and the Yahagi- 
gawa just beyond it. 

Naka-izumi {Inn, Yuai-kwan, 
at station). 

Hamamatsu [Inns, *Ogome-ya, 
'•Tlana-ya, at station) is the only 
l>lace between Shizuoka and Nagoya 
v/here the journey can be broken 
with any comfort. The town de- 
rives a peculiar appearance from 
the use of long projecting eaves, 
vrhich cause the houses to look as 
if about to tumble forward into the 
street. Just beyond 

Maisaka {Inn, Hamano-kwan), 
we reach a large lagoon {Umnana no 
Mizu-umi), which is crossed near its 
mouth on a long series of dykes 
and bridges, whence the breakers 
of the Pacific can be seen. On the 
other side, stretches far away the 
deeply indented shore-line clad 
with pine-trees. The boats sailing 
over the smooth water, and the 
mountains rising range beyond 



range in the background, combine 
to form a delightful picture. 

Though called a lake in Japane.se, this 
lagoon has now a narrow entrance about 
600 yds. across, formed in the year 1499, 
when an earthquake broke down the 
sand-spit that had previously separated 
the fresh water from the sea. The prov- 
ince of Totomi derives its name_ from 
this lake, which was called Totomi, a 
corruption of To-tsu-aiva-umi, "the dis- 
tant foaming eea," in contradistinction 
to Lake Biwa, named CMka-tsu-awa-umi, 
" the near foaming sea.'l which gave its 
name to the province of Omi. 

After passing Futagaurt, a tine 
bronze image of Kwannon, dating 
from the year 1765, is seen perched 
r. on a pinnacle of rock. It is called 
Iimya no Kwannon, and formerly 
possessed eyes of pure gold, but 
only one remains. 

Toyohashi {Inn, Kojima) is bet- 
ter known in history and pictorial 
art under its old name of Yoshida. 

[In the town of Toyokawa {Inn, 
Olcada-ya, at station) 5 m. dis- 
tant from Toyohashi by a 
branch line, stands a Temple of 
Inari, celebrated, but dull ex- 
cept on festival days, namely, 
the 22nd of each month. The 
annual festival is held on the 
21st— 22nd October.] 

At Goyu, the line again touches 
the shore. 

Kam.agori {Inn, Kempeki-kwan), 
standing on a i)icturesque bay ^\4th 
islets and the peninsulas of Chita 
and Atsumi beyond, is resorted to in 
summer by students for sea-bathing 
and boating. The mountains of 
the provinces of Shima, Ise, and 
Iga now come in sight. After Oka- 
zaki, {Inn, Kagi-ya), noted in history 
as the birthplace of the great Sho- 
gun leyasu, comes a dull bit, flat 
and with rice-fields on either hand, 
or sand-hillocks and pine scrub ; 
but from Otaka the line range 
separating the provinces of Ise and 
Omi rises ahead, and is kept in 
view all the way to 

Atsuta {Inn, Ise-ky\i, on the 
shore), which is practically a sTiburb 



236 



Boiite 2d.— The Tolaido. 



of Nagoya. It possesses a fine sot 
of Shinto temples, from which it 
derives its alternative name of Miya. 
These temples, originally founded 
in A.D. 686, were restored in 1893 
in "Pure Shinto" style, after the 
jattern of the temples of Ise. As at 
Ise itself, no one is allowed to go in- 
side. Notice the splendid camphor- 
trees in the grounds. 

The gods worshipped at Atsuta are the 
Sun-Goddess Ama-teraeu, her brother 
Susa-no-o, Prince Yamato-take, the 
latter's wife Miyazii-hime, and her 
brother Taie-ino-tane. But the ob- 
ject most venerated, — indeed, the 
raison d'etre of the temples and cou- 
sequently of the town,— is the famous 
sword called Kvsa-nagi no Tsiirugi, one 
of the three antique objects which form 
the Imperial regalia of Japan, the other 
two being a mirror and a jewel. This 
sword (so legend goes) was found by Susa- 
no-o in the tail of an eight-headed ser- 
pent, which he intoxicated with sake and 
then slew. Ea^-ing been brought down 
from heaven many centuries later by the 
first ancestor of the Mikados. it came 
into the possession of Yamato-take, and 
assisted that prince in the conquest of 
F.astern Japan. This treasure is never 
shown, but a great festival is held in its 
honour on the 21st June. The complete 
legend of the sword Kusa-nagi will be 
found in the Kojiki (Trans, of the Asiatic 
Soc. of Japan, Vol. X., Supplement, Sect 
X\TII., LXXXII.. and LXXXIII.). At 
some little distance from the chief 
temple stands another dedicated to a 
scarcely less sacred sword called Ya- 
fmrugi. The legend concerning it is kept 
as an esoteric secret. 

On leaving Atsuta, we pass r. a 
large government arsenal. 

Nagoya (Nagoya Hotel, Europ. 
style ; Yamada-ya). 

This flourishing commercial city, the 
largest on the Tokaido, capital of the 
province of Owari and of the prefecture 
of Aichi, was formerly the seat of the 
Daimyo of Owari, a family closely 
allied to that of the Tokugawa Shoguns, 
the founder of the house of Owari having 
been a son of leyasu. Their fief was 
rated at 550,000 kuku of rice, and the Owa- 
ri's ranked as one of the " Three August 
ramilies" (Go san-ke), entitled to furnish 
a successor to the Shogun's throne in 
default of an heir. Their castle, which is 
still one of the wonders of Japan, was 
erected in 1610 by twenty great feudal 
lords, to serve as the residence of leyasu's 
son. Like other Japanese castles, it is a 



I wooden building standing on cycloi:>ean 

i walls. The roofs of the keep are all cop- 

i pered, and its massive gates are cased 

I with iron. The castle walls are 18 ft. 

I thick. Curiously enough, this stronghold 

; has never seen war. In the early years 

; of the present regime it was handed over 

I to the Military Department; and the 

; beautiful decorations of the Daimyo's 

I dwelling apartments sufiered, as did so 

i miach else in Japan, from the almost 

i incredible vandalism and vulgar stu- 

I pidity of that period, — common soldiers, 

; or officers as ignorant aa they, being 

i allowed to deface the priceless wall- 

i paintings of a Tan-yu, a Motonobu, and 

j a Matahei. This desecration la now 
happily put an end to, though much 

; irreparable damage was done. The 

i castle has been taken over by the Im- 

j perial Household Department, to be 
preserved aa a monument of historic 
interest. The two golden dolphins (kin 

I no shaclu-hoko), which can be seen glitter- 

j ing all over the city from the top of the 

I five storied donjon (tenshv), were made in 

i 1610 at the cost of the celebrated general, 

! Kato Kiyomasa, who also built the keep. 

I The eye.s are of silver. One of the dol- 

i phins was sent to the Vienna Exhibition 

j of 1873, and on its waj* back was wrecked 

I in the Messageries Maritimes steamer 

j "Nil." Having been recovered with 

I great difficulty, it was restored to its 

j original position. The golden dolphins 

! measure 8 ft. 8 in. in height, and are 

I valued at £ 36,000 sterling. 

I Nagoya is noted for its manufac- 
ture of jxDrcelain and cloisonne. 
The principal dealers are : 

Porcelain. — Tashiro-ya (factory 
shown, cloisonne on ix)reelain a 
s-peciiiltj). 

Cloisonne. — Ando, Hayashi, Ka- 
waguchi, Kumeno (specialty of 
cloisonne on silver base), and 
others. 

Curios. — Naka-rin, Asahi. 

It may be worth sx)ending a day 
at Nagoya to see a flourishing pro- 
vincial town. Though the Castle 
is now inaccessible except liy 
special permit obtainable through 
the foreign embassies, all may in- 
si)ect the Higashi Hongwanji 
temi^le, — the Museum, and the 
minor temples mentioned below. 
The geisha dancing at Nagoya is a 
specialt3^ 

The Castle {Rikyu).— The space 
between the inner and outer moats, 
now containing extensive barracks 



Nagoya. 



237 



aud parade-gromids, was formerly 
occupied by the Daimyo's mansion 
and by quarters for his retainers, 
offices civil and military, etc. All 
this arrangement and the wreck 
of the garden are well seen from 
the top of the castle. Passing 
into the inner enclosure over a 
moat nov/ allowed to remain 
dry, the traveller is first shown 
through the Apartments, which 
present a beautiful specimen of 
aristocratic decoration. Tlie slid- 
ing screens between the rooms, 
the alcoves, and the vs'ooden doors 
separating the difEerent sets of 
Apartments are all adorned with 
l)aintings of flowers, birds, etc., 
chiefly by artists of the Jiiino school, 
viz.. No. 1, tigers and bamboos by 
Kano Teishin ; sleeping tiger by 
Mitsunobu, specially admired, and 
wooden doors by Eitoku ; No. 2, 
peach-blossom and mu.sk-cats by 
Mitsuoki ; No. 3, large trees, cherry- 
blossom, and pheasants by the same. 
These rooms were reserved for the 
use of the Shogun, when he came to 
visit the Daimyo, his kinsman. 
Obser^-e the beautiful metal-work, 
also the difference of height between 
the inner and outer rooms, — the 
former {jodan) being for the Shogun 
himself, the latter {yedan) for those 
inferior persons who were graci- 
ously admitted to an audience. No. 
4 is the reception hall, adorned by 
Iwasa Matahei with dehneations 
of street life at Osaka and Kyoto, 
in the most comical vein. The 
ceiling is lacquered. A neighbouring 
apartment with carvings by Hidari 
Jingoro, screens by Tan-yu, etc., is 
never shown, because appropriated 
to the Emperor's use. Leaving these 
apartments, one comes to a much 
humbler suite, and is then led 
through the smaller two-storied, 
into the five-storied, donjon or 
keep, a gloomy building, all of 
stone without, but furnished with 
wooden staircases within. The well 
at the bottom is called Ogon-sui, 
or " the Golden Water," because 
gold was thrown into it to improve 



its quality. The fifth storey com- 
mands an extensive view, — the town 
of course, the sea, the vast pLain of 
Owari and Mino laid out in rice- 
fields, and, bounding the horizon, 
the mountains of Ise, Iga, Omi, 
Echizen, Hida, Shinshu, and To- 
tomi. — No fee is accepted by the 
custodian of the Castle. 
Higashi Hongwanji. 

This splendid Buddhist temijle, where 
exterior and interior are both equally 
grand, dates in its actual shape froili 
the beginning of the 19th century. In 
mediasval times a fortress occupied its 
site, whence the castle-like walls that still 
surround the enclosure. 

The magnificent two-storied 
double-roofed gate-house has three 
portals decorated with floral ara- 
besques in relief on the lintel and 
ix)sts ; and the gates have scrolls and 
ox>en-v,'ork diapers, with sohd bronze 
jjlates binding the frame-work to- 
gether, the whole in charming style 
recalhng Itiilian Renaissance work. 
On the further side of a spacious 
court rises the lofty temple, which 
looks two-storied, — an effect pro- 
duced by the exterior colonnade 
having a roof lower than that of 
the main structure. The interior 
measures 120 ft. in length by 108 
ft. in depth, and is divided longi- 
tudinally into three parts, that in 
front being for the use of ordinary 
worshippers, the centre for the con- 
gregation on special occasions, and 
the innermost being the naijin, or 
chancel. This latter is divided into 
three compartments, the central 
one being occupied iDy the shumi- 
dan, a platform on which stands a 
handsome gilt shrine holding an 
image of Amida about 4 ft. high. 
Both the shumi-dan and the table 
in front are enriched with small 
painted carvings that produce a 
glorious effect. Left of the chief 
shrine is a smaller one, with a por- 
trait of the founder of the sect. 
taken from the effigy in the metro- 
ix)litan temple at Ky5to. In the 
ramma along the front of the 7VMJin 
are gilt open-work carvings of 



238 



Houte 2'^.— The Tokaido. 



angels, with gilt carvings of the 
ixjacock and phoenix in the kaeru- 
mata above. The heavy beams 
of the ceihng are supported by- 
excellent carvings of lotns-flowers 
and leaves. In some of the kaeru- 
mata over these beams are spirit- 
ed carvings of conventional Hons. 
The ceiling itself is impainted, 
and divided into coffers about 3 ft. 
square. The compartments r. and 
1. of the altar have gilt coppered 
ceilings. In the kaera-mata of the 
external colonnade are well-con- 
ceived groups of Chinese genii, each 
Mith his attendant animal. The 
series is continued round the sides 
by the crane, the Hon, and 
the flying dragon. The building 
to the r. is a large reception hall 
( Taimenjo), used by the Lord Abbot 
on great occasions. As usual in 
Hongwanji temples, there is another 
building called the Jikl-do, 
connected with the main building 
\)j a gallery resembling a bridge. 
Though much less elaborate than 
the main altar, the altar of the 
JiM-do is yet a fine blaze of gold. 
E. and 1, of the central image of 
Amida, are some charming gold 
sliding screens representing moun- 
tain scenery. The Abbot's Apart- 
ments contain several kakemonos 
and other works of art, which 
are, however, generally stowed 
away in a godowu. In front of the 
main gate is an avenue of drooping 
cherry-trees, — a pretty sight in 
April. The odd-looking row of 
buildings jjarallel to the avenue is 
a set of lodgings where worshippers 
from the country are housed. 

Go-liyaku itakan (properly 
Dairyiiji). Though this ugly little 
temple on the N. E. limit of the 
city is nothing in itself, it weU 
deserves a visit for the sake of the 
gallery behind (ai:>plication to the 
custodian necessary), where are 
kept five hundred images of Bud- 
dha's chief disciples, mostly about 
2 ft. high, all brightly painted, and 
all different. Some are smiling, 
some are solemn, some are fierce, 



some stuxDid-looking, some have a 
supercilious air, some an air of 
smug seK-satisfaction, some few 
are Ijdng down, others are praying, 
others again have their arms ex- 
tended in the attitude of benedic- 
tion, one has three eyes, one holds 
a tiger-cub in his arms, one with a 
gold halo bestrides a peacock with 
outstretched wings, others ride on 
horses, elephants, phoenixes, and so 
on, almost ad infinitum. No wonder 
the Japanese say that among the 
Five Hundred Eakan, every spec- 
tator can find the likeness of his 
own father by dint of a little 
searching. 

The images are said to date from the 
beginning of the 18th century. A keen 
eye wiJl detect among the jnass some 
much better carved than the rest. They 
are chocolate-coloured, and stand a good 
way on in the collection, — one of them 
recumbent, a second leaning on his hand, 
a third clasping his knee, etc. These are 
genuinely by Tametaka, an artist to 
whom the whole collection is incorrectly 
attributed. This sculptor is best-known 
as a carver of netsuJce. His spirited, life- 
like figures tell out among the grotesque- 
ness of the rest. 

The remaining temples of Nagoya 
are much inferior in interest. 
Eikokuji, the 2\ishi Uongiranji, Osa 
Eicannon, (many raree-shows), and 
Xanatsu-dera, may be mentioned. 
Another, called Kaku-b-den, is being 
erected in the suburb of TsiiMmi- 
zaka to enshrine one of Buddha's 
bones presented in 1902 to the Em- 
peror of Japan by the King of Siam. 
A great religioiis procession is 
held yearly on the 15-l7th days of 
the 4th moon, old style (some time 
in May), when each of the twelve 
principal wards of the city fur- 
nishes a car illustrating some sub- 
ject, historical or legendary. Ano- 
ther interesting festival is the Feast 
of Lanterns, held on the 13th-14th 
days of the 6th moon, old style, 
when the whole town is illuminatefl. 

Nagoya, like most other large 
towns, jx)ssesses a number of new, 
uninteresting buildings in the style 
or no style known in the Japan of 



G{fu. Waterfall of Yoro. 



239 



to-day as "foreign." tSuch are the 
Prefecture and Local Assembly Hall, 
opposite which stands a monument, 
shaped like a fuse, dedicated to the 
memory of deceased soldiers. The 
pepper-caster top of the Nagoya 
Hotel looms above the rest as a 
convenient beacon. 

[Two excursions from Nagoya 
may be recommended : — 1. 
To Atsuta, .]- hr., where visit 
the temples (see p. 236), whence 
l>y boat along the head of 
Owari Bay for fishing and 
pretty sea views. — 2. To the 
potterks of >Seto, and to the Bud- 
ilhist temple of Kokei-zan, for 
which see jip. 247-8.] 

From Nagoya on to Kusatsu the 
railway line deserts the old Tokai- 
do, and though called the Tokaido 
llailway, really follows the Naka- 
sendo. Quitting Nagoya, the train 
M'ends on through more and ever 
more rice fields, with blue moun- 
tains far ahead, somewhat to the 1. 
They are the mountains dividing 
the provinces of Owari and Mino 
from those of Omi and Ise. Four- 
teen miles out of Nagoya, the line 
crosses the Kisogawa, the river 
Mdiose upper course forms so beau- 
tiful a portion of the Nalvasendo, 
(see p. 243), and which is pictur- 
esque even here near its mouth. 

Gifu {Inns, *Tamai-ya, Tsii-no- 
kuni-ya, both 12 cho from station) 
is an important i)lace, and capital 
of the prefecture of the same name, 
which includes the two provinces 
of Mino and Hida. A conical hill 
named Kinkica-zan, N. E. of the 
town, was the site of a castle built 
by the great warrior Oda Nobunaga. 
The view hence of Ontake and the 
Shinshti Koma-ga-take, with the 
Hida range, well repays the climb. 
The traveller will also be taken to 
Inaha-yama, near the centre of the 
town, where stands a Shint5 shrine. 

Raw Bilk and the silk of the wild silk- 
worm (yama-mai) are produced in large 
quantities in the neighbourhood, most of 
it being woven into crape. In thie the 



glittering threads of the wild silk, which 
takes the dyes in a less degree than that 
of the ordinary silkworm, are introduced 
to form the pattern. The mon-chirimen 
woven in this manner is a favourite 
fabric. Gifu ia also noted for its paper- 
lanterns and other pajier wares, the 
Mino-gami being universally prized. 

In the summer-time a night may 
be spent at Gifu, to see a curious 
method of fishing with the help of 
cormorants (u-kal) on the Eiver 
Nagara. House-boats may be 
engaged for this purpose ; b^^t the 
fishermen do not go out on moon- 
light nights. The traveller is 
referred for a full description to the 
article entitled " Cormorant-fishing" 
in Things Japanese. A pretty 
festival called Kaim Maisuri is held 
on the river on the 16th day of the 
6th^ moon, old style. — On nearing 

Ogaki {Inns, Kyomaru-ya, at 
station ; Tama-ya), the castle of 
the former Daimyo, with one turret 
remaining, is seen 1. of the line. 
Far away to the r., Haku-san rears 
its head over a nearer range. 

[Not to the hurried tourist, but to 
the leisurely lover of Old Japan 
and her ways, a day or two at 
Yoro, in this neighbourhood, 
may he recommended. _The 
best plan is to ahght at Ogaki 
station, there take a jinrikisha 
over the plain through the vill. 
of Takada (2|- ri) to Ishibata 
(10 cho more), and thence walk 
the last J ri to Yoro, which 
stands on the flank of a 
mountain ridge of the same 
name. One may return either 
the way one came, or else to 
Tana station, about the same 
distance, or to Seki-ga-haraj 
(poor inns at both), nearly 1 ri 
longer. Seki-ga-hara is the best 
station from which to approach 
Yoro, when coming from Kyoto. 
The raison d'etre of the Uttle 
village of Yoro {Inns, *Iiiku- 
sui-ro, Murakami), of the gar- 
dens, and of the Kairaku-sha, 
club-house is the celebrated 
Avaterfall called Yoro-ga-taki. 



240 



Boute 2S.—The Tokaido. 



This nauie, which may be translat- 
ed as "the Cascade of Filial Piety," ia 
explained by the following legend. 
In A. D. 717 there lived a wood-cut- 
ter 6o filial in his conduct that he 
was wont to expend the proceeds 
of his toil on sake for his aged 
father, whose gi'eat passion was 
strong drink. As a reward for such 
exemplary piety, there was one day 
revealed to him the existence of 
this cascade, which consists (or at 
least consisted at that time) of pure 
and excellent sake. The legend 
forms a favourite art motive. 



Both the Kilnisui-ro inn and 
the Kairakusha ckib command 
lovely views of the broad sweep 
of the Mino plain, with Ontake, 
Ena-san, and other mountains 
beyond. Charming, too, are the 
thoroughly Japanese arrange- 
ment of the park, and the 
walk up to the waterfall 
through 5 chb of cherry and ma- 
ple-trees. The fall itself, which 
is 105 ft. high, is embosomed 
in maple-trees. The rock on 
either side contains fossil 
ferns, known as sldnobu-seki. 
Yoro is a cool place in sum- 
mer. In winter the Shimo-ike, 
n large mere a little over 1 ri 
to the S. E., swarms with wild- 
geese, duck, etc., v\-hich are 
taken by means of nets, and at 
all seasons with eels, carp, and 
perch, which help to supply the 
Kyoto fish-market. ITie dis- 
tance to the summit of Ydro- 
yama is locally estimated at 
2 ri. An extensive view 
rewards the climber. — ^^^lile 
in this neighbourhood, one 
might visit the marble quarries 
of Akasaka-yama, 1 ri 10 cho 
from Ogaki in the direction of 
Tarui, and the celebrated 
temple of Tani<jumi-dera, some 
7 ri to the N. of Tarui by 
a jinrildsha road. This temple 
is the thirty-third and last of 
the Places Sacred to the God- 
dess Kwannon (see Ptte. 41), 
and here accordingly the pil- 
grims deposite their pilgrim 
shirts (oizuni). It can scarcely 



be recommended except on 
festival days, viz. the 17th July 
v.'hich is the yearly festival, 
and the 18th of all the other 
months.] 

Seki-ga-hara {Inn, Masu-ya). 

Seki-ga-hara takes its name, which 
means literally 'Oroor of the Barrier," 
from the barrier of Fuwa {Fuiva no seki) 
established at this spot in A. D. 673 by the 
Emperor Temmu, it having been a Japa- 
nese custom from the earliest period 
down to the beginning of the present 
reign to hamper free communication 
throughout the country by means of 
barriers near the capital, which none 
might pass without a special permit. 
Doubtless the original object was to 
guard against incursions of the barbari- 
ans of the East and North. Seki-ga-hara 
is celebrated in Japanese history as the 
scene of a decisive victory gained by 
leyasu in the year 1600 over the partisans 
of Hideyori, infant son of the great 
Hideyoshi. 

Here the journey across the pLain 
terminates, and the Tokaido Rail- 
way again enters diversified sce- 
nery, as it plunges among the hills 
that enclose beautiful La.ke Biwa. 

Between Seki-ga-hara and Naga- 
oka {Inn, Mitsuke-ya) the gradient 
is steej), the line being led up a 
narrow valley opening out on a 
small plain devoted to the cultiva- 
tion of the mulberry-tree. 

[The tall bare mountain frequent- 
ly seen looming up to the r. 
during this portion of the joiir- 
ney is Ibuki-yama (about 4,300 
ft.), one of the " Seven High 
Mountains" of Central Japan, 
and noted for its wealth of 
medicinal plants. It may best 
be ascended from Nagaoka, 
M'hence about 3 hrs. to the 
summit, which commands a 
splendid vieM'. The slope is 
grassy and in parts steep. 

The " Seven High Mountains " are 
Hiei-zan near Kyoto, Hirayama in 
Omi, Ibuki-yama, Kimpu-zau (or 
Omine) near Yoshino, Atago-yama in 
Yamashiro, Tonomine, and Kazura- 
ki-yama.] 



From Maibara to Kobe. 



241 



Passing among pine-clad bills, 
we reach 

Maibara {Inn, Izutsii-ya at 
station), whence all the way on to 
Baba, the_ station for the important 
town of Otsii, the line runs along 
the basin of Lake Biwa, though 
unfortunately not near enough 
to the shore to allow of many 
glimpses of the lake being ob- 
tained. The whole scenery is, 
however, pretty, — and jjretty in a 
way of its own. Quite close, to 
the 1., is the range of hills forming 
the southern rim of the Lake Biwa 
basin ; far away to the r., in the dim 
distance, are the blue mountains 
enclosing the lake on the N., while 
immediately on either side of the 
line is a fair, cultivated plain. At 

Hikone {Inn, *Kaku-raku-en), 
the former Daimyd's castle is seen 
r. on a wooded hill. For the fish- 
traps to be observed in the lake, 
see the small type near the begin- 
ning of Route 39. Three rivers are 
crossed before reaching Notogawa. 
The cone of Mikami-yama, also 
called Mukade-yama, shaped like 
Fuji but thickly wooded, begins to 
peep up from behind a nearer 
range of hills before arriving at 

Kusatsu {Inn, Uo-sei). A few 
inin. later, the most strildng view 
on the whole Tokaido W. of Shizu- 
oka is obtained on crossing the 
Setagawa, where the lake opens out 
and the celebrated " long bridge " 
{Seta no Naga-hashi) is seen to the 
1. up stream. From 

Baba or Otsu -{Inn, Hakkei- 
kwan, semi-Europ.), the line passes 
through a tunnel under Osaka- 
yama (nothing to do with the city 
of Osaka), before running into the 
small station of Otani, where it 
emerges on a narrow valley. The 
hills are covered with that thick 
growth of pine-trees characteristic 
of all the country round about 
Kydto. 

[For further details concerning 
the portion of the Tokaido 



Route lying between Maibara 
and Otani, see Route 39.] 

The train then passes through 
the stations of Yamashina and 
Inari. Over 11,000 pilgrims alight 
at this latter j^lace on the occasion 
of the yearly festival of the great 
Shinto temple of Inari, for which 
see Route 38. The train then 
enters the old capital, 

Kyoto, after which it crosses a 
wide plain, and passes through 
several minor stations before reach- 
ing the great commercial city of 

Osaka. From here onwards, the 
hills in the distance to the r. begin 
to draw in, the broad fruitful plain 
rapidly contracts until it becomes 
a mere strip fringing the sea-shore, 
and at the station of 

KTishi-no-miya there begins 
to rise r. the screen of somewhat 
barren hills that help to give K5be 
its good climate by protecting that 
I3art of the coast from wintry 
blasts. The high land seen in the 
distance across the water is not, as 
might be su])posed, an island, but 
a portion of the province of Izumi. 
At Nishi-no-miya stands a small 
but famous Temple of Ehisu, one of 
the Seven Gods of Luck, to which 
crowds of worshippers flock on the 
1st Day of the Horse {Ilatsu-uma) 
of the 1st moon, old style,— general- 
ly some day in February. This 
district is one of the chief centres 
of the sake manufacture. The three 
tunnels here passed through are 
remarkable, as going under river- 
beds. Owing to the proximity of 
the mountains to the sea, quantities 
of sand and stones are swej)t down 
whenever the streams are swollen 
by rain. As a consequence of this, 
the river-beds tend constantly to 
raise themselves more and more 
above the general level of the 
country, which they traverse like 
dykes. Occasionally a dyke breaks 
down, and then ensues an inunda- 
tion with attendant loss of hfe and 
property. Soon after passing 
through Sumiyoshi, — an insignifi- 



242 



Route 24. — Tlie Nakasendo. 



cant place not to be confounded 
^\•ith the weU-known Sumiyoshi 
near Siikai, — the train runs in to 

San-no-miya, and the long 
journey is at an end, San-no-miya 
being the station for the former 
foreign settlement of Kobe. To go 
on one station further, to Avhat is 
officially called 

Kobe, Avonld carry the traveller 
l>ast his destination into the Japa- 
nese town. It must therefore be 
distinctly borne in mind that, if 
bound for Kobe, one must book 
only as far as San-no-miya. For 
K5be and Neighbourhood, sec 
Eoute 36. 



KOUTE 24. 



The Nakasendo 

Itinerary of the Kakasendo from 
Gifu to Oya 

GIFU to :— Bi Cho M. 

Unimia 4 31 11| 

Ota 2 10 5.i 

Mitake 3 4 7^^ 

Shizuki 2 — 5" 

Hambara 2 11 5| 

Kamado ] ^ 2.5 If 

Oi r| 2 31 7 

Nakatsu-gawa ) "^ 2 31 7 

Ochiai 1 7 3 

Azuma 4 5 10 

Mdono 1 28 41- 

Nojiri 2 11 5| 

Suwara 1 29 4^ 

Agematsu 3 7 7| 

FUKUSHBIA 2 11 5| 

Mi3^a-no-koshi 2 11 5f 

Yabuhara 1 35 4| 

Narai 1 12 3} 

Niegawa 1 29 4| 

Motoyama 2 — 5 

Seba 28 2 

Shiojiri 1 28 4\ 



SHIM0-8U^VA(Eail) 2 

AVadjx 5 

Nagakubo (Shim- 

machi) 2 

Nagakubo (Furu- 

machi) 

Kami-Mariko 2 

OYA 2 

Total 6G 



30 


7 


22 


13=^ 


1 


5 


19 


n 


25 


a 


— 


5 



101 



The i\''al-ase7ido, or "Central Mountain 
Eoad," is so named in contradistinction 
to the ToJcaido or " Eastern Sea Eoad," 
and the comparatively unimportant Hnku- 
roku-do, or " Northern Land Soad" in Ka- 
ga and Etchii, between Avhich it occuijies 
a middle position. It runs from Kyoto to 
Tokyo, passing through the provinces of 
Yamashiro, Omi, Mino, fehinshu, Kotsube, 
and Musashi. The road seems to have 
been originally constructed early in the 
8th century. Legendary history states, 
however, that in the reign of the Emperor 
Keiko (A. D. 71-130), his son. Prince 
Yamato-take, crossed over the Usui Pass 
during his conquest of Eastern Japan, 
suggesting the likelihood of a track 
having existed there from the earliest 
times. 

Though, properly speaking, the 
Nakasendo runs the -^'hole \vay 
from Kj^dto to Toky^o, the portion 
between Gifu and Karuizawa (or 
Oya, which is ofl: the road proper) 
is the only one now to be done 
by road, the so-called Tokaidc 
Railway having usurped the place 
of the Nakasendo between Kyoto 
and Gifu, and the final section 
across the Tokyo plain being also 
traversed by rail. Oya, on the 
Karuizawa-Naoetsu Eailv>'ay (Route 
27), is generally adopted as the 
terminal point of the journey, 
M'hich takes 5 days. Travellers 
may find it advantageous to engage 
jinrikishas at Gifu for the through 
journey. At the other end it is 
more difficult to make such an 
arrangement. There are a fe-\\- 
steep hills M^hcre extra coolies must 
be hired. Those who intend 
j)artly to wallv and partly to ride, 
are advised to engage vehicles for 
the first flat section as far as 
Mitake, take train from Kamado to 
Nakatsu-gawa, whence ride to 



From Gifa to the Ogres lioclcs. 



243 



Azuma-Lasbi, and at intervals to 
the foot of the Torii-toge, train from 
Shiojiri to Shimo-Suwa, and jinriki- 
shas again either from "NVada or 
Nagakubo into Oya station. 

The Nalvasendo trip may be 
shortened by half a day, and yet 
the most picturesque portion re- 
tained, by starting from Nagoya 
and taking train to Xakatsu-gaica 
(Ete. 25). At Shiojiri, likemse, time 
may be saved by availing oneself 
of either of two picturesque railway 
lines, — N. to Shinonoi (Rte. 29), or 
S.E. to K5fu (Rte. 31). The best time 
for travelling along the Nakasendo 
is the summer or autumn. The 
jizaleas and wistarias flower beauti- 
fully on some of the passes in early 
June. Between December and 
Ajjril this route cannot be recom- 
mended, on account of- the sno\A', 
especially on the passes. 

On leaving Gifu (see p. 239), a 
flat country, a good road, hills to 
the 1., many villages, rice-fields at 
first, and then a pleasant moorland 
partly wooded, — such is the impres- 
sion left by the first stage of the 
journey. Shortly after passing 
Kano, a suburb of Gifu, the Tdkaido 
Railway line is crossed. Just before 
reaching 

Unuma {Inn, Oshima-ya), we 
see r., a couple of miles off, the 
keep of the castle of Naruse, 
lord of Inagi, in fair preservation, 
crowning a wooded hill behind the 
rice-fields. Soon after, we get our 
first sight of the river which is to 
be our companion for several 
days, — the Kiso-gawa, — already 
picturesque even thus far down its 
course, with dark boulders and reefs 
of rock that make navigation 
dangerous. 

"" The Kiso-gawa ranks as one of the San- 
dai-ka, or Three Great Rivers of Jai^an, 
the 'other two being the Tonegawa and 
the Shinano-gawa ; but the Kiso-gawa is 
incomparably the most beautiful. Rising 
near the Torii-toge in the province of 
.Shinshu, it runs for a length of 135 miles, 
and after forming an intricate delta 
which is subject to destructive floods, falls 
into the Bay of Owari. The Nakasendo 



i.s often called by the alternative name of 
Kiso-Kaido, or Kiso-ji, that is, the " Road 
along the Kiso." 

Beyond Ota {Inn, Isogai), the 
Kiso-gawa is crossed by ferry to 
Ima-watarl, — one of the few ferries 
remaining on the beaten tracks. 
The stream is singularly clear and 
pure. A gradual ascent leads over 
a rather dull bit of country to 

Mitake {Inns, *Masu-ya, Ebi-ya). 
Some small caves {hito-ana) in this 
neighbourhood are popularly believ- 
ed to have been the abode of the 
prehistoric Emperor Keiko Tenno. 
There are two hundred of them, all 
facing S. in the sandstone rock. 

The traveller should turn aside 
at Shizuki to visit the Oni-iica, or 
" Ogre's Rocks," engaging a local 
guide. This detour occupies about 
f hr., and the jinrikishas and lug- 
gage can be rejoined at the top of 
the Gara-ishi-tocje, 

Seven centuries ago — so runs the 
legend — there lived an ogre called 
Seki-no-Taro, who made his dwell- 
ing among these gloomy rocks. Year 
after year, at the great festival of Mitake 
on the 10th day of the second moon, 
some beautiful maiden disappeared and 
was no more heard of, because she had 
been carried off and devoured ; but the 
monster could not be caught. So the wise 
men of the place devised a plan: — on 
the next festival every one was to have a 
mark painted on his forehead as he 
entered the precincts, without which he 
should not be suffered to leave again at 
night. Accordingly, when all the rest had 
departed, one man alone remained, ill- 
favoured and of great stature, but lacking 
the appointed sign. So they cut off his 
head, whereupon both head and body 
instantly became too heavy to move, and 
had to be buried on the spot. From that 
time forth the festival was never stained 
with blood ; and the grave, called Kuhi- 
zuka, is still visited by persons afflicted 
with any trouble in the head. In the 
weird gorge where the ogre held his 
revels, the country-folk still point out 
the rock from which the maidens were 
hurled (Hito-sute-iwa), the Slicing Board 
(Mana-ita), the Chopsticks {Sai-bashi), and 
others many. 

Coming to the Gara-ishi-toge, we 
find the hills dotted with scattered 
boulders and scrub pine. From 
the top of the pass, but a good deal 



244 



Boutc 24..— The Naka.^endo. 



off the roiid ou opposite sides of it, 
may be reacliecl two places called 
TsukUjoshi and Ulijoslu, the former 
rich in fossil shells, some of 
which have been removed and en- 
shrined in a temple at the latter. 

Local legend avers that some of tliese 
fossils fell from the moon, others from 
the sun, whence the names of the two 
hamlets. 

The Hamhara-tbge is crossed be- 
fore reaching Kamado [Inn, Ise-ya). 
Ontake now comes in view ahead 
to the 1., while Ena-san is seen to 
the r. (for these two celebrated 
mountains, see Ete. 30). The 
peasantry in the district stretching 
eastward use an odd kind of spade, 
heavy and two-handled. The 
diggers stand opposite each other, 
one delving, the other using the 
second handle to assist in raising 
the blade for the next blow. 
Another local peculiarity consists 
in the rows of bird-cages under the 
eaves of most of the houses in the 
villages passed through. Each cage 
contains one tsurjwne, a kind of 
thrush, used as a decoy. AMien not 
in season, — which is autumn and 
spring, — they are kept preserved in 
yeast [koji-zuke), and are eaten 
slightly roasted. 

[The section of the Nakasendd 
from Mitake to Oi is a com- 
paratively new road (shlmld) ; 
the old road {kyftdo) to the N. of 
it, passing through _the villages 
of Hosokute and Okufe, leads 
over the Bivm-toge and a 
succession of hills known as 
the Ju-san-ioge, or "Thirteen 
Passes," all low.] 

Nakatsu-gawa {fnn, *nashi- 
riki), generally called Xakatsa for 
short, lies close to the base of Ena- 
san, and is the best starting-point 
for the ascent of that mountain. 
Here, as at other towns further on, 
the traveller will be waked early 
by the shriek of the silk factory 
whistle. The 1 ri on hence to Ochiai 
is a succession of ups and downs. 



The little town itself lies in a hol- 
low by the side of an affluent of the 
liiso-gawa, v.-hich river we now 
rejoin and follow for two days 
along the most beautiful part of its 
course, by a good jinrikisha road. 

[The old road over the Jik-koku- 
toge, via Magome and Tsumago 
[inn, Matsushiro-ya), though 1 
ri shorter, is now rarely taken 
by any but the postman. It 
rejoins the new road at the 
hamlet of Azuma.] 

Soon we pass out of Mino into 
the more varied and mountainous 
province of Shinshu, and the river 
scenery becomes more and more 
picturesque, with great overhang- 
ing masses of rock and little 
tril)utary waterfalls, before reach- 
ing the hamlet of Azuma-hashi, 
(Inn, Yorozu-ya), where a consider- 
able afiiuent, the Araragi-gawa, 
falls in r. 

[A good road over the Odaira-toge, 
commanding fine views, di- 
verges hero to lUla for the 
rapids of the Tenryu-gawa, de- 
scribed in Kte. 34.] 

Between Mldono {Inn, Ina-ya) 
a rather poor place, and Nojiri 
[Inn, Kido-ya) is the narrowest jaart 
of the valle3^ The hills get more 
pointed and more feathery-looking 
with their splendid timber, except 
in the too numerous places where 
deforestation has left its ruthless 
trace. 

At some times and in some places, there 
really seems to be more wood in the 
river than water, 80,000 trees being sent 
annually down stream, not in rafts but 
singly, each stamped with its owner's 
mark. The trees most esteemed are 
hinoki and sawaj-a. Several tracts apper- 
tain to the Imperial domain, while others 
now belong to the peasants. In former 
days, when all the woods of Kiso were 
owned by the Daimyo of Owari, stringent 
forestry laws were enforced ; and where- 
as ordinary trees might be hewn down at 
will, the two species above-mentioned 
and also keyalci, nezii, and asuhi, might 
not have so much as a twig broken off, 
and armed foresters were placed to shoot 



Timher-fellmcj. Sincara to Agemalsu. 



245 



all poachers dead. Any i^easant found in 
possession of a utensil made of one of the 
forbidden kinds of wood was arrested. 
In case of his having purchased anj^ such 
from a neighbouring province, it was in- 
(;umbent on him to inform the authori- 
ties of his own locality, who verified the 
transaction and branded the article in 
question with the official stamp. This 
paternal despotism had at least the cftect 
of bequeathing splendid forests to poster- 
ity. Immense havoc was done during 
the turmoil which ushered in the new 
regime, and only since about 1890 has 
serious attention again been turned to 
forest preservation. The Imperial do- 
main is believed to be now economically 
managed, but the peasants continue to 
waste their newly acquired source of 
wealth. The timber is felled in late 
fspring and summer, and floated down 
stream in autumn and winter. A large 
number of men find employment as 
wood-cutters, others are stationed along 
the stream with bill-hooks to push oft' 
stranded logs. At a place called Nishikori 
in Mino, hawsers are stretched across the 
stream to prevent the logs from floating 
further. There they are sorted and 
identified by government officials, and 
afterwards bound by their respective 
owners into rafts, most of which are 
navigated down to Kuwana in the pro- 
vince of Ise. 

We cross the Inagawa, an affluent 
of the Kisogawa, which flows down 
from Koma-ga-take, before rejoin- 
ing the main river and entering 
the town of 

Suwara {Inn, *Sakura-ya). This 
lies in a more open part of the 
valley, where much silk is produced. 
The mountains again draw in, and 
the road becomes more hilly. 
About 2 ri on is the cascade of Ono, 
not very remarkable. Koma-ga- 
take, of which only peeps have 
been obtained hitherto, is seen 
excellently on entering the hamlet 
of Nemme. In shape it exactly re- 
sembles a saddle, two sharp little 
knobs in the middle making its 
resemblance to that Instrument of 
torture, a Japanese saddle, only 
the more realistic. Native travel- 
lers always stop at this hamlet to 
see the Nezame no Toko, or "Bed 
of Awakening." 

This curious name is derived from a 
local tradition which avers that Ura- 
shima, the Japanese Kip Van Winkle (see 



p. S.'), awoke on this spot from his long 
dream. Others, more matter-of-fact, ex- 
plain the name to mean that the view 
"wakes up," that is, startles those who 
come upon it. 

Without going the whole way 
down to the river, one can obtain a 
good view of the rocky platform 
from the grounds of the poor temple 
of lilnsenjl, where it appears far 
below the spectator. There is the 
rock on which Urashima oj^ened the 
casket {tama-te-hako) ; others, too, 
resembling a lion, an elephant, a 
mat, a screen, etc., are pointed out. 
But Europeans will probably be at 
a loss here, as in several other 
celebrated sliow-j)laces in this 
country, to understand why the 
Japanese should have singled out 
this special spot from among so 
many lovely ones. 

Twelve cho beyond Nezame, we 
pass r. a steep flight of steps, with 
a stone marking "4 ri 20 cho," to 
the summit of Koma-ga-take, and 
then M-e reach 

Ag-ematsu [Inn, Saka-ju). 
Either this tov/n or Fukushima 
would be an excellent jolace for the 
lover of mountain scenery to stay 
at for a few days. Both Ontake 
and Koma-ga-take can be con- 
veniently ascended from these 
points, and from the top of Koma- 
ga-take one may descend to the 
Ina Kaidd for the rapids of the 
Tenryu-gawa. (The ascent and 
then the descent on the other side 
could be done under favourable 
circumstances in one extremely 
long day ; but it is better to stop at 
the hut recommended in Route 30, 
No. 12, or at another hut lower 
down.) 

A distance of 30 cho more through 
similar charming scenery brings 
one to the celebrated Kiso no Kake- 
hashi, where in ancient days the 
narrow footpath clung with diflfi- 
culty to the i)recipitous rock. The 
excitement of the jDassage has been 
lost by successive improvements 
in the road. Ontake's bare peak is 
well seen a little further on to the 1. 



246 



Route 24. — The Nakasendo. 



Pukiisiiima {Inn, Tawjira-yn), 
which lines both banks of the river, 
is the most important town in the 
tlistrict. Here the scenery of the 
Nakasendd changes. The Kiso- 
gawa loses its rocky wildness ; but 
in exchange we shall soon have the 
high passes and extensive views. 

Miyanokoshi [Inn, Tonari-ya) 
was formerly the seat of the fendal 
lord Kiso Yoshinaka, the graves of 
whose family are still shown, at the 
temple of Tolmonji. The little 
town of 

Yabuhara [Inn, Kome-ya), 
called Yagohara by some, is entirely 
devoted to the manufacture of 
combs. It stands at the foot of 
the Torii-toge. at a height of 3,150 ft. 
above sea-level. 

The name of this pass ia derived from 
the torii on the top dedicated to Ontake, 
the summit of which sacred mountain is 
visible hence. Strange as it may seem, 
two battles were fought on this spot in 
the 16th century, between some of the 
rival chieftains who, during that period 
of anarchy, disputed Eastern Japan 
amongst them. 

A good, but very circiiitoiis, jin- 
rikisha road leads over the pass, 
without touching its simimit ; 
pedestrians are advised to take the 
older and steeper, but shorter, way 
which does. A similar remark ap- 
plies to the descent on the other 
.side. The to-rii at the top is a mas- 
sive granite structure. There are 
also several quaint bronze and stone 
images to be seen, both Buddhist 
and Shinto. 

Narai [Inn, Tokkuri-ya) nestles 
at the E. foot of the pass. Ilira- 
saica is a poor place, where com- 
mon lacquered articles are made. 
The scenery improves as we ap- 
proach 

Nieg-awa [Inn, Oku-ya). The 
River Kiso was left behind at the AV. 
side of the Torii-toge ; but we 
remain in the Kiso district for a 
little longer, and follow another 
stream flowing between high, well- 
wooded banks. We next pass 
through Seha and Motoyama, where 



jinrikishas or hasha can be engaged 
for the rest of the way to Shimo- 
Suwa. The road is rather dull till 
reaching the sjwt where a road to 
Matsumoto branches off 1., while 
we, keeping to the Nakasendo, 
climb a short hill to a little upland 
called Kikyo-ga-hara, which afiords 
a fine i;>rospect, — Norikura and Yari- 
ga-take 1., and ahead the moun- 
tains of central Shinshu. 

Shiojiri {Inn, Masu-ya). This 
town is the terminus of the railways 
from K5fu and Shinonoi. Beyond 
it lies the Shlojirl-toge, 3,-340 ft., the 
second of the higli passes of the 
Nakasendd offering an extensive 
and beautiful view. For 

Shimo Suwa {Inn, *Kiky6-ya), 
see p. 288. 

The way now leads up towards 
the Wada-ioge, at first through a 
dull valley, between hills of in- 
considerable height. It is the long- 
est and highest pass on the Naka- 
sendo, being 5,300 ft. above sea- 
level. Snow lies on it up to the end 
of April. Tlie old road over the 
j)ass is met at JSlsM Mochiya, but is 
seldom used and is falling into 
decay ; otherwise the splendid view 
from the summit would be worth 
the chmb. The new road, passing 
considerably to the 1., through a 
deep cutting, could be rejoined on 
the farther side. This view in- 
cludes, — to the N.E. Asama-yama ; 
to the S.E. Tateshina and Y'"atsu-ga- 
take ; S.W. the basin of Lake Suwa : 
further to the W. Koma-ga-take and 
Ontake ; and to the N.Vv^. a great 
portion of the Hida-Shinshu range. 
About six chb dov>^n, one reaches 
the cluster of tea-houses collectively 
known as Higashi Mochiya. Shortly 
afterwards Asama-yama comes into 
view to the N.E. 

"Wada {Inn, Midori-kawa) may 
be recommended for a night's halt 
if necessary, although the vill. is 
apt to be crowded in summer with 
pilgrims going to Ontake. 

Nagakuto is a double vill., 
whose two halves, Kagakuho-Shim- 
mar.hi {hm, Y''amazald-ya), and Kn- 



Route 25. — Connecting the Tokaido and Nakasendo. 247 



(jakubo-F'Urumachl, lie over a mile 
apart. The latter stands near 
the foot of the Kasatori-toge, over 
which the old Nakasendd highway 
via Mochiznki, Iwamurata, and Oi- 
wake leads. It is now more usual, 
as indicated in onr Itinerary, to 
curtail the journey by branching 
off N. down the valley of the 
Idagawa, an easy ride into 

Oya {Inn, Oya-kwan), a small 
station on the Karuizav/a-Naoetsu 
Railway. Here the traveller is 
mthin 1| hr. of the favourite 
summer resort of Karuizawa, with 
hotels in European style ; or he 
can go straight into Tolcyo (see 
Routes 12 and 11). 



ROUTE 25. 

FpvO^r Nagoya to Nakatsu-oawa 

ON THE NaKASKNDO. 

The Potteries of Seto. Kokei-zan. 



S s 


Names 




(=1 a &" 

JO§5 


of 


^Remarks 


^>! ei 






.^ "w K^r 


Stations 






NAG OYA 




5m. 


Chitusa 




10 


Kachigaw.a 




15 


Kozoji 




23 


TA.nMI 




27 


Tokitsii 




32 


Mizunami 




36 


Kamado 




43 

50 


Oi 
NAKATSU-GAWA 


f Present 
\ terminus 



This short hne affords facilities 
for an interesting day's excursion 
from Nagoya either to the lotteries 
of Seto or to the Buddhist temple of 
Kokei-zan. It likewise gives travel- 
lers along the Nakasendo, who find 



themselves pressed for time, a 
means of shortening their journey. 
The train runs across a rice plain 
towards bare, rounded hills, which 
are entered after j^assing Kozoji 
To the r. of this station, 1.} ri by a 
road hilly yet practicable for jinriki- 
shas, lie the potteries of Seto, 

[Persons staying at Nagoya may 
more conveniently go to Seto 
fuid back by jinrikisha to 
Ozone (20 cho), whence electric 
tram, — a short day.] 

distributed over the four adjacent 
hamlets of Kita Shingai, Minami 
Shingai, Go, and Hora. The best 
establishment is that founded by 
Kato Gosulce in Minami Shingai, 
which is celebrated for its translu- 
cent white ware. 

The province of Owari, and the adjacent 
province of Mine have, for many ages, 
been flonrishing centres of the porcelain 
industry, the most famous seat of which 
is here at Seto, where Kato Shirozaemon, 
the first great master of Jaiianese ceramic 
art, set up a kiln about the year 1230 
on his return from six years of diligent 
.study in China. Thenceforth Seto be- 
came the headquarters of the manu- 
facture of dainty little jars, ewers, and 
other utensils for the tea ceremonies 
(cha-no-yii), so that the word seto-mono, 
literally "Seto things," has come to be 
employed in Japanese as a generic name 
for all pottery and porcelain, much as 
the word china is used in English. Many 
of the pieces now turned oiit — especially 
the monster blue and-white vasea— -are 
intended only for the foreign market. 

Immediately beyond Kozoji, the 
dull scene suddenly changes to one 
of prettiness as the train wends up 
the bank of the Tamano-gawa, with 
its rocky bed and picturesque 
cliffs. The only drawback is that 
fourteen tunnels perpetually inter- 
cept the view. 

Tajimi {Inn, Matsu-ya) is a V)usy 
place, producing even more pottery 
than Seto ; for the whole country- 
side, to a distance of 6 r'l, is occupied 
in little else. But objects of native 
household use are alone made, 
except at Nishimura's large estab- 
lishment, which manufactures for 



248 Route 2G. — By Steamer from Yokohama to Kobe. 



export to America. — Any one with 
ft spare IJ hour at Tjijimi may 
spend tlie time agreeably in visiting 
the ancient Buddhist temple of Ko- 
kei-zan, finely situated in the midst 
of rock and river scenery, 12_chd 
from the station, of which 6 cho by 
jinrildsha to the foot of the hill. 
Particularly wide and impressive is 
the panorama from the little tea- 
house (only 8 cho from station), in 
which Ena-san forms the most 
conspicuous feature. 

The remaining few miles present 
no features of interest. For Naka- 
tsu-gawa, see p. 244. It is in- 
tended ultimately to push the hne 
the whole way up the Nakasendo to 
Shiojiri. 



ROUTE 2G. 



By Steamer from Yokohama 
TO Kobe.* 

While steaming down Tolryo Bay, 
there is a good view of Fuji with 
the Hakone range in the foreground 
on the r. ; on the 1. is the flat shore 
of the province of Kazusa. At 1 
hr., the shirt will be near Kwannon- 
saki, on which there is a fixed white 
light visible 14 miles, showing a red 
ray in a certain direction to guide 
vessels clear of Saratoga Spit {Fut- 
isu-saki) and Plymouth Eocks to 
the southward. 

Powerful forts have been con- 
structed on Kwannon-saki, on Sara- 
toga Spit, and also in the centre of 
the channel in 26 fathoms of water, 
for the defence of the Bay. After 

* The expressions ' at 1 hour,' • at 2 
hours,' etc., in the description of this 
voyage, signify 'when the steamer has 
been 1 hour out of Yokohama,' • 2 hours 
out of Yokohama,' etc., taking 12 knots 
per hour as the average speed. 



passing Kwannon-saki, the ship 
steers down the Uraga Channel, 
so called from the town of that 
name (p. 106), on the shores of a 
small harbour a few miles S.W. of 
Kwannon-sald, which was formerly 
the port of entry for Tdlcyo Bay. 
At 2 hrs., Tsurugi-sald— the south 
end of the channel — is rounded, 
where there is a light visible 24 m. 
Thence the track Hes S.W. to Kock 
Island across the Bay of Sagami, 
which opens on the r., and close 
along the north end of Tries Island, 
described in Eoute 85. From 4 to 6 
hrs., the ship will be running almost 
parallel to the coast of the pen- 
insula of Izu (Rte. 7), v,'ithin 10 m. 
of the shore. A fine prosjDect may 
be enjoyed of its rugged mountain 
chain, with Fuji, which towers be- 
hind, bearing N. W. The island 
beyond Yries, looking like a cocked- 
hat, is Toshima, the second of 
the Seven Isles of Izu. At 6 
hrs., Eock Island {Mlkomoto), ofE 
the extreme S. of Izu, is reached ; 
on it is a fine light visible 20 
m. From Eock Island, the direct 
route is W.S.W. to the S.E. ex- 
tremity of the province of Kishti. 
This course, which is followed in 
the summer months, leads the ship 
so far off shore that Httle can 
be distinguished. But in winter, 
the N.W. TA-inds generally blow so 
strongly that, to avoid the heavy 
sea, the ship, after passing Eock 
Island, is kept due W., crossing the 
mouth of Suruga Gulf, and at 9 
hrs. is off Omae-zaki, distinguish- 
able at night by a white revolving 
light visible 19 m. Fuji is now 60 
m. i distant, and will not be seen 
much after this point, excej^t in 
clear winter weather. From Omae- 
zaki the track recedes for some 
hours from the land, which, being 
low, is not particularly interesting ; 
and if the ship left Yokohama just 
before sunset, this part will be 
passed in the night. At 13 hrs. the 
ship is off Owari Bay, a deej^ bay 
stretching some 30 m. to the north- 
ward, narrow at the entrance, but 



Whaling off Oshwia. 



249 



widening out conrsiderably inside. 
It is from Omae-zaki to this point 
that the voyage is generally most 
trying to bad sailors. At 15 hrs. 
the_ship is off Cape Shima, Avhence 
to Oshima is a run of 70 m., grad- 
ually approaching the land, where 
line views of the l^old and pictur- 
esque mountains of the provinces of 
Kishti and Yamato are obtained. 

This OBhima is of course diil'erent from 
the Oshima (Vries Island) _ mentioned 
above. There are numerous Oshima's off 
the Japanese coast, which is not to be 
Avondered at, as the name simply _means 
"big island." This particular Oshima 
has been the scene of repeated maritime 
disasters. The neighbourhood forms an 
important whaling^centre. The whaling 
guilds conduct their operations according 
to an elaborate system, described by Hey. 
li. B. Grinnan in the Japan Mail. Minute 
laws regulate the construction of the 
boats and weapons emijloyed, and the 
functions of the various classes of men 
engaged. The following description of 
the modus operandi is somewhat conden- 
sed : — " The signals are a very important 
part of the work. Men with glasses are 
arranged on three different mountains, 
one above the other. The man from the 
highest point, being able to see furthest, 
gives the first notice as to the approach 
of a whale by lighting a fire and raising 
smoke, and at the same time by means of 
his flag he signals to the men on the 
mountain below, and they in turn signal 
to the boats. It is necessary for the men 
in the boats to know beforehand what 
kind of whale is coming, also his size and 
distance from the land ; for the attack 
diflers according to these three things. 
The species of the whale is known in most 
oases by the manner in which the water 
is spouted up. The first thing to be done 
when the boats move out, is to put down 
the nets across the jjath of the whale. 
This is rather difficult to do correctly, for 
in the first place they must be arranged 
according to the species of the whale. 
Another thing to be calculated is the 
strength and course of the tide. One 
fighting boat goes to each net boat, to 
assist in arranging the nets in their j^roper 
order. Not all of the nets are put down 
at first. The nets that are put down are 
placed one after the other in parallels, 
with slight curves, with short spaces in- 
tervening. After the first net is laid, the 
others are all arranged a little to the 
right or left, so that when all the nets 
are down they slant ofi" to one side or the 
other, and thus cover a broader space 
across the path of the whale. As soon as 
the nets are arranged the net boats draw 
ofi" on each side and look on. Then some 



of the fighting boats go around behind 
the whale to attack from that point 
while others arrange themselves on the 
sides so as to drive the whale into the 
nets. Those from behind strike with the 
harpoons and run the lines out. The 
whale then rushes forward, and must be 
driven into the nets. Then a wild scene 
ensues, and every eQ"ort is made to sur- 
round tlie whale that is making frantic 
eftbrts to escape. He often does escape ; 
but if he does not, he is soon surrounded 
by nearly three hundred naked yelling 
men, who throw harpoons and stones 
in such numbers that the huge prey 
is overcome. It is really an awful as 
well as i)itiable sight ; for the noble 
animal until very weak makes furious 
efibrts to escape, rushing forward and 
coming up again to beat the sea into a 
bloody foam, at times smashing the boats 
or overturning them ; and above all the 
din and yelling of the men, can often be 
heard the plaintive cry of the whale as 
the deadly weapons sink deeiJ into his 
flesh. Before the whale is dead, and 
while he is rushing forward, a man with 
a very sharp knife leajjs on his back near 
the head, and slashes two great gashes 
into the flesh, and passes a large rope 
several times around in the flesh, leaving 
a loop on the outside ; the same kind of 
loops are made in the flesh nearer the tail. 
This is done in order that the whale may 
be tied iip between two large boats to 
beams stretched across, and thus kept 
from sinking when he dies. In this way 
he is carried in triumi^h to the shore. 
The operation of cutting the holes and 
putting in the ropes is only done by the 
bravest and most skilful men (nazasid). 
While the holes are being cut and the 
ropes passed in, the man must hold on to 
the whale, and even go down with him 
into the water if he dives : for if he lets 
go, he is liable to be struck by the 
whale's tail and killed. The only thing 
to do is to tuck his head down and cling 
to the animal by the holes he has cut. 
He cannot raise his head, because he will 
at once be blinded by the water being 
driven into his eyes. When the fight 
draws to a close and the huge mammal is 
dying, all the whalers pray for the ease 
of the departing spirit by calling out 
Jorakn! Joraku! Joraku! in a low deeji 
tone of voice. Again, on the third day 
after the whale is taken, a memorial 
service is held and prayers offered for 
the repose of the departed soul. If a 
baby whale is captured, a special festival 
is held on the ninth day afterwards. As 
soon as the whale is landed he is cut up, 
and it is a fearful sight; for the men strix) 
themselves of all clothing, and hack and 
cut like madmen, all yelling at the same 
time with the greatest excitement. Some 
men even cut holes and go bodily into 
the whale, and, coming out all covered 
with blood, look like horrid red devila. 



250 Route 26. — By Steamer from Yokohama to Kobe. 



Most of the whales taken are about 50 ft. 
long."— As those that escape the Kishu 
whalers almost invariably make for Cape 
Muroto in Shikoku, the fishermen of the 
latter locality are always notified of the 
fact by telogi-aph. 

From 16 brs. to 29 lirs. is tho 
most enjoyable part of tlie run 
fron'i_ Yokohama to Kobe. Eonnd- 
ing Osliima, wliicli is marked by a 
wMte reyolTing light visible 18 
miles, at 20 hrs. the vessel is close 
enough to the shore to note the 
thickly studded fishing villages, 
Avhose fleets of boats cover the 
water for miles. Half an hour's 
steaming from Oshima brings us to 
.Shio-Tvlisaki, on which is a light 
visible 20 m. From Shio-Misaki the 
track lies close along the shore — 
sometimes %^dthin 2 m., seldom 
more than 4 m. — to Hiino-Misaki, 
a run of 47 m., which, if made in 
daylight, will be even more enjoy- 
able than the 70 m. mentioned 
above. The bold hills to the r. are 
those of the province of Kishu. 
The land to the I. is the E. coast 
of the Island of Shikoku. At 25 
hrs., the ship is off Hiino-Misald, 
and after steering due north for 26 
m., will pass through Izumi or 
Yura Strait, which is about 6 m. 
wide, the passage for ships being 
narrowed to 2 m. by two islands 
called Ji-no-shima and Oki-no- 



shima, on the "W. side of which 
latter is a hghthouse. Observe 
both r. and 1. how the heights have 
been levelled for the erection of 
forts, to protect this approach to 
Osaka and Kobe. From the hght 
on the islet in Y'ura Strait to 
K5be is a run of 26 in. across a 
landlocked bay, with the large 
Island of Awaji on the left. 
Kobe is generally reached at from 
28 to 30 hrs. The highest hill seen 
to the r., with white temple build- 
ings sparlding in the sun, is Maya- 
san ; the highest away to the 1. be- 
hind Hy5go is Talcatori. 

Passenger steamers usually re- 
main 24 hrs. at K5be, which affords 
an opportunity to visit Kyoto. 

The chief distances of the run 
between Y'okohama and Kobe, as 
made by the Nippon Yiisien Knal- 
sha steamers, are as follovs's : — 



Yokohama to : — Milefi. 

Lightship 2 

Kwannon-Sciki 14 

Cape Sagami "23 

Eocklsland 74 

Oshima 244 

Hiino-Misald 297 

Old-no-shima 322 

Hydgo Point 346 

Kobe Pier 348 



SECTION III. 
CENTRAL JAPAN 

(Routes 2j — 4j. 



Route 27. — Karvizawa-NaoetsH-Niigala Railway. 



253 



KOUTE 27. 

Karuizawa-Naoetsu-Niigata 
Kailway. 

temple of zenkoji. lake nojiei. 
island of sado. 



c3 






O > 

■^ - S 


Naniea 




S =5 N 

|2'5 


of 


lie marks 




Stations 








I Tokyo to Ka- 




KARUIZAWA . . . 


\ ruizawa (see 


Miles. 




( Rte. 11). 


8 


Miyoda 




i;5-i 


Kornoro 




m 


Tanaka 




21i 


Oya 


(Alight for Na- 
i kasendo. 




2^! 


UEDA 




811 
46 


Sakaki 




Yashiro 
ShinonoiJct 

NAGANO 


( Change for 
( Matsumoto. 


48 ;j 


Yoshida 


Koad to Kusa- 


524' 


Toyono 


tsu over the 


57^ 


Mure 


8hibu Pass. 


04 


Kashiwa-bai-a . . . 


{ Alight for 
( Lake Nojiri. 


^n 


Taguchi 


( Alight for 
1 Akakura. 


73 ■; 


Sekiyama 




81^ 


Aral 




87 1 


Takata 




92 


NAOETSU 




92.i 


Kasuga Sliiudeu 




%i 


Saigata 




99 


Katamachi 




103 


Kakizaki 




lOGA 


Hassaki 




llOj 


Oniigawa 




112} 


Kujira-nauli 




1141 


Kashiwa-zaki 




118} 


Yasuda 




119^ 


Kitajo 




126-1 


Tsukano-yama 




131^ 


Kaikoji 




135-i- 


Miya-uclii 




137+ 


NAGAOKA 




141 5 


Oshikiri 




144^ 


Mitauke 




147 


Obiori 




150 i' 


SANJO 


( Alight for 
1 Ij-ahiko. 




151^- 


Tclii-no-kido 




156,- 


Kamo 




163,- 


Yashiroda 




167 


Niitsu 




172] 


Kameda 




176 !r 


NIIGATA (Nut- 






tari) 





This line, starting from an ele- 
vation of 3,080 ft. at Karuizawu, 
descends to the sea-coast at Nao- 
etsu, and so far is the most pictur- 
esque railway route in Japan. 
The second section, from Naoetsu 
to Migata, is much inferior. — The 
first five or six miles are over a 
fairly level plain ; but the condi- 
tions are changed when the south- 
ern slope of Asama-yama has to 
be rounded. Here lies a water-shed 
whence flow large rivers north and 
south, towards the Sea of Japan 
and the Pacific respectively. All 
the drainage of the volcano pours 
down through deep gullies into the 
channel of one or other of these 
rivers. The soil, a loosely packed 
volcanic ash and gravel of light 
colour, is easily scooped away, and 
large chasms are left whose sides 
the old highway descends and as- 
cends in zigzags. Throughout most 
of this section, the traveller looks 
down from a giddy height on rice- 
fields far below. From a jDoint near 
Oiwake, where the Nakasendo is 
left behind, on to Komoro, oppor- 
tunities are afforded of seeing to 
advantage the Iwamurata plain, 
backed by the imposing range of 
Yatsu-ga-tako. Asama-yama has a 
less smiling aspect on this side : the 
flat top of the cone lengthens out, 
the pinky brown colour of the sides 
assumes a blackish hue, and chasms 
rough with indurated lava break the 
regularity of the slopes. Before 
Komoro is reached, a long volcanic 
ridge, dominating the valley of 
the Eiver Chikuma as far as Ueda, 
reveals the fact that Asama is not 
an isolated cone, but the last and 
highest of a range of mountains. 
A former crater, which has dis- 
charged itself into this valley and 
is now extinct, disi^lays a row of 
black jagged rocks in the hollow 
between Asama and the next peak 
of the range, — a striking feature as 
seen from Komoro. 

Komoro ( Inn, Tsuru-ya ; Tea- 
hoiise in public garden) is a busy 
commercial centre. Formerly the 



254 Eoute 27. — Kandzaim-Naoetsu-Niigata Railway. 



seat of a Daimyd, its picturesque 
castle-grounds overhanging the 
river have been converted into a 
public garden. A short descrij^tion 
of the old Temple of Shakasonjl, 
Avhich lies 1 ri from the station, 
Avill be found on -p. 179. 

From Komoro to Ueda the rail- 
v.ay runs down the valley of the 
Chikuma-gaica, whose S. banlc is 
here formed by a series of bold 
bluffs, in many places descending 
sheer into the water. This river, 
also called the Shinano-gcma, flow- 
ing towards the N., becomes one of 
the great rivers of Japan, and falls 
into the sea at Migata. The massive 
!Shinshu-Hida range is now also in 
sight, its mountains, even in the 
height of summer, being streaked 
with snow. A few miles before 
Ueda, the valley opens out into a 
circular plain of which that town 
is the centre. 

Oya {Inn, Oya-kwan, at station), 
is the starting-point for the journey 
doAvn the Nalcasendo (Eoute 24). 

Ueda {Inns, Uemura-kwan, Tsu- 
zuld-ya, both at station). White 
and other silks of a durable quahty 
are the iDrincipal jiroducts of the 
district. It is specially noted for a 
stout striped fabric called Ueda-jima. 
The old castle of Ueda, of which 
one watch-tower remains intact, 
stands on the river bank beyond 
the town. The exit from the am- 
phitheatre of hills enclosing Ueda 
is narrow and hidden from view. 
Just before the hne approaches it, 
a curious bluff with a cavern in its 
face is noticeable on the other side 
of the river. 

Between Sakak'i and the next 
station lies the vill. of Tokura {Inn, 
Sasa-ya), ix)ssessing hot-springs 
M'hose source is in the river bed. 

[From here one may ascend Ea- 
buriki-yama, a sharj^ x>eak on 
the opposite bank crowned by 
a clump of trees and com- 
manding an unrivalled jjano- 
rama of the mountains of Shin- 



shti. Height above the river, 
nearly 3,000 ft. ; time, 2| hours. 
One may descend to Obasv.te 
station on the Shinonoi line 
{see p. 262), about the same 
distance.] 

The hills on the r., covered almost 
to their tops with mulberry planta- 
tions, recall the vineyards on the 
banks of the Ehine and IMoselle. 
At 

Yasliiro {Inn, Komatsu-ya), a 
road branches off to the important 
town of Matsushlro, and down the 
r. bank of the Chilciima-gawa to 
Niigata. From 

Shinonoi {Inn, Shiro-ya), a line 
of railway diverges due S., through 
mountainous country, to the large 
town of Matsumoto and to Shiojir'i 
on the Nakasendo. The plain to 
the r. beyond Shinonoi, known as 
Kawanaka-jima, was the scene of 
a famoeis battle between Takeda 
Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin (see 
pj). 84-5). Before reaching Nagano, 
both the Chikuma and the Saiga wa 
are crossed. One of the spans of 
the Saiga wa bridge is 200 ft. long. 

Nagano {Inns, Taikyoku-kwan, 
with branch at station ; Yama-ya, 
ditto ; Em-op. Resit., Seiy5-ken) is 
the capital of the prefecture of 
Nagano, which comprises the whole 
province of Shinshu. It is beauti- 
fully situated at the foot of lofty 
mountains, which form an imposing 
background and idmost surround it 
(see next Eoute). Numerous fine 
buildings in European style, and 
crowds of pilgrims thronging the 
streets, give the town an air of 
exceptional prosjierity. A Club 
called Jozan-kican, -which has a 
room of 144 mats, commands a fine 
prosj^ect. The Buddhist Temple of 
Zenkoji, belonging to the Tendai 
sect, is one of the most celebrated 
in the whole empire. 

It was founded as far back as A.D. 670, 
though the oldest portion of the present 
buildings dates only from the latter half 
of the loth century. It is dedicated to 
Amida and his two followers, Kwannou 



Nagano. Temple of Zenkdji. 



255 



and Daieeishi, a group of whose images is 
here enshrined ; also to Honda Yoshi- 
mitsu and his wife and son, Yayoi-no-lvlae 
and Yoshisuke, who are worshipped as 
the pious founders. The sacred group is 
said to have been made by Shaka TJuni 
himself out of gold found on Mount 
Shumi, the centre of the Universe. After 
various vicissitudes in China and Korea, 
it was brought to Japan in A.D. 5.52, as a 
present from the King of Korea to the 
Mikado on the first introduction of Bud- 
dhism into Japan. All the eiTorts of the 
Japanese enemies of Buddhism to make 
away with the image were in vain. 
Thrown into rivers, hacked at, burnt, it 
survived all, and finally found a resting- 
place here. 

The Japanese proverb " UsJd ni Jiika- 
rete Ze.nkoji-mairi," lit. " to be led to 
the Zenkoji pilgrimage by a cow " refers 
to an old legend. A cow, so the story 
goes, ran off one day with a piece of cloth 
which a wicked old woman had set out 
to dry, and was pursued by her to the 
temple, where Buddha, appearing in a 
halo of light, softened her heart and re- 
warded her even in this world by restor- 
ing her washing to her when she reached 
home again. The iDroverb applies to good 
coming out of evil. 

The principal festivals are the Dai 
Nemhutsu, or Great Invocation of Buddha, 
held on the 31 st July, those held at the 
vernal and autumnal equinoxes, and one 
on the 14th March, in commemoration of 
a terrible earthquake which shook this 
region in 1847. The 13th July is a civic 
gala day. A specially grand festival is 
held once every seven years in April and 
May ; the last of these occurred in 1907. 

Eows of sliops for tlie sale of 
rosaries and pictures of the sacred 
triad line tlie court. Behind the 
shops are the houses of the priests, 
each in its own trim garden. 
At the end of this court is the 
chief gateway, with images of 
Monju and the Shi-Tenno, which 
are exhibited only on New Year's 
day. The building 1. of the entrance, 
called Dai-Hongwan, is the resi- 
dence of an abbess belonging to the 
Imperial family {Ama Mlya Sama), 
and of a sisterhood of nuns. It 
was rebuilt in the old style during 
the years 1890-1900, and glitters 
with gold. The gallery behind is 
used to exhibit i^ictures and other 
Avorks of art on special occasions, 
whence the visitor passes to the 
Princess's private oratory and her 
reception room. Higher up and 



also to the 1. is the Dai-Kanshin, 
the residence of the abbot. Both 
sets of buildings have pretty 
gardens. At one or other, accord- 
ing to circumstances, religious jjic- 
tures and charms are sold, also 
shirts called kyo-kaiahira, lit. 
" sutra shirts." Each pilgrim pur- 
chases one, and keeps it by him 
till the hour of death, to be dressed 
in it for burial. At the same time, 
what is called a kechi-myaku — a par- 
ticular kind of charm — is placed in 
the corpse's hand. 

The Main Temple, erected in 
1701, is a two-storied building 198 
ft. in depth by 108 ft. in width, 
with a huge three-gabled roof, so 
that the ridge is T-shaped. This 
form is called shumoku-zukurl, 
from its resemblance to the shu- 
moku, a wooden hammer with 
which the Buddhists strilce the 
small bell used by them in their 
religious services. The roof is 
supported by 133 pillars, and there 
are said to be 69,384 rafters, the 
same number as that of the written 
characters contained in the Chin- 
ese version of the Buddhist scrip- 
tures. The sacred golden group, 
standing in a shrine on the W. 
side, is kept in a reliquary dating 
from A. D. 1369, shrouded by a 
curtain of gorgeous brocade. For 
a moderate fee, the curtain is raised 
so as to show the outermost of the 
seven boxes in which the image is 
enclosed. A space of 83 mats 
(about 1,600 sq. ft.) is set apart for 
the worshippers. On the E. side of 
the main hall is an entrance to a 
dark gallery which runs round 
below the floor of the chancel 
{naijin), issuing again by the same 
door. To complete this circuit 
{kaidan-mawari or tai-nal-meguri) 
thrice, is believed to save the 
pilgrim from the peril of eternal 
damnation. More than 200 bronze 
and stone lanterns crowd the space 
in front of the main hall. 

In front of the Kydzo, or Sacred 
Library, on the 1. of the main 
building, are two praying-wheels in 



256 Route 27. — Karuizaica-Naoetsu-Nugata Railway. 



stone, fixed in pedestals 7 ft. high, 
and bearing the invocation " Xanm 
Amida Butsu." 

On the r. of the temple enclosme 
is the Piiblic Garden, which com- 
mands a good view of the valley. 

About 1 ri N.E. of the town 
stands Burando Yakushi, a shrine 
dedicated to the Buddhist god of 
medicine, perched high above the 
path in a large tree growing out 
of a rock. Close by are some 
f)etroleum springs. 

Nagano makes a good starting- 
point for the ascent of the fine 
mountains Togakushi and Izuna 
described in Route 28. 

Leaving Nagano, the railway con- 
tinues along the plain as far as 

Toyono {Inn, Toyono-kwan). 
Here it enters a narrow valley, 
Mhich it follows up until Kashiwa- 
bara is reached at a height of 2,200 
ft. At Toyono, a road leads over 
the Shibu-toge to Kusatsu (see j)p. 
187-8). A fine view is obtained of 
Izuna-san on the 1. as 

Kashiwabara {Inn, Nakamm-a- 
ya) is aj)iDroached. This section of 
the line traverses a region where 
the snowfall is pecuharly heavy, 
drifts accumulating to a depth of 
over 10 ft. and stopping all traffic. 

[The traveller with time to spare 
should alight here to visit the 
beautiful httle lake called Xo- 
jiri-ko, 1 ri distant, and then 
proceed to Akakura, 3 ri fur- 
ther, lying on the side of Myo- 
ko-zan, and noted for its hot 
springs. Jinrikishas can be 
taken all the way. Those 
going direct to Alcakura ahght 
at the next station, Taguchi, 
from which the baths are 1 ri 
23 dto distant l^y a rough jin- 
rikisha road. The way from 
Kashiwabara leads through a 
pleasant oak-wood, whence it 
descends slightly to 

Nojiri (small inn), situated 
on the shores of the lake, 
which is surrounded by low 



hills covered with thickets. On 
a densely wooded islet is a 
temple called Uga-no-Jinja. 
The view of the giiint masses 
of Izuna, Kurohime, and Myo- 
ko-zan, as seen from the island, 
is exceptionally striking. The 
waters of the lake find an outlet 
into the Sekigawa. wliich falls 
into the sea at Naoetsu. 

Akakura is an agreeable 
summer resort. It possesses 
many Inns (*Kogaku-r6 best, 
\vith Europ. food), ojDcn from 
June to October inclusive, and 
numerous baths, pubhc and 
private, which are supphed 
with hot water brought in fjipes 
from sources 2 ri further u-p 
the mountain. From the ham- 
let, nothing obstructs the 
prospect of the rich plain ex- 
tending down to Naoetsu on 
the Sea of Japan, and of the 
island of Sado on the dim 
horizon. About 3 ri oif, be- 
tv\'een Kurohime and Myolco- 
zan. is a large waterfall called 
Xae no Taki. — Akakura is the 
most convenient point from 
which to ascend Mybko-zan, an 
extinct volcano described in 
Eoute 28.] 

There is a falling gradient of 
about 600 ft. in the 4J m. traversed 
between Taguchi and SekiyamU. 
The country becomes flatter before 
reaching 

Aral {Inn, Ju-ichi-ya), a floinrish- 
ing town noted for its petroleum, 
the springs being in the immediate 
neighbourhood. Here is first seen 
the custom common to most of the 
towns in Echigo, of having covered 
ways along the house-fronts, for use 
vrhen the snow lies deep in the 
streets. 

Takata {Inn, Koyo-kwan) is a 
large place, formerly the castle- 
town of a Daimyo named Sakaki- 
bara, one of the four families who 
enjoyed the privilege of providing 
a regent during the minority of a 
Shdgun. The highway called Ilok- 



From Naoetsu to KasMwa-zahi. 



"1^1 



koku Kaido branches off 1. near 
here to the provinces of Kaga, Echi- 
zen, etc., (see Konte 47). 

Naoetsu {Inns, *Matsuba-kwan ; 
Eva-gon A\'ith branch at station), near 
the month of the Sekigawa, is a port 
of call for steamers to Fushiki (10 
to 12 hrs.), and other places on the 
West Coast. Naoetsu produces an 
excellent jelly called awa-ame, made 
from millet. A great annual horse 
— or, to be quite correct, mare — 
fair is held during the month of 
July in the suburb of Kasuga 
Shinden. The animals are brought 
from Shiiya and other localities in 
the province of Echigo. Here also 
stand the extensive premises of the 
International Oil Co., a branch of 
the great Standard Oil Co. of New 
York, erected in 1900 and superin- 
tended by American engineers. 

Although the discovery of oil in the 
province of Echigo dates from a very- 
early period, the development of the 
industry itself is of modern origin, the 
first serious attempt to work the oil-fields 
dating from 1875. But the industry did 
not assume noteworthy dimensions until 
1889, when the wells lying in the range 
of low hills called Higashi-yama, some 3 
ri to the E. of the city of Nagaoka were 
opened up. Till then most of the dig- 
ging had been done by hand, and the oil 
brought to the surface by hand pulleys. 
Numerous companies now sprang into 
existence, American machine-i3umx:)3 
were set up, and iron conduits laid to 
convey the crude oil from the wells into 
the refineries. Through subsequent 
discoveries of oil-fields in other parts of 
the province, notably at Nagamine and 
Kamada, near Kashiwa-zaki in 1898, the 
industry grew by leaps and bounds. Ulti- 
mately it attracted the attention of the 
Standard Oil ComiDany, by whom the 
International Company was formed, with 
a capital of 10,000,000 yen, to compete with 
the existing Japanese companies. The 
refined product enjoys a good reputation. 

One mile to the S.W. of Naoetsu, 
on the highway to Toyama, stands 
a massive old Buddhist temple, 
dedicated to the Gochi Nyorai, or 
Five Gods of Wisdom (whence the 
hamlet itself, properly Kokubunji, is 
currently spoken of as Gochi). Five 
colossal gilt images of these divini- 
ties line the altar. The case 1., 



full of dolls, represents many broken 
hearts. "When a child dies, its 
mother purchases a doll as nearly 
like her lost darling as possible, and 
offers it up here to the merciful god 
Jizo (see p. 47). Chief festival on 
the 8th May. A lesser temple in the 
sam.e grounds was for five years the 
abode of Shinran Shonin (p. 83). 
Some 3 or 4 chb further on, at 
Komari-yama, is another favourite 
Buddhist shrine. Gochi itself is 
nowadays more resorted to for 
pleasure than for piety, especially in 
the summer time, as some fine 
restaurants have been built on the 
adjacent bluff, which commands a 
wide sea view : — graceful Yoneyama 
is the chief feature, while Sado r., 
and Noto 1. appear in dim outhne. 
Good bathing may be had on the 
long stretch of sandy beach imme- 
diately below. 

Leaving Naoetsu and Kasuga 
Shinden, the railway runs among 
small pine-trees, following the coast, 
which at first is flat and sandy. 
There are seven tunnels between 
Ilassaki and Omigawa cut through 
the lower spurs of Yoneyama, which 
here come down to the sea. After 
this, the line trends away among 
dull hillocks and fields. 

All this coast district, as far as a town 
called Tera-domari, is inhabited by a 
population of hardy fishermen ; and the 
sea yields bream {tai), plaice (karei), and a 
kind of brill (hirame), in large quantities 
and of great size. The women are sturdy 
and callable of the hardest toil. They 
usually perform the labour of porters, 
and even drag carts. Muslin made of 
hemp, and called Echigo chijimi, is wov- 
en in the villages, and generally dyed 
indigo colour with a faint i^attern in 
white. The Japanese esteem it highly 
as material for summer clothing. 

Kujira-naini {Inn, Sokai Hotel) 
is a rising watering-place, 

Kashiwa-zaki {Inns, Iwato-ya, 
Tenky5) is a large town, partici- 
pating in the new impetus given 
by the development of the oil- 
fields at Kag amine and Kamada in 
this neighbourhood. The line now 
turns eastwards to tap the com- 



258 Route 27. — Karuizawa-Naoetsu-Niigata Railway. 



mcrcial cities in the valley of the 
Shinano-gawa, whose braid stream 
is crossed soon after passing the 
small station of Eaikoji. Excep- 
tional prosperity accrues to the 
proTince of Echigo from the rice 
jield of the wide plain which is 
now entered, and the eye is pleased 
by views of distant mountain 
ranges. 

Nagaoka {Inns, Masn-ya ; No- 
moto; Europ. Bestt., Seiyo-ken) is 
another prosperous place with 
streets laid out at right angles. 
The river is a source of danger, as 
it frequently overflows its banks 
during autumnal rains. Extensive 
petroleum refineries occupy one of 
the suburbs. The wells are at 
TJrase, Hire, and Katsubo, which 
places lie close together in the 
range of low hills called Higashi- 
yama, referred to on p. 257. In 
the same direction, but 3 rl further 
E., stands the small town of 
Tochio, which produces the best 
tsumugi in the province. Uesugi 
Kenshin (see p. 85) was born here, 
and various rehcs of him are pre- 
served at the tempile of Joanji. 

Sanjo {Inn, Echizen-ya). A stay 
at this i^lace may be availed of for 
two expeditions. The first is S.E. 
up a tributary stream, the Igarashi- 
gawa, to a spot some 6 ri distant, 
where the torrent flows between 
cliffs 70 ft. high. There are several 
tea-houses at this cool summer 
resort, which is called Yagi. Four ri 
further on, at Yoshi-ga-hira (1,350 
ft. above sea-level), is a lake with 
a hot spring in the middle. At 
Xyohdji, about IJ ri from Sanjo in 
this direction, natural gas issues 
from the ground, and is utilised by 
the peasants for heating and light- 
ing. The same has been found to 
occur when digging for water in 
other imrts of this district, ioc 
instance, in the city of Niigata. — 
The other long expedition from 
Sanjo is to lyahiko, a mountain 
2,100 ft. high,' on the coast. One 
goes by jinrikisha, 4 ri 21 chd to 
the vill. of the same name at its 



base, where there are several good 
tea-houses, and where stands a fine 
Ryobu Shinto temple, the goal of 
pilgrims from the whole province. 
A festival called Toro-oshi is here 
celebrated at midnight on the 14th 
day, 6th moon, old style. Some 
twenty large stands of wood and 
paper, adorned vrith candles and 
artificial flowers, are carried about 
by the young men and bumped 
against each other. The climb up 
the mountain begins abruptly and 
takes 1 J hr. The little shrine ( Go- 
honsha) at the top commands a 
vdde panorama, rising as lyahiko 
does like a solitary island between 
the sea on the one hand and a sea 
of rice-fields on the other. In a 
gully on the side towards Sado is 
a small silver mine. 

The country continues flat for the 
rest of the way. 

Niitsu {Inn, Mori-sei) is noted 
for its kerosene wells. 

Nuttari, the terminus of the 
railway, is a suburb of Niigata, ly- 
ing on the opposite or E. side of 
the river. 

Niigata {Hotel, Itariya-ken; Inns, 
*Shinoda, Yoshi-kwan), capital of 
the prefecture of the same name, is 
situated on a narrow, sandy strip 
of land between the Shinano-gawa 
and the sea. 

Niigata was opened to foreign trade in 
1869 ; but almost the only foreigners 
now residing there are missionaries. 
Owing to the bar at the mouth of the 
river, vessels of any size cannot enter 
the port, but are compelled to anchor in 
the roadstead outside. "V^Tien the wind 
renders it dangerous to anchor off Xiigata 
ships may take refuge at Ebisu-jninaio, 
in the island of Sado. Not many centu- 
ries ago, the site of Xiigata was 8 or 10 
miles out at sea. A map 800 years old, 
shows Sanjo as a sea-port town, and 
there exists evidence that the whole of 
the rich alluvial plain here extending 
between the mountains and the sea — 100 
square miles or more — has become dry 
land within historical times, partly by 
the silting up of rivers, ijartly by up- 
heaval of the land. 

The town, which covers an area 
of rather more than 1 sq. mile, 



Route 28. — Mountains of Shinshii and Echigo. 259 



consists of five parallel streets 
intersected by other streets and 
canals. A line of low sand-hills 
shuts out all view of the sea. The 
climate of Niigata is very trying,— 
hot in summer and terribly cold in 
winter, snow falling to a depth of 2 
or 3 ft., and lying for a considerable 
time. The houses are built with 
their gable-ends towards the street, 
and the roofs are prolonged beyond 
the walls in order to prevent 
the snow from blocking up the 
windows. A largo quantity of 
coarse lacquer-ware is manufac- 
tured at Niigata ; and articles of 
a peculiar pattern called mokusa- 
nuri, or " sea-weed lacquer," are 
brought for sale from the district of 
Aizu. In the suburbs of the city, 
Echigo cMjimi is manufactured from 
hemp. The public garden sur- 
rounding the Shint5 temple of 
Haku-san, affords a fine prospect. 

Steamers run north from Niigata, 
to Sakata, Tsuchizaki (Akita), 
Noshiro, and Hakodate. An alter- 
native way of reaching the North or 
returning to Tokyo is to take the 
easy 2 days' cross-country road to 
Wakamatsu described in Koute 71, 
where join the railway. 

Island of Sado. 

The Island of Sado, which lies 
32 miles W. of Niigata, can be 
reached by small steamer from 
the latter place in about 5 hrs., and 
in about the same time from Naoe- 
tsu. Steamers run daily from April 
to October ; for the rest of the year 
the sailings are irregular, on account 
of the frequent storms that prevail 
on this bleak coast. The island is 
hilly and picturesque, consisting of 
two groups of mountains, separated 
by a cultivated plain. 

The principal formation is limestone. 
Sado lias a population of 119,000, and is 
principally noted for its gold and silver 
mines situated close to the town of Aikawa, 
which have been worked from the earliest 
times. During the middle ages, Sado was 
used as a place of exile for criminals. 



Among those who were relegated to its 
inhospitable shores, was the Buddhist 
saint, Nichiren. 

Aikawa {Inn, Takada-ya) is a 
poor-looldng place, situated near 
the mines. 

Ebisu Minato {Inn, Yamagata- 
ya), where passengers from Niigata 
generally land, is a large but 
wretched village, built on a nar- 
row strip of beach between the sea 
and a lagoon. The distance from 
Ebisu Minato to Ailrawa is 6 ri 29 
cho (16 J m.), — a pretty walk. 



ROUTE 28. 



The Mountains on the N.W. 

Boundary of Shinshu 

AND Echigo. 

togakushi-ran. izuna-san. 
my6k6-zan. 

These mountains form a con- 
spicuous feature in the landscajDe 
from many quarters, owing to their 
well-defined shapes and compara- 
tive isolation. Nagano, on the 
Karuizawa-Naoetsu Eailway (see p. 
254) is the proper starting-point for 
Togakushi and Izuna, while Myoko 
is best ascended from Akalmra, 
further N. along the same line. 
Another prominent member of the 
group is Kurohime, but it is rarely 
ascended, because not considered 
sacred. 

1 . — Togakushi-s AN. 

Five ri from Nagano stands the 
temple of Togakushi-san, whither 
the god Tajikara-o-no-Mikoto is 
said to have hurled the rocky door 
of the cavern in which the Sun- 
Goddess had hidden herself (see 



260 Houte 28. — 3Iountains of Shinshu and Ecliigo. 



the legend as given on p. 43). The 
road, which is passable for jinrild- 
shas, leaves the town on the 1. side 
of the temple of Zenkoji, and vrinds 
np a narrow ravine to the hamlet 
of Arayasu, whence, leading over 
low hills, it reaches a rest-house 
called Xyfi-zaka in 45 min., and 
then issues on to the moor which 
encircles the base of Izuna-san. 
In f hr. longer, the highest point 
of the moor is reached at a tine 
iorii, from which, in 15 min. more, 
wejcome to tv>'0 tea-houses known 
as Okuho. The path then descends 
for about 1 m. to a point where it 
divides, the r. branch proceeding 
direct to the vill. of Togakushi [Inn, 
Kambara), at the upper end of 
which the Chil-ln temple is situated, 
the 1. reaching the Hoko-in after 
12 cho more. The latter temple, 
standing at the top of a long flight 
of steps lined with old cryptomerias, 
is a sjDacious building decorated 
with carvings of some merit. From 
the H5k6-in to the village is a 
pleasant walk of 12 cho through a 
wood. Excex)t for their beautiful 
surroundings, little remains about 
the temples to detain the visitor. 
The road to the Oku-no-in (30 cho) 
is almost level the whole way, 
except during the last few hundred 
yards. It stands at the head of a 
romantic ravine, and commands a 
fine view including the summit of 
Fuji and Asama-yama. 

Those who intend to climb the 
highest point called Ken-no-mine 
(8,080 ft.), will do best to pass the 
night at Togakushi. Whether one 
ascends via Oniote-yama (6,000 ft.), 
and pssses thence along the rugged 
ridge to Ura-yama (Ken-no-mine 
proper) in order to make the com- 
plete circuit, or takes the latter 
only, a long day should be allowed 
for the expedition. The path up 
Omote-yama leads directly behind 
the priest's house at the Oku-no-in, 
and is so narrow and precipitous 
in parts that chains have been 
affixed to the trees and rocks for 
the benefit of pilgrims. (To ascend 



Ura-yama only, one does not touch 
the Oku-no-in, but takes the path 
which diverges from the main road 
to Kashii/:a-hara at about 1 rl from 
Togakushi.) The distance to the 
summit is estimated at 5 ri, most 
of which is exceptionally rough and 
steep. About IJ hr. before reach- 
ing it, on a lesser j^eak called Jiz5- 
dake, stands a hut where j)iigrims 
pass the night in order to witness 
the sunrise. The view is magnifi- 
cent, especially of the Hida-Etchu 
range to the W. and S. 

2. — IZUXA-SAN. 

This mountain (6,080 ft.) should 
be ascended from the vill. of To- 
gakushi, M-hence the summit may 
be gained in 2 hrs. easy walking 
up a long spur. Another path, by 
which the descent is usually made, 
strikes up from the moor on the 
Nagano side, 20 min. beyond the 
Nyu-zaka tea-house mentioned 
above ; but it is exceedingly steep, 
and covered with dense under- 
growth. A hut, in which pilgrims 
sleep, occupies one side of the sum- 
mit. The view is very extensive 
embracing on the E. the whole 
range which divides the provinces 
of Shinshu and Joshu, the most 
prominent of its peaks being 
Shirane, flat-topped Suna-daira and 
Asama. The cone of Fuji may be 
distinguished about S. S. E., and 
next to it, to the spectator's r., the 
range of Yatsu-ga-take, beginning 
with Mikaburi-yama and ending 
with the round crown of Tateshina. 
Then come the high mountains of 
western Koshti, probably Koma-ga- 
take and Jizo, next the long ridge 
of the Wada-toge, followed by the 
prolonged irregular top of the 
Shinshu Ivoma-ga-take. The mere 
summit of Ontake can be perceived 
between S.S.W. and S.W., while 
Yari-ga-take bears S.W. The whole 
of the mighty Hida-Shinshu range 
stands up like a wall on the 
W. Nearer on the same side 
rises the precipitous peak of Ken- 



Route 29. — From Shinonoi to Shiojiri. 



261 



no-Mine, and tnrning to the N. we 
see the small, round head of Yake- 
yama, then two smaller mountains, 
named Ototsnma and Takatsiim.a, 
and almost due N., Myolco-zan with 
Kurohime in front. Below on the 
E. extends the broad fertile valley 
of the Shinano-gawa, while fiu-ther 
N. a ghmpse is cau.ght of the sea. 

The descent takes rather less 
than 2 hrs., and emerges on the 
moor at a j)oint where tlie traveller 
may either return to Arayasu, or 
strike away to the 1. by a path 
leading over the moor to Kashma- 
hara station, — a 3 hrs. wallc. 

3. — Myokq-zan. 

Myoko-zan (8,180 ft.). This 
mountain is not free from snow 
until July. The ascent can be 
made in 4 hours. There are two 
paths, iDassing res|:)ectively by 
Minami Jigoku-dani and Kita 
Jigoku-dani. Traversing the little 
I)ublic garden at the top of the 
village street of Akakura, the last- 
mentioned goes straight on, while 
the former bears to the 1. This 
has more varied scenery, and is 
somewhat shorter. The path leads 
through the long grass for some 
distance, and then climbs steei:)ly 
to a ix)int whence Fuji is seen, — 
50 cho from Akakura. At about 2 
ri, a sulphur workers' hut below 
Minami Jigoku-dani is reached, 
whence for about 10 cho the path 
ascends the steep course of a rivulet 
under the cane-brake ; and soon 
after, at a small shrine, the path 
from the Kita Jigoku-dani joins it 
from the r. A httle above this is 
a xxx)l called Eokudo-no-ilie, whence 
to the top is a steep but nowhere 
dangerous climb of 20 cho, partly 
assisted by chains. On the summit 
stands a small wooden shrine dedi- 
cated to Amida. Myoko-zan forms 
part of an extinct volcano. The 
mountains immediately surround- 
ing it are the long semi-circular 
ridge called Myoko-zan-no-Ura- 
yama on the S.E., and Kanayama on 



the N. The view to the S.E. in- 
cludes Asama and Fuji. Directly S. 
rises Kurohime with its two peaks, 
between which is seen the top of 
Izuna-san. Ken- no-mine bears 
about S. S. W., while the round- 
topped mountain bearing W.N.W. 
is Yake-yama, an extinct volcano. 
To the N.E. the view extends over 
the plain of Echigo to the Sea of 
Japan and the Island of Sado. — 
In descending, the ]3ath to the 1. at 
the hut below the Kokudo-no-ike 
and via the Kita-Jigoku-dani 
solfatara may be taken. It is in 
parts, however, very narrow, and 
overhung vith tall grass and weeds. 
The mountain is much frequented 
by pilgrims, especially on the 23rd 
night of the 6th moon, old style, 
when they go up in great numbers 
by torchlight, but do not j)ass 
through Akakura. 



ROUTE 29. 



Feo:m Shinonoi to Shiojiei. 



Distance 




from 


Names of Stations. 


Shinonoi 






SHINONOI 


2J m. 


Inari-yama 


7i 


Obasute 


13' 


Omi 


17| 


Nishijo 


24 


Akashina 


28 


Tazawa 


33 


MATSUMOTO 


37 


Murai 


41| 


SHIOJIPJ 



Shinonoi is a station on the 
Karuizawa-Naoetsu Eailway (see p. 
254). The branch hne starting 
thence affords an easy means of 



262 



Route 29. — From Shinonoi to Shiojiri. 



reaching the central part of the 
Nakasendo. From Shiojiri, Kofn 
and Tokyo on the one hand and the 
head-waters of the Tenryti-gawa on 
the other are also within aasy reach. 
The whole hne is pictnresqiTe. 
On leaTing Inari-ijania, the train 
winds slowly up the hills on the 1. 
bank of the Chikiima-gawa com- 
manding a succession of magnifi- 
cent views of the valley below 
studded with villages, and of the 
mountains beyond. Note the pretty 
eSEect of the terraced slopes and the 
roofs of the houses rising from the 
groves in which they lie. The 
station of Obasute {Inn, Wada-ya) 
stands half-way up a slope called 
Ohasute-yama, a queer name sig- 
nifying "the Hill where the Aunt 
was Abandoned." 

It is explained by a legend wliich tells 
us that the abandoned one v/as Oyama- 
bime, aunt to Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-Hirae. 
the lovely goddess of Fuji, who mai'ried 
Isinigi-no-Mikoto, the first ancestor of 
the Imperial family of Japan. This 
Oyama-bime was so ugly, ill-tempered, 
envious, and malicious that none of the 
gods would take her in marriage. lier 
nephew and niece, in despiair that her 
evil disposition should thus stand in the 
way of her happiness, entreated her to 
reform, but in vain. At last the younger 
goddess suggested that a tour through the 
beautiful scenery of Shinano, where she 
might contemplate the moon from some 
lofty mountain-top, would be likely to 
have a softening ellect. 8o they set out 
together, and after surmounting in- 
numerable peaks, at length reached this 
place. 8aku-ya-Hime mounted a stone, 
and iwinting with her finger, said to her 
aunt, "Yonder is a rock. Climb up it 
and look calmly round, and j'our heart 
will be purified." The aunt, tired with 
her long journey, melted under the 
gentle influences of the harvest moon. 
Turning to her niece, she said, " I will 
dwell forever on this hill-top, and join 
with the God of Suwa in watching over 
the land." And with these words, she 
vanished in the moonbeams. 

_ After Obasute, the lofty peak of 
Kdburiki-yama (see p, 254) looms 
ahead until we enter the tunnel, 
§,714: ft. in length, pierced through 
it. On the far side the scene 
changes. The small town of Omi 
lies in a cultivated valley enclosed 



by liare red sandstone hills and high 
well- wooded mountains. Beyond 
Xishijo (Inn, Fuji-ya), we emerge 
from another tunnel about 1 m. long 
into a ravine high up vrhose sides 
peasants' cottages are seen perched. 
Hence we descend to the Matsu- 
moto plain, fronting the giiints of 
the Hida range, — r. Yari-ga-take, to 
be recognised by its conical top, 
Hadaka-yama and others, and away 
to the 1. the huge broad-backed 
Norikura. The line now runs along 
the r. banl? of the wide and stony 
bed of the Saiga wa to 

Akashina [Inn, Akashina-kwan). 
From here a road practicable for 
haska leads to Omachi (see Ete. 30 
Sect. 5). 

Matsumoto {Lins, Maru-mo ; 
Maru-naka) is the centre of trade 
between the southern part of this 
province (Shinshij) and the province 
of Echigo. It stands in the midst 
of a wide, fertile plain, bordered on 
all sides by magnificent mountain 
ranges. A picturesque portion of 
the castle of the former Daimyo 
still remains. 

Thirty cJio to the N. E. of Matsu- 
moto lies the little vill. of Asama, 
noted for its hot springs. Of the 
numerous inns, the best are the 
*Me-no-yu, with Euroj). food, and 
Nishi Ishikawa. 

[The river running through Ma- 
tsumoto is the Saigawa, an 
nfliuent of the Chikuma. Boats 
laden with merchandise go 
down it as far as Shimmachi, a 
town 3 rl 15 eho (8J miles) 
distant from Shinonoi by road. 
If a private boat can be se- 
cured, the day's trip is a pleas- 
ant one. The Sanselji gorge, 
which is passed about half-way, 
presents fine rocky landscapes. 
There are numbers of floating 
rice-mills of a primitive type, 
consisting of a house-boat 
moored in the current, and 
having a paddle-wheel on each 
side driven by the passing 
water.] 



Route 30. — Mvuntains of Hula and Etchu. 



2G3 



Leaving Matsumoto, the line 
keeps along the plain, passing at 
first throngh rice-iields and mnlber- 
ry plantations and later through 
pine-woods. The big mountain 
mass to the 1. of Mural is called 
Hachibuse. 

Shiojiri (see p. 246). 



KOUTE 30. 



The Mountains of PIida and 
Etchu. 

1 . intkoductoiiy remarks. 2. gifu 
to takayama in hida. 3. matsu- 
moto to taeayama by the abo 
and hirayu passes. norikura 
and kasa-dake. yakeyama-toge. 
4. yari-ga-take and hodaka- 
yama. 5. omachi to toyama over 
the haeinoki pass. 6. itoi-gawa 
to omachi and matsumoto. 
oeenge-yama and jonen-daee. 
7. tateyama. 8. toyama to 
takayama by the valley of the 
takahaea-gawa. 9. toyama or 
kanazawa to takayama by the 
valley of the shirakawa. 10. 
haku-san. 11. takayama to 
fukushima on the nakasendo. 
12. ontake and the koma-ga- 
take of shinshu. 13. ena-san. 

1 . — Introductory Eemaeks. 

The provinces of Hida and Etchu 
may be conveniently taken to- 
gether, because hemmed in between 
the same high mountain ranges 
which have prevented them from 
being much visited even by the 
natives of the surrounding prov- 
inces. Few parts of Japan have 
been so little affected by Euroijean 
influence. 



The range bounding these prov- 
inces on the E. is the most con- 
siderable in the empire, the only 
one that can compare with it being 
that between the Fujikawa and 
Tenryu-gawa (Eoute 33). Many of 
the peaks are streaked with snow 
until the early autumn, while in 
some of the recesses and gorges, 
where it is partially screened from 
the sun's rays, the snow never 
entirely disappears. Extending 
almost due N. and S. for a length of 
GO or 70 miles, with a breadth of 
from 5 to 10 miles, this range forms 
a well-nigh impenetrable barrier to 
communication from the S. and E. 
It consists chiefly of granite, over- 
laid in places with igneous rocks ; 
but Norikiu'a and Tateyama are of 
volcanic origin. The highest and 
most conspicuous of the numerous 
peaks, according to the latest 
Geological Survey, are as follows : 

_ FT. 

Orenge-yama (Shiro-uma). 9,974 

Tateyama 9,630 

Jonen-dake 8,695 

Kasa-dake 9,800 

Tari-ga-take 9,889 

Hodaka-yama 9,807 

Norikura 10,08r 

Ontake 10,446 

Koma-ga-take (Shinshu)... 9,446 

Haku-san 8,659 

Ena-san 7,347 

The lower flanl^s of the chain are 
clothed with forests, in which the 
commonest trees are the beech and 
the oak, conifers being also plentiful. 
Among the wild animals of this 
region may be mentioned bears, 
deer, a kind of chamois, and two 
kinds of boar. The streams abound 
with trout. The scanty i^opulation 
consists of hardy, simple folk, 
who support themselves by hunt- 
ing, wood-cutting, and charcoal 
burning. In some parts the women 
wear a kind of baggy trowsers 
resembling bloomers, tied at the 
anldes. The staple food is buck- 
wheat and miUet, while barley, 



264 



Boute 30. — 3Iountains of Hida and Etchu. 



hemp, beans, and mulioerry-leaves 
form the other chief j)rodnctions of 
the yalleys. 

It will thus be seen that the 
mountaineer has but hard fare to 
expect, and will be wise to provide 
himseK with as many tins of meat, 
preserved milk, etc., as can, be pack- 
ed into a small compass. The re- 
commendation is advisedly framed 
in these terms ; for much luggage 
cannot be carried, owing to the 
general scarcity of men to carry it. 
Needless to add that the accom- 
modation is often of the roughest. 
Only at Toyama the capital of 
Etchti, at Takayama the capital of 
Hida, at Matsumoto, and at a few 
other of the larger towns, is the 
ordinary standard of Japanese pro- 
vincial comfort attained. Shoiild 
the varying efl&ciency of the carry- 
ing companies which undertake to 
forward goods from one portion of 
Japan to another permit, compara- 
tive comfort and plenty may be 
ensured by sending boxes of food, 
extra clothing, books, and whatever 
else may be required, ahead to the 
chief towns through which one ex- 
pects to pass. It is, however, 
always advisable to leave an ample 
margin of time. 

For i^ractical convenience' sake, 
four mountains have been included 
in this route that do not topograph- 
ically belong to it — Haku-san, On- 
take, the Ivoma-ga-take of Shin- 
shu, and Ena-san, because, though 
not actually forming part of the 
same range, they stand not far from 
it, and are likely to interest the 
same class of travellers and to be 
climbed during the same trip. 

The district treated of in this 
route may be best approached 
from one of three sides, — from 
Shinonoi, on the Karuizawa-Nao- 
etsu Railway ; from Gifu, on the 
Tokaido Eailway ; or from the Sea 
of Japan, on which last side To- 
yama is the natural starting-point. 
The first-mentioned aj^proach is to 
be preferred by travellers from 
Yokohama, the last two by those 



coming from Kobe. Matsumoto and 
Fukushima make excellent centres 
for excursions among these moun- 
tains. 

A road has been built from 
Shima-shima over the summit of 
the Tokug5-t6ge, a pass which 
crosses the range running parallel 
to the great ridge of which Yari-ga- 
take forms the highest point ; 
thence down to the Azusa-gawa, 
and across to the Hirayu side of the 
chain (see p. 268). 

2. — Feom Gifu on the Tokaido 
Eailway to Taeayama in Hida. 

Itinerary. 

GIFU to :— Ri Chd M. 

Almtami 2 3i 7^ 

SEIil 2 4 5L 

Mabuki 5 8 12f 

Asahari 2 7 5^ 

Kiribora 2 18 g" 

Kanayama 1 25 41 

Shimohara 15 1 

Hoido 3—7* 

Gero 3 2 7^ 

Hagiwara 2 19 6^ 

Osaka 3 17* 

Kukuno 3 32 9| 

TAEAYAMA 3 4 7J 

Total 35 25 87 



This road, called the Hida Kaido, 
is practicable for jinrildshas 
throughout. Three passes — the Fu- 
kuro-zaka, the Xagahara-toge close 
to the borders of Mino and Hida, 
and the Miya-tdge — have to be 
climbed ; elsewhere the road has 
an easy gradient. The best accom- 
modation is at Seki {Inn, *Fuka- 
gawa-ya) and Kanayama {Inn, Haya- 
kawa-ya). Good accommodation 
may also be found at Gero {Inn, 
Yoshimura-ya) and at Osaka {Inn, 
Komatsu-ya). 

The tame character of the land- 
scape during the early part of the 
journey, — low-lying sandy hills clad 
with insignificant trees, — character- 



The Hida-gawa. Matsumoto to Takayama. 



265 



istic of the province of Mino, is 
suddenly exchanged, as if by 
magic, for scenes of rare beauty on 
crossing over into the province of 
Hida near Kanayama, and these 
continue all the rest of the way. 
From Shimohara to Kukuno, the 
traveller wends for forty miles 
along the beautifully wooded valley 
of the Hida-gawa (called Masuda- 
gawa and Adanogo-gawa higher up), 
through a succession of roclcy 
ravines. In flood-time, particularly, 
the scene is grand beyond descrip- 
tion. Curiously enough, one of the 
finest parts of the route — a little 
beyond the hamlet of Hoido — has 
received the ill-sounding name of 
Jigoku (Hell), apparently by reason 
of the aw^e which it inspired in 
rustic beholders when the old 
pathway ran along the face of the 
precipitous rocks that overhang the 
foaming current. Specially roman- 
tic is the gorge from this point on 
to Gero, at which place the valley 
widens, the road becomes somewhat 
undulating, and cultivation is i^os- 
sible. Magnificent, too, is the view 
at the confluence of the Osaka-gawa 
with the main river, which here 
again becomes confined for several 
miles within a densely wooded 
ravine, whose sides rise sheer from 
the water's edge. The hill between 
Kukuno and Takayama receives 
its name of Miya-toge from a very 
ancient Shinto temple, the chief 
one [Ichi-no-miya) of the province. 
It stands in a beautiful grove at 
the foot on the N. side. A short 
run hence leads down to the small 
plain surrounding 

Takayama [Inn, *Makino-ya, 
in Mukae-machi). This, the capital 
of Hida, is divided into three main 
parts, called Ichi-no-machi, Ni-no- 
machi, and San-no-machi. Shut in, 
as it is, by lofty mountain ranges, 
Takayama remains difficult of ac- 
cess. Note the elaborate Shintd 
shrines in miniature erected in 
front of many of the chief build- 
ings, and dedicated to Akiha-san 
for protection against fire (see p. 



234). A good panorama of the town 
and neighbouring mountains can be 
obtained from Shiroyama, on which 
the Daimyo's castle formerly stood. 
It is only 10 min. climb, 

3. — Feom Matsumoto to Takayama 
BY THE Abo and Hirayu Passes. 

[Ascent of Noeikuka and Kasa- 

DAKE. NoMUC;i-TOGE.] 

Itinerary. 

MATSUMOTO to :— Bi Clio M. 

Shima-shima , ... 5 14 13|- 

Inekoki ] o J--- 1 — 2. J 

Onogawa h ft|... 3 — 7 J 

Hirayu i g^.S... 6 — 14| 

Hatahoko .' 3 8 7| 

Hiomo 21 1^ 

Otani 1 — 2^ 

TMiAYAMA 3 17^ 

Total 23 8 56-| 



Jinrikishas can be taken from 
Matsumoto to Shima-shima. They 
are also practicable between Hata- 
hoko and Takayama, but are not 
to be found at the villages on the 
way. It might be possible, by 
writing in advance to the inn at 
Takayama, to have some sent out to 
await one's arrival. The inter- 
mediate section must be walked, 
and the advice given on p. 265 
regarding baggage strictly borne in 
mind. Few walks of thirty miles 
are to be found in the whole of 
Japan comparable for wild and 
varied picturesqueness to that from 
Shima-shima to Hirayu up the 
valley of the Azusa-gawa, and over 
the Hinoki and Abo passes. 

Leaving Matsumoto, the way is 
level and good for several miles as 
far as the first of a number of 
hamlets, known collectively under 
the name of Ilada. It then passes 
through a pleasant grove of red 
pines, becoming somewhat rough, 
and soon strikes the Azusa-gawa, 
where it again becomes good. 



Roide 30. — Mountains of Hida and Etchu. 



Shima-shima [Inn, Sliimizn-ya) 
is divided iu t^s'o by the river, the 
further part, called Ilash'iba, being 
prettily ijerched on the r. bank. 
This is the best place from which 
to ascend Yari-ga-take (see next 
section). 

From Shima-shima, the road fol- 
lows the r. bank of the Aznsa-gawa, 
passing through Inekoki, a hamlet 
known in the neighbourhood for 
its kaze-ana, or " wind-caves." 
These are merely small excava- 
tions in the hillside, used as 
storehouses. Thenceforward the 
entire walk \\p the river gorge, 
walled in by densely wooded moun- 
tains, is inexpressibly grand. The 
path clings, or should cling, to the 
sides of the living rock ; but fre- 
quently jiortions of it shp down 
into the gulf below, leaving only a 
precarious foothold. Some of the 
worst clefts and landslips have been 
bridged over by primitive stnic- 
tures. The only opening in tlie 
valley wall occurs about 3 m. before 
Onogawa, where a stream flows in 
1. from the Nomugi-toge. 

Onogawa (ixxjr inn) is a small 
vill. standing on the 1. banli of the 
Maegawa, an affluent of tlie Azusa- 
gawa, at a height of 3,300 ft. But 
it wiU. be better to push on to Shira- 
hone {Inn, Sait5, hot sulphur baths), 
a little over 1 ri off the road. 

[Ascent of Norikuia. Pil- 
grims coming from the direc- 
tion of Shinshu make the 
ascent_of this sacred mountain 
from Onogawa ; those coming 
from the west go up from, the 
vill. of Hatahoko. The moun- 
tain may also be ascended 
from Hirayu, as described 
below. 

1. As the climb from Ono- 
fjaica to the summit and back 
may i>rove too much for one 
day, the mountaineer is advised 
to sleep at a hut (4,8'JO ft.) 1^ ri 
above Onogawa. On the way 
are passed the remains of old 



furnaces, heaps of slag and ore, 
etc., indicating the site of the 
once extensive smelting works 
of Ohl Ginzan. The ore con- 
sists of galena containing 
a small quantity of silver. 
The sleeping-hut stands near 
a small stream abounding 
in trout. There is no 
path from the hut to the 
summit, and only occasional 
indications of a track. Pas- 
sage has to be forced through 
long grass, trees, and bamboo- 
grass, and then up the bed of 
a small torrent, where a sulphur 
spring breaks out, until one 
reaches a steep snow-field. 
The final cumb le^ids over lava 
blocks and scorias, ending at 
the small shrine of Asahi Gon- 
gen on the northernmost and 
liighest peak of the mountain. 

Norikura is an old volcano, 
the present peak being really 
one of the sides of the crater 
from which extensive lava- 
streams formerly jDOUjed. The 
view should embrace all the 
great j)eaks of the Japanese 
Alps, — granite giants, which 
unfortunately are too often 
veiled in rain or mist. _ 

Instead of returning to Ono- 
gawa, it will be found pleasjxnt- 
er to descend to Shirahone (see 
left column), which is 2^ ri 
fiurther on towards Hirayu. 

2. The way from Hirayu 
(locally called the ura-michi, or 
"back road") leads past a 
ma,gni(iceut cascade more than 
200 ft. high, formed by the 
Takahara-gawa near its source, 
and through some mines {ko- 
zan) 2 hrs. from Hirayn, where 
it may bo advisable to spend 
the night, so as to make an 
early start. Though the mines 
lie at an altitude of 7,000 ft., 
work is carried on all the year 
round. The ascent begins, if 
one may so say, by a drop of 
several hundred feet down a 
steej) shale slope to a torrent. 



Ascent of Norikura and Kasa-dake. 



267 



whence it is a roiigli-aud- 
tumble scramble up through 
the forest. Emerging from 
this, the climb is over rocks and 
snow. A lake surrounded by- 
rugged peaks, and some natural 
caves, are interesting objects 
passed on the way. The climb 
from the mines to a ruined hut 
called Murodo, near the tojj, 
will occupy about 5 hrs. The 
remainder of the way coincides 
with that from Onogawa. 

3. From Hataholco. The 
distance to the summit from 
this place is estimated at 7 rl, 
the path leading via Ike-no- 
mata, 23 cho, and the silver 
mines of lUragane, 1| ri] 

A short ascent leads from Ono- 
gawa to a stream running at the 
foot of the Ilinokl-tdge, up which 
latter is an easy walk of 40 min. 
At 2 hrs. from Onogawa, the swift 
current of the Azusa-gav\'a has to 
be crossed on a couple of rough 
pine logs. (The path to Shirahone 
branches oil: 1. at the to^) of the 
pass, rejoining the main road at 
the river crossing.) Here com- 
mences a very steep cHmb (i^racti- 
cally the beginning of the Abo-toge) 
through a thick wood to the kist 
rest-house, called Tochi-zaka, 
whence the remainder of the way 
to the summit of that pass is a 
X^erpetual succession of ups and 
downs, sometimes over a grassy 
surface, at other times up steep 
and stony slopes, but mostly under 
shade, and at no i^oint offering any 
extensive prospect. 4^ hours' walk 
from the Azusa-gav.'a brings us to 
the top of the Abo-toge {6,400 ft.), 
which forms the boundary between 
the provinces of Shinshu and Hida, 
and is remarkable for the beauty 
of the virgin forest crowning 
it. The way down affords glorious 
views r. of Hodaka-yama and Kasa- 
dake, and of Haku-san to the S.W., 
also charming sylvan scenery with 
moss and ferns in abundance. 
The descent takes 1| hr. to the 



hollow between high mountains 
where nestles the hamlet of 

Hirayu (passable inn). This 
j)lace, lying 4,500 ft. above the sea, 
boasts a chalybeate sirring, the 
temperature being high and the 
baths simple tanlvs under open 
sheds. Note the fine waterfall near 
Hirayu referred to on the previous 
l)age. Silver is mined on a small 
scale in the immediate vicinity. 
Hirayu should be made the head- 
quarters of those mountaineers who 
desire to scale Kasa-dake and, as 
already indicated, Norikura. 

[Ascent of Kasa-dake. The 

grey cliffs and shining snow- 
slopes of Kasa-dake form a 
striking picture to one looking 
down the narrow valley to the 
N.W. of Hirayu. The ascent 
can best be made from Nakao, 
a tiny hamlet inliabited by 
hunters and wood-cutters ; 
or from Gamada, about J mile 
below Nakao, which is pictur- 
esquely situated and x^ossesses 
hot sulphur baths. The climb, 
which is extremely arduous, 
will occupy about 8 or 9 hrs., 
and the descent 7 or S hrs. 
"Starting at daylight," says 
Rev. Walter Weston, " vre 
descend into the Migi-mata 
(Right Fork), and ascend the 
rocivy torrent bed until a 
forest is reached, through 
whose dense slippery under- 
growth a way must be forced. 
Emerging at length, we cross 
the torrent of the Hidari-niata 
(Left Fork) by means of any 
bridge that may be improvised, 
This is followed by a stiff 
climb over broken rocks and 
long slopes of snow, whose 
lower limit is at an altitude of 
about 5,000 ft., in the wUd 
ravine called Anage-no-tani. 
Here to the 1. a pretty cascade 
shoots over a cliff, to disappear 
under the snow. The climb 
now becomes more difficult, 
the rocks being steeper and 



268 



Koide 30. — Mouniains of Hida and Etchu. 



bigger, Mhilst their smooth 
surface renders some sort of 
icaraji indispensable. Some 
precipitous grassy slopes then 
lead over easier going on snow 
and debris up to the final 
arete, strikingly characterised 
by slabs of broken andesite 
lying in regular layers on the 
crest of the ridge. In shelter- 
ed nooks varions Alpine flow- 
ers delight the eye, which 
wanders afar oyer all the chief 
l^eaks of Central Japan, and 
even to distant Fuji. From 
the point where the final arete 
is reached, we turn to the 
right, and a scramble of half- 
an-hour leads to a cairn on the 
summit." 



From Gamada a road leads 
over the range between Hida 
and Shinshu by the Yake- 
yama-toge between the peaks 
of Yakeyama N. and Iw6-dake 
S., — down to the hot springs of 
Kamikocld (good inn) and the 
Tokugd hut at the foot of the 
IDass of the same name (see 
next page). The way leads up 
gentle slopes at first, but grows 
gradually steeper till reaching 
the foot of the pass proper. 
This zigzags up densely wood- 
ed mountain sides, and then 
follows a gully to the summit, 
where sulphurous vapour issues 
from numerous fissures. The 
altitude of the pass is about 
7,200 ft., and the yiews towards 
Kasa-dake, and of Hodaka-yama 
in close proximity are magnifi- 
cent. The ascent from Gama,da 
to the summit occupies just 
under 3 hrs. ; the descent on 
the further side, though much 
rougher, will take only 1 hr. 
From the foot of the x)ass the 
way leads to the Azusa-gawa, 
and then turns 1. along its r. 
bank to Kamikochi, about 1 m. 
altogether. Beyond Kamikochi 
the path crosses the river and 



follows its 1. banlv, past the 
Tokugo hut, to the foot of the 
steep Tokugo-toge. The whole 
walk from Kami-kochi to 
Shima-shima (p. 266) over the 
Tokugo Pass will occupy, about 
8 hrs. including necessary stoi)- 
pages.] 

The ascent of the Ilirayu-toge, 
1 ri, is very steep ; the descent 
through a wood of beech, fir, and 
oak, also for 1 ri, much less so. A 
considerable area of the forest on 
the way down has been cleared to 
make room for the cultivation of 
buckwheat. This is undertaken, 
not by the local peasantry, but by 
others from the adjoining i3rovince 
of Etchu, who cross over annually 
for the purpose. From the bottom 
of the actual pass, the path con- 
tinues to descend gradually down 
the narrow valley of the Nyugawa 
for many miles, — almost as far as 
Otani, — shut in by lofty wooded 
mountains, and occasionally dotted 
with houses either isolated or 
grouped together in tiny hamlets. 
Hafahoko is the only i:)lace that 
offers tolerable accommodation. 
Here, too, the road, hitherto a mere 
pathway, widens so as to admit of 
the transport of merchandise by 
cart. 

After the valley opens out, the 
scenery assumes a more varied 
character, with thriving farmsteads, 
murmuring brooks utilised to turn 
water-wheels, hills of lesser height 
near at hand, and grand mountains 
in the distance. Later on the road 
enters j)ine-clad hillocks, and passes 
by the vill. of Matsunokl, where a 
rope stretched across the valley 
testifies to the survival of an ancient 
superstition. 

According to the date at -wliich the 
weather causes the rope to snap, omens 
are drawn for the crops of the ensuing 
twelvenaonth. It is replaced yearly on 
the 7th day of the 7th moon. This rope, 
the sacred shime-naica of .Shinto, employ- 
ed to symbolise divinity, here stands for 
the celestial beings called Tanabata, for 
whose i^oetic legend see Things Japanese, 
Article " Sun, Moon, and Stars." 



Ascent of Yari-ga-take. 



269 



This spot is one of the "Eight 
Views" of the province of Hida. 
For the prefectiiral town of 

Takayama, see p. 265. 

[An alternative way from Shima- 
shima to Takayama is over the 
Nomugi-toge,— a succession 
of lips and downs. From the 
summit (6,000 ft.), Ontake, 
Norikura, and Yari-ga-take are 
visible. The vill. of Nomugi 
(4,600 ft.) lies 1^ ri down on the 
other side, and is the best place 
to stop at on the way. The 
itinerary is as follows : — 

SHBIA-SHIMA to :— 





m 


Cho 


31. 


Inekoki \ -S 


1 





2.V 


Nyuyama g 
Yoriaido rg 


2 


IS 


5 


Kawaura ^ 


2 


18 


6 


Nomugi / § 
Naka-no-shuku 


3 
3 


23 


9 


Kibyti-dani . . . 
Kabuto 


1 

2 


13 
31 


3i 
7 


TAKAYAMA 


2 


34 


n- 



Total 19 29 48}] 



4. — Yaki-ga-take and Hodaka- 

YAMA. 

Yari-g-a-take, lit. Spear Peak, 
is most easily reached from the 
Shinshu side via Shinonoi on the 
Karuizawa-Niioetsu Kailway, Matsu- 
moto, and Shima-shima (see p. 266), 
where guides can be engaged. The 
lirst part of the way lies along a 
lovely valley in which, at a distance 
of about 4 m. from Shima-shima, 
stands a mineral bath-house called 
Furo-talra. The path ultimately 
crosses the steep Tokugo-toge, 7,100 
ft., between Nabe-kamuri-yama on 
the N., and Kasumi-ga-take on the 
S. The Tokugo sleeping-hut, 4,950 
ft., on the far side of the pass, is 
grandly situated in the forest on the 
banl?: of the Azusa-gawa, at a dis- 
tance of some 7 hrs. on foot from 
Shima-shima, and fair-sized trout 



are here caiight in abundance. 
Three miles further on there is 
good accommodation at Kamikdchi 
(see p. 268). Opposite rises the 
magnificent granite peak of Hodaka- 
yama, which in form and position 
resembles the Aiguille du Dru near 
Chamonix. From the Tokugo hut, 
the climb to the summit will take 
about 9 or 10 hrs., the distance 
being calculated at 8 or 9 ri, though 
the rough nature of the ground to 
be traversed makes such calcula- 
tions of comparatively little use. 
The descent to the Akasaka no 
Iicagoya — a camping place for 
hunters — will occupy a good walker 
2 hrs. or so, fair shelter under the 
lee of an overhanging rock, and 
plenty of good water and firewood 
supplying his needs for a night's 
bivouac. 

[An alternative way up, branch- 
ing off 5 m. beyond the Tokugo 
hut, is via the Yoko-o-dani. 
Some consider this shorter. In 
any case it is more difiicult ; 
but the scenery is ruggedly 
grand, and the torrent need not 
be so often crossed. A cave 
about I m. up the valley gives 
good shelter, if needed. The 
ordinary route is rejoined at 
the base of a spur thrown out 
from the cliffs of a peak, which 
a broken arete connects with 
l''ari-ga-take.] 

The route lies alternately up one 
side or other of the bed or banks 
of this torrent for about 3 hrs. On 
the 1. the steep, craggy, granitic 
precipices of Hodaka-yama, streaked 
with slojDes of shining snow, rise to 
a height of 9,800 ft., while on the 
r. are tamer wooded hills. Noble 
mountains are these precipitous 
masses of granite, surpassing in 
wildness any to be seen elsewhere 
in Japan, their curiously steep 
forms being not unlike some of 
the ideal crags depicted in Chinese 
art. There is no part of the 
country in so truly primeval a 



270 



Route 30. — llountains of Hida and Etchu. 



state — wdth perhaps the exception 
of some districts of Yamato — as 
this torrent-riven valley in the 
heart of the Hicla-Shinshu range, 
whose sole frequenters are hnnters 
seeking bears or the sheep-faced 
antelope. At an elevation of 6,400 
ft., the Akasaka no Iica-goya is 
passed; and just above it the 
forest ceases, and the first snow- 
field is crossed. Hence upward 
the way lies mostly over snow ; 
but jiist below the summit, 
it winds up and among huge 
bare masses of rock jDiled in inde- 
scribable confusion. From the ir- 
regular resting of some of these 
crags, so-called " caves " are formed, 
wherein the hunters take up their 
abode whilst ^^atching for bears. 
Ptarmigan are common here. After 
a stiff climb over snow and debris, 
and a rather dangerous scramble 
up one side of the i^eak, we gain the 
summit, which consists of a short 
narrow ridge of broken rock, — the 
tip of the " Si^ear," nearly perpen- 
dicukir on all sides but the S.E, 

" The view," says Eev. Walter 
Weston, "as one looks straight 
down into the T\ild and desoLate 
valleys that stretch away from the 
base of the mountain, is most 
impressive. To the north lie the 
almost unknown peaks of the range 
between the provinces of Shinshti 
and Etchu, which stretches far 
towards the Sea of Japan. On the 
west stands the rugged form of 
Kasa-dake, Southwards, the eye 
rests on the nearer giants of this 
group, Hodaka-yama (Myojin-dake) 
and the massive double-topped 
Korilaira, and beyond these Ontake 
with the Koma-ga-take of Shinshu 
on its eastern side. To the south- 
east, but farther off, stands the 
great mass of mountains on the 
borders of Shinshu and Koshti, 
the most prominent peaks being 
Shirane-san, Alcaishi-san, and 
Koma-ga-tiike. But most striking 
of all is the stately cone of Fuji 
rising with its majestic sweep 
supreme above all else, at a dis- 



tance, as the crow flies, of over 85 
miles. To enumerate all the sum- 
mits to be seen from the point on 
which we stand, would be to give 
a list of all the grandest mountains 
in Japan. Only the haze and 
clouds to the north-west prevent 
our view from embracing the sea in 
the Bay of Toyama, so that nearly 
the whole width of the central 
I)ortion of the empire is included in 
this magnificent prospect." 

The descent v»ill occupy a good 
walker 2| hrs. to the Altasaka-no- 
Iwa-goya, and thence 12^ hrs. to 
Shima-shima. 

The ascent of Hodaka-yama 
should be made from Kamikochi (p. 
268), as it is more conveniently 
situated than the Tokugo hut and 
affords better accommodation. IVIr. 
Weston says : — 

" This mountain, also locally 
known as Myojin-dake, is one of 
the most stridng peaks in Japan, 
its snow-seamed granite cliffs 
rising 5,000 ft. sheer from the 
narrow valley of the Azusa-gawa. 
For a short distance the line of 
ascent — there is no path to follow — 
lies in the direction of Yari-ga- 
take, and then turns abruptly to the 
1. through the forest which clothes 
the lower slopes of the mountain. 
A very rough scramble through 
bamboo grass and dense under- 
growth at length brings one out on 
to loose rocks partly concealed by 
low shrubs, after which several 
sharp ridges have to be surmount- 
ed and nearly perpendicular cliffs 
traversed by holding on to bushes 
and creepers. Eventually we 
emerge into a wild ravine, and a 
long climb up the loose and gradu- 
ally steepening rocks leads to the 
foot of a snow-sloi)e, lying at an 
angle of about 40°, at an altitude of 
8,500 ft. A stiff climb up this, and 
then a still rougher scramble up 
large masses of smooth rock land us 
on the main arete, from which rise 
the various peaks of the mountain. 
The highest is seen on the left, 
and a somewhat difficult ascent 



Harinoki Pass. 



271 



places the climber on the topmost 
summit, which is composed of 
broken blocks of very hard, close- 
grained granite. The distant view 
is similar to that from Yari-ga-take. 
The ascent will take some 6 hrs. 
exclusive of halts, the descent about 
1 hr. less." 

5, — Feom Omachi to Toyama oyee 

THE HaEINOKI-TOGB. 

The greater portion of the follow- 
ing itinerary and of the description 
given below must bo regarded as 
approximate only, the difficulty of 
keeping communication open across 
so rugged a country being pecu- 
liary great. There is no j)ossibility 
of crossing the pass before the 
yama-hiraki, or " mountain ©ijen- 
ing," on the 20th June. Even du- 
ring the summer months comrauni- 
cation is often entirely interrupted, 
and none but the most experienced 
mountaineers can hoj)e to succeed 
in forcing a way for themselves. 
Difficulty is sometimes experienced 
in obtaining the services of hunters 
to act as guides, the Harinoki- 
toge being now seldom crossed 
even by the natives, as the central 
portion of the original track has, 
owing to avalanches and landshps, 
been practically effaced. Still, the 
route remains one of the grandest, 
as well as one of the most arduous, 
mountaineering expeditions in 
Japan. 

Itinerary. 

AKASHINA to :— Ri Chd M. 

Omachi 5 12 13 

Noguchi 18 It 

Top Harinoki Pass 5 5 12^ 

Kurobe 3 — 7| 

Top of Zara-goe ... 1 7 3 

Yumoto 2 — 5 

Hara 5 — 12^ 

Omi 1 — 2,^ 

Kamidaki 3 12 S-J 

TOYAMA 3 20 U 

Total 30 2 73^ 



Basha can bo taken from Aka- 
shina station (see p. 262) to Omachi, 
tiine 3 hours. 

OmacM [Inn, Yama-cho) pre- 
sents an old-world appearance, 
owing to its flat-roofed wooden 
houses like the cottages in the 
Alx^s, with heavy stones to keep 
down the shingling. At Norjuchi, 
where comfortable quarters can be 
obtained at the house of the Ku- 
cho, enquiries should be made con- 
cerning the state of the road, and 
stout-limbed guides engaged for 
the ascent of the Harinoki Pass. 
Very little shelter is to be found 
before reaching the Ryuzan-jita 
baths. There is a hut at Kurobe 
and a rude camping-place called 
Ushigoya just below the summer 
limit of the snow on the pass, 
about 1 ri from the top, at an eleva- 
tion of some 5,500 ft. As it is not 
feasible to reach Kurobe from No- 
guchi in one day, the traveller must 
put up with this ; and on the follow- 
ing day a short, but extremely 
rough, scramble over the snow and 
down the steep mountain side and 
the torrent bed on the W. of the 
l^ass, will bring him to Kurobe, 
where the second night must be 
spent. 

From the summit (8,120 ft.), Fuji 
is seen as in a vignette between the 
ranges of Yatsu-ga-take and Koma- 
ga-take, the other most noteworthy 
feature of the view being Y''ari-ga- 
take. 

[A round, bare peak called Go- 
roku-dake, 9,100 ft., may be 
ascended from this point by 
forcing a way through low, 
dense clumps of creeping pine ; 
but there is no shelter to sleep 
in. The peak consists of 
trachyte porphyry piled against 
granite.] 

The traveller now leaves the 
province of Shinshu for that of 
Etchu, and will notice, both on the 
summit and on the way down, the 
alder-trees {hari-no-ki or han-no-ki) 



272 



Route 30. — 3Ioiintains of Hida and Etchu. 



which give their name to the jmss. 
The Vfxlley on this side is known as 
the Harinold-sawa. The Kurohe 
hut stands on the bank of the swift 
Kurobe-gawa, (good trout are taken 
in this stream), which has to be 
forded before the night's shelter can 
be reached. From here to Eytizan- 
jita is another short but arduous 
scramble over the Xukui-dani-tdge 
and the Zara-goe, 7,300 ft. The 
valley of the latter pass, filled with 
shining slopes of snow topj)ed with 
l^recipitous cliffs, is very lovely, 
whilst the view from the summit 
is magnificently wild. All around, 
enormous landslips and confused 
masses of rock, hurled down from 
the tops of the mountains to the 
gorge below, bear witness to the 
terribly destructive forces by which 
this part of the country has been 
ravaged. The rocky mass in front 
is one of the slopes of Tateyama, 
while on the 1. a view of the soft 
plains of Toyama and of the sea 
beyond contrasts agreeably with 
the savage aspect of the nearer 
landscape. The Jinzu-gawa is seen 
in the plain winding its way 
towards the Sea of Japan, and the 
blue outline of the provinces of 
Kaga and Noto fills up the distant 
background. The descent leads 
through a wilderness of rocks and 
stones, and includes the most 
difficult portions of the whole ex- 
pedition. Here and there sulphur 
fumes are seen rising from the 
mountain side, and shortly before 
reaching Eyuzan-jita a circular 
Like {Mago-ike) of hot sulphurous 
water is passed on the 1. hand. 

Yumoto, or Byilzan-jita, com- 
monly called Tateyama Onsen (fair 
accommodation) on account of its 
hot springs, stands at a height of 
4,150 ft., in a desolate waste, — 
a chaos of large boulders, sand, and 
stones left by the great earthquake 
of 1858. For ascent of Tateyama 
from this place, see p. 274. On 
quitting this place, the path con- 
tinues down a grand, rugged gorge, 
called Dashiicara-dani at its upper 



end. Before descending to Kami- 
daki (good inn), the best general 
view of Tateyama and of the range 
forming the boundary of the 
province of Etchu is obtained. 
The road onward crosses a well- 
cultivated plain to 
Toyama (see Ete. 47). 

6. — Feon Ito^gawa ox the Sea of 

Japan to Omachi and Matsu- 

MOTO. Ascent of Okenge- 

YAMA, Shiho-uma-dake, 

AND JoNEN-DAKE. 

A day's journey "W. along the 
coast from Naoetsu leads to Itoi- 
gawa, whence a jinriMsha road 
runs S. to Omachi and Matsu- 
moto, thus sldrting nearly the 
whole length of the E. side of the 
Hida-Etchu range, affording grand 
views of many of the mountains, 
and giving access to their inmost 
recesses. This road follows the 
valley of the Himekawa, — here a 
roaring torrent, there a silent 
though swift-flowing stream. After 
6 o'i of varied and picturesque 
scenery, we reach Yamanobo, where 
good quarters may be found at the 
Soncho's, and arrangements made 
for_the ascent of Orenge-yama. 

Orenge-yama, the highest 
mountain in the N. portion of the 
range, receives its name from a 
fancied resemblance to the lotus- 
flower. Strictly sioeaking, it is a 
cluster of peaks rather than one 
distinct mountain. The ascent of 
the highest point presents no 
special difficulties. From the Son- 
cho's house it is a walk of about 7 
hrs^, including halts at the hamlets 
of Odokoro and Ivishi, to Benge On- 
sen, 1\ ri before reaching which we 
climb the Hatcho-zaka, in whose 
neighbourhood is a mine called 
Itatate. Both accommodation and 
fare at the Onsen are poor. The 
solfataras, however, and the lake 
well deserve inspection. The 
numerous hot springs vary in 
temj)erature from 95° to 118° 
Fahrenheit. Leaving the Onsen at 



Ascent of Jonen-dake and Tateyania. 



273 



day-break, a roiigliish scramble 
through the forest and over snow- 
slopes brings us in 3 hrs. to another 
quaint old mine, fine views being 
gained of the great snow-clad peak 
of Yuldkura-dake on the opposite 
side of the valley. From the mine 
to the mountain top takes 2J hrs. 
more, chiefly on snow, until reach- 
ing the final arete, whence over 
broken volcanic rocks. At the 
summit we are greeted by an 
astonishingly extensive view, rang- 
ing from Toyama Bay and the 
peninsula of Noto on the N.W. to 
Fuji on the S.E., — in fact right 
across Central Japan. The nearer 
prospect, especially on the E., is 
that of precipitous broken depths 
and great glistening snow-slopes. 
The descent to the Onsen need not 
occupy more than 3| hrs. 

From Yamanobo to Omachi is a 
distance of about 15 r'l. Jinrildshas 
must not be counted on ; but horses 
or small carts [ni-guruma) can 
always be procured for the luggage. 
The best accommodation on the 
way is at Kudarise, also called 
Bamba {Inn, Zeni-ya). 

Shiro-uma-dake, the most S.W, 
high peak of the Orenge group, is to 
be ascended from Yofsuya, a hamlet 
at its foot (inn and guide). The 
climb takes a whole day, the ensu- 
ing night being spent at a hut 
near the summit and the descent 
occupying 7 hrs. Many Alpine 
plants are found here, and traces of 
a glacier have been discovered. 

Beyond Yotsuya the valley opens 
out, and the road passes on the E. 
side of lovely Lake Aoki, and also 
later on of Lake Kizaki, _hetore 
reaching the plain in which Omachi 
(see p. 271) stands. 

Baslia run between Omachi and 
Akashina station, 5 ri 12 cho. 
Grand views during all the first 
part of the way as we cross the 
lov/er foot-hills of the Hida range. 

For the ascent of Jonen-dake, 
take the road branching off W. at 



Toyoshina (1 rl 9 cho from Aka- 
shina) to the hamlet of Iwahara, 
about 2 ri, which is the best start- 
ing-point for this, the beautiful 
pyramidiil peak due E. of Yari-ga- 
take. Guides for the ascent can be 
procured through the Soncho of the 
village. The ascent will occupy 
about 12 hrs., and the descent 8 
hrs., inclusive of halts. Tv/o days 
are therefore necessary, the first of 
which is devoted to the climb up to 
the bivouac on the N. shoulder of 
the mountain, the ascent being 
completed early the following 
morning, so as to ensure a clear 
view and a return to Iwahara by 
daylight. The expedition begins 
by fording the swift toiTent of the 
Karasu-gawa, after which we turn 
westward over a moor, whose soft 
springy turf is gay with kikijo and 
lilies. After several miles of this, 
the track winds round the flanks of 
the intervening hills until, about 5 
hrs. from the start, we again reach 
the wild rocky bed of the Karasu- 
gawa. Our way now follov/s the 
stream for nearly 5 hrs. more of 
very rough and arduous work. 
Leaving it at length, we strike up a 
steep ravine on the left. Up this, 
or through the trees of the precipi- 
tous slops on its r., we scramble to 
the camping-place where the night 
is spent in the pine forest, and 
where a magnificent view rewards 
us for our toil. Confronting us are 
all the mighty precipices between 
Y'ari-ga-take and Hodaka-yama, 
seamed and streaked with snow. 
Grander still, after the final climb, 
is the panorama from the summit, 
including nearly all the great peaks 
of the Hida-Shinshu range, with 
Fuji and the intervening Kdshu 
group, the Koma-ga-take of Shinshti, 
Asama-yama, and many more. 



7. — Tateyama. 

Tateyama is the collective name 
given to the lofty summits which 
stand on the E. border of the pixjv- 



274 



Route 30. — Mountains of Hida and Etchu. 



ince of Etchu, to the N.W. of the 
Harinoki Pass. The highest of the 
peaks {Go-honsha) rises 9,630 ft, 
aboTB the level of the sea. The 
main ascent leads wp the V/. side of 
the mountain from the hamlet of 
Ash'ikura (accommodation at the 
Shinto priest's house), which can be 
reached from Toyama, the capital 
of Etchu, via Kamidaki (good inn). 
The distances are : — Toyama to 
Kamidaki, 3 ri 12 cho by jinriMsha ; 
thence on foot to Ashikura, 3 ri 8 
cho, — making 16^ m. altogether. 

The way up the mountain is 
arduous in i)arts, nor is there any 
shelter, except two or three wretch- 
ed huts, to be got during the whole 
distance of 20 m. from Ashikura to 
the Murodo, 2^ m. from the sum- 
mit. The Murodo itself is a better 
and larger hut, which is opened for 
the accommodation of pilgrims 
from the 20th July to the 10th 
September. Scarcely anything in 
the way of bedcling is procurable, 
and but little to eat except rice. 
(In a yalley situated about 6 cho to 
the 1. of the Murodo are the re- 
markable solfataras of Ojigoku, or 
" Big Hell." The way thither, after 
passing between two tarns, one of 
which is probably an old crater, 
reaches the brow of a hill com- 
manding a bird's-eye view of the 
springs. The whole valley seems 
alive with ix)ols of boiling mud and 
sulphur. Descending to the bottom, 
one should tread carefully amidst 
the small hillocks of sulphur, as a 
fiilse step might plunge one into 
the boihng liquid beneath.) 

From the Murodo hut to the 
highest summit, whose name of Go- 
honsha comes from the picturesque 
temple with Mhich it is crowned, 
is 1 hr. climb, partly across snow- 
slopes and then up the rocky jxjak 
forming the top of the mountain. 
At the end, a suixjrb panorama 
unfolds itself before the spectator's 
gaze. TTie number of mountains 
to be distinguished is exceptionally 
great. To the extreme 1., looking 
eastward, are seen Myoko-zan and 



Yoneyama in Echigo, Nantai-zan 
near Nildvo, and Togakushi-san and 
Asama-yama in Shinshu. Towards 
the S.E. rises the range of Yatsu-ga- 
take, with the isolated -penk of 
Tateshina-yama, beyond which are 
seen Fuji and the high peaks of 
Shirane and Koma-ga-take in 
Koshu. To the S. are Koma-ga- 
take and Ontake in Shinshu ; Yari- 
ga-take, Norikura, and Kasadake, 
with (in closer proximity) Y^akushi- 
dake, — all in Hida. To the S.Yv^ is 
Haku-san on the borders of Ivaga. 
Belovr, to the V>^., lie the plains of 
Kaga and Etchu, the latter watered 
by the rivers Jinzti and Jogwanji, 
while to the N. the view is bounded 
by the Sea of Japan. 

The traveller who succeeds in 
reaching Eyuzan-jita (see p. 272) 
will find the climb from there 
up Tateyama far preferable to that 
from Ashikura ; for though the first 
part of the ascent is very steep, 
the whole exi^edition can be com- 
fortably accomplished in one day, 
if the start be made at daybreak, 
and thus the night in the crowded 
and uncomfortable Murodd, with 
its host of pilgrims and fleas, may 
be avoided. A Httle more than 
1 hr. climb up the cliffs by the 
pilgrims' path, just opj)Osite the 
iDaths, lands him on the edge of a 
■udde i;>lateau called Mida-ga-hara, 
the view from near the toj» of 
the ridge being exceptionally fine. 
The track is then fairly level, 
though often wet and slipjDery, and 
ultimately falls in "^dth the path 
leading from Ashilmra to the sum- 
mit of the mountain. 



i. — From Toyama in Excnfi to 
Takayama in Hida by the Val- 
ley of the Takahaea-gawa. 



Itinerary. 

TOYAMA to:— Hi Oho 

IvamiOkubo 3 18 

Sasazu 30 



J/. 

81 



Takahara and Shirahawa Valkyr 



275 



Katakake 2 21 6^ 

Nakayama 1 18 3^- 

Higasbi Mozumi ... 1 28 4^- 

Funatsu 4 6 lOJ 

Fuiukawa 5 26 14 

TAKAYAMA 3 28 9^ 

Total 23 31 58^ 



This picturesque route is prac- 
ticable for jinrikislias. The best 
accommodation is at ITigashi Mozu- 
mi, F'unatsu, and Furukawa. Before 
reaching the boundary of the prov- 
inces of Etchii and Hida, the Jinzu- 
gawa curves away to the r., while 
the road to Funatsu follows the 
Takahara-gawa, one of its affluents. 
The view at the forking of the rivers 
is most picturesque, and the whole 
way hence to Funatsu ruggedly 
grand. Near Katakake an alter- 
native road to Furukawa diverges r. 
up the Miyagawa. It is built up 
with Cyclopean masonry, and leads 
through beautifully wooded valleys, 
but misses the Akasaka-toge. 

[Travellers bound for the Hida- 
Shinshti mountains may con- 
veniently diverge at Funatsu 
to the hamlet of Hirayu 
(p. 267), about 9 n, by 
following a jinrikisha road 
along the Takahara-gawa near- 
ly to its source ; or else they 
may diverge 1. 2 ri before 
Hirayu, up a path to Gamacla 
(p. 267), 1 ri, making 8 ri 
altogether from Funatsu, the 
luggage having to be shouldered 
by the jinrildsha coolies.] 

Between Funatsu and Furukawa 
we cross the Akasaka-toge, 3,850 ft. 
above the sea, and 1,600 ft. above 
Funatsu. On the way down, there 
is a beautiful view across the Yoka- 
machi valley and the low pine-clad 
hills separating this valley from 
that of the Miyagawa and the plain 
which surrounds the provincial 
cai^ital of 

Takayania (see p. 265). 



9. — From Totama oe Kanazawa to 
Takayama in Hida by the Val- 
ley OF THE ShIEAKAWA. 

The first stage in either case is 
by rail to Takaoka, whence also by 
rail southwards to Jo-ga-hana, after 
which the itinerary is as follows : — 

JO-GA-HANA to :— Ri Chb M. 

ShimoNashi 4 4 10 

Nishi Akao 2 26 6| 

Tsubaki-hara 3 10 8 

lijima 2 18 6 

Hirase 2 30 7 

Iwase 2 5 5|- 

Kurodani 1 22 3| 

Mumai 1 33 4=| 

KamiOdori 2 18 6 

Maki-ga-hora 2 26 6| 

Mikka-machi 10 f 

TAI^AYAMA 1 20 3| 

Total 28 6 68| 



This route is not practicable for 
jinrildshas, except between Mikka- 
machi and Takayama ; but they are 
not always to be found at the 
former place. Horses are not pro- 
curable in the valley of the Shira- 
kawa, and baggage is transported 
by cattle or on coolies' backs. 
Fairly good accommodation can be 
had at Jo-ga-hana, and accommoda- 
tion, which is at least passable, at 
most of the villages. The scenery 
is for the most part delightfully 
picturesque, and there are many 
magnificent distant views. 

The inhabitants of this remote valley 
are believed to be descended partly from 
me]nber.s of the famons Taira family, 
who fled hither on the occasion of their 
overthrow in the 12th century (see p. 84), 
partly from samurai banished from the 
provinces of Kaga and Etchii in Toku- 
gawa times. Peculiar customs obtain in 
certain villages, especially Hirase, Nagase, 
and Mabi. The power of the head of the 
family is here despotic. Moreover, only 
the heir (generally the eldest son) is 
allowed to marrj'. The other sons form 
Bcmi-secret liaisons, the offspring of which 
are adopted either by the j)aterual or 
the maternal family head, and, being 
considered inferior, are not mourned 
for when they die. Whole families live 



276 



Roide 30. — Mountams of Hida and Etdiu. 



Tinder one patriarchal roof, — brothers, 
sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, 
grandchildren, cousins of various degrees; 
and the houses are correspondingly large, 
mostly three-storied. A division into 
separate rooms is seldom attempted. 

10.— Haku-san. 

This mountain, standing on the 
}x)rders of the four proyinces of 
Echizen, Kaga, Hida, and Mino, 
may he ascended either from Kana- 
zaica or from Fukui. The itinerary 
by the former route to Ynmoto, a 
vill. at the base, is as follows : — 

KANAZAWA (Ohashi) to :— 

Pa Cho M. 

Tsurugi 4 7 10] 

Onnavrara 5 29 \±\ 

Ushikubi 4 4 10 

YUMOTO(about).... 5 —12} 

Total 19 4 46| 



Fair accommodation at Tsurugi; 
better at 

Yumoto {Inn, Yamada-ya). The 
road, though sandy, is pr;\cticable 
for jinrikishas as far as Tsurugi ; 
from Ushikubi onwards the river 
flows through a rocky rayine, ^^•hose 
crags rise to a great height. Yu- 
moto, noted for its hot springs, is 
completely shut in by densely wood- 
ed hills, and is deserted in winter 
by its inhabitants, who do not 
return till the beginning of June. 
There are several other sulphur 
springs on the mountain side. 
From Y'^umoto the ascent of Haku- 
san and the descent make an easy 
day's expedition, the climb to the 
Murodo hut occupying a good 
walker 3 hrs., and the steep clamber 
thence to the shrine on the top ( Go- 
honsha), 25 min. The glorious view 
from the summit includes Tate- 
yama N.E., Y^ari-ga-take E.N.E., 
Norikura a little to the S. of E., 
Y'atsu-ga-take and the Koma-ga-take 
of Ivoshti in the dim distance, On- 
take E.S.E., and the Koma-ga-take 
of Shinshu. In the immediate 
neighbourhood are Bessan on the 



S. and Onanji on the N., which, 
with the central and highest peak 
called Gozen-mine, together consti- 
tute the three summits of Haku-san. 
To the N.Vv^. rises the lofty top oi: 
Shalca-ga-take. On the E. side is 
Tsurugi, or " the Sword," so called 
from its pointed peaks, and on the 
V/. the Oku-no-in. Two tarns lie 
at the bottom of what are apparent- 
ly ancient craters. The water of 
the one which lies to the N. is of a 
beautiful turquoise, that of the 
other dull in colour ; both are taste- 
less. 

The itinerary from Fukui to Yu- 
moto is as follows : 

FUKUI (Arahashi) to :— 

J?i t//o 3/. 

Matsuoka 2 4 b\ 

Komyoji i 22 3| 

Katsuyama 4 — 9j 

Kog5 2 8 .5.} 

Hayashi^s farm 2 32 7 

Top of Ohara-toge. 1 18 3| 

Mizutani 2 — 5 

YUMOTO 18 3 

Total 17 20 42f 

Jinrildshas go as far as Katsu- 
yama, which affords the only fair 
accommodation on the way. The 
scenery is wild. 

11. — Fbom Takayama in Hida to 

FUKUSHIMA ON THE NaKASENDO. 

Itinerary. 

TAKAYAMA to:— Pd Cho Ji. 

Kabuto 2 34 7^ 

Kibyu-dani 2 31 7 

Naka-no-shuku 1 13 3.^ 

Kami-ga-hora 1 18 3J 

Adanogo 1 5 2f 

Hiwada 2 20 6? 

Kami Mshino 3 — 7^ 

Suegawa 2 15 

Kurokawa 3 — 7^- 

FUKUSHBIA 1 — 2.V 

Total 21 14 52* 



Ascent of Ontahe and Koma-rja-take. 



277 



As far as Nisbino, baggfige is 
generally carried by women, some- 
times by cattle. Beautiful views 
occur all along tbe route. The best 
accommodation is at Kami Klshino, 
whence it is possible to ascend On- 
take, a climb of 7 ri ; but the way 
is a difficult one, and that given 
below is to be preferred. 

12. — Ontake and the Koma-ga- 

TAKE OF ShINSHTT. 

Ontake,* one of the loftiest 
mountains in Japan, is considered 
the most sacred next to Fuji, and 
yearly attracts crowds of pilgrims. 

The phenomena of trance and so-called 
divine possession, often to be witnessed 
on this holy peak, have been fully de- 
scribed by Mr. Percival Lowell in his 
work entitled Occult Japan. 

Dr. Eein, writing from a very different 
point of view, says; "Ontake is a long 
ridge running N. and S., on the summit 
of M'hich are eight larger and several 
smaller craters. Hix of the former lie in 
a rov/ along the ridge, while the other 
tv>'o are situated on the N.'W. side towards 
Ilida. They are more or less circular in 
form, from 3U0 to 1,000 metres ('2,624 to 
3,280 ft.) in circumference, and with one 
exception have no great depth. Their 
walls have fallen in in many places, and 
access to most of them is thereby facili- 
tated. Their relative age can be easily 
recognised by the weathering of the dole- 
ritic lava, but still better by the manner 
in which vegetation has planted itself in 
them and their sunken walls. Thus the 
most northerly crater, which now con- 
tains a tarn, and whose sides ofter a rich 
harvest to the botanist, seems to be the 
oldest ; then come the 2nd and 3rd, pro- 
ceeding S., and lastly the 4th and highest, 
from the S. side of which we survey the 
surrounding jjrospect. Each of these 
craters lies 15 to 20 metres (50 to 65 ft.) 
higher than the one immediately preced- 
ing. The 6th from the N., which is 
entirely surrounded by the wall of the 
5th, is indisputably a comparatively new 
formation, for its steep and fissured sides 
are quite fresh and devoid of vegetation, 
as if they had only lately cooled down. 
No debris are to be distinguished any- 
where, as far as the eye can follow the 
deep ravine, which is connected with this 
crater on the S.W. Far below springs a 
brook, close to which rises up the steam 
of a solfatara. No eruption of Ontake, 

* Also called Mitake, but not to be con- 
founded with the other mountains of that 
name in Musashi and Koshu. 



however, seems to have taken place in 
historical times." — Ontake is particularly 
rich in Alpine species of plants. 

The best starting-point for those 
approaching Ontake from the Naka- 
sendo side is FakusJdma, whence 
the summit may be reached in 1 
day by maldng an early start. The 
night is spent at a hut near the 
top, whence the descent occuijies a 
short day. Some recommend that 
while the mountain is being 
climbed, the luggage should be 
sent on to Agematsu, and the 
descent be made to that place by 
turning off at Kurozawa, the road 
Ijetween which and Agematsu is 
fairly good and the scenery lovely. 
A still better alternative, is to de- 
scend by the ordinary pilgrim route 
to Otaki, 7 hrs, whence the walk 
into Agematsu via JIashide occupies 
some 3 hrs. more. 

Steps formed of logs facintate the 
climb through the forest. Ridges 
of cinders and rough debris of rocks 
have then to be j)assed. The view 
from the summit embraces Haku- 
san to the N.W., then to the r. the 
peninsula of Noto, and still further 
to the r. a row of mighty peaks that 
bear traces of snow even during the 
greatest summer heat. Conspicu- 
ous among these are Norikura, Yari- 
ga-take, and Tateyama. Far to the 
N.E. rise the volcano of Asama and 
the chain separating the i)rovinces 
of Kotsiilce and Shinshti. To the 
E. appears Yatsu-ga-take, and to 
the S. E. far-off Fuji, with the 
Koma-ga-take of Shinshii in the 
near distance. 

The Shinshu Koma-ga-take 

is most conveniently ascended from 
Agematsu. The distance from that 
village to the summit is called 4 rl 
8 cho, and the ascent, part of which 
is very steep, will occupy a good 
v.-alker over 6 hrs. Three or four 
huts on the way up afford shelter 
in bad weather. The native pil- 
grims, who do not care to make the 
round of the various peaks forming 
the top of the mountain, but merely 



278 



Route ^l.— Way to and from Kof 



a. 



Avisli to visit Go-hons-ha, the highest 
point, Tisiially fiscend and descend 
in one day. But the traTeller is 
recommended rather to time his 
excursion so as to sleep at a hut 
called Tamakuho, 3 ri 32 cho from 
Agematsii, in order to witness the 
magnificent si>ectacle of sunrise 
from the summit. Looking east- 
ward, the eye sweeps along an 
almost continuous line of moun- 
tains that rise beyond the valleys 
of the Chikuma-gawa and Tenryu- 
gawa, the prominent summits in 
order from the 1. being Asama-yama 
N. N. E., Tateshina N. E. by N, 
Yatsu-ga-take N. E. by E., the Ko- 
shti Koma-ga-take E. by N., and, 
directly opi^osite, Shirane-san, in- 
cluding all its three summits, — Kai- 
gane, Ai-no-take, and Nodori. The 
sharp peak seen between Koma-ga- 
take and Kaigane is the summit of 
H6-6-zan. To the S.E. rises a lofty 
snow-streaked range with three 
conspicuous summits, the highest 
of which is called Akaishi. Another 
strildng feature is the cone of Fuji, 
towering up beyond a depression to 
the T. of N5dori. Looking westward, 
the view embraces a considerable 
portion of the Hida-Shinshu range, 
the most prominent summit being 
Ontake bearing N. of W., to whose 
r., rising in succession to the N., 
are Norikura, Kasa-dake, Hodaka- 
yama, and Yari-ga-take. The peaks 
of Tateyama are discernible beyond 
Yari-ga-take. To the N. W. the 
distant outhne of Haku-san is visi- 
ble, while in nearer proximity to 
the S. rises Ena-san in the [)rovince 
of Mino. There is also an extensive 
view over the province of Mikawa 
and a portion of Totomi, ^ith 
several mountains, including the 
double summit of H5raiji-yama in 
the former province and Aldha-san 
in the Litter. 

Instead of returning to Age- 
matsu, one may descend Koma-ga- 
take on the E. side to Lia on the 
Ina Kaido in one day. There the 
Eapids of the Tenryu-gawa are 
within easy reach (see p. 295). 



13. — Ena-san. 

Standing at the S. end of the 
great divide between the Kiso and 
Tenryu valleys, this fine mountain 
commands a magnificent panorama 
of the mountains of Central Japan, 
and has the advantage of being 
comioaratively easy of access. The 
ascent is made from Xakatsu-gaica 
(p. 244), whence the expedition up 
and down takes one long day, with 
dehghtful views. 

Ena-san may also be ascended 
from Ochiai, 1 rl further up the 
Nakasendo than Nakatsu-gawa ; but 
this alternative way, though shorter, 
is much steeper. 

Kakatsu-gawa being conveniently 
situated for reaching the Tenryu- 
gawa, the descent of the rapids of 
that river may be combined with a 
trip \vp Ena-san. It is a day's walk 
over the Misaka-tbije, with lovely 
views of Ontake and the mountains 
of Koshti, to Toklmata. An alterna- 
tive way is to foUov/ the Nakasendo 
north to Azuma, whence over the 
Odaira-toge (see p. 244). 



ROUTE 31. 

Ways to and from Kofu. 

1. from tokyo to kofu. [ozuki to 
yoshida.] 2. kofu and neigh- 
bourhood. 3. valley of the 
tamagav>'a. 4. down the rapids 
of the fujikawa to minobu and 
THE t5kaid6. 5. k5fu to lake 

SUWA. 6. FROM KOFU TO YOSHIDA 
AND GOTEMBA. 7. FROM KARUI- 
ZAWA TO KOFU. 

Kofu is a pleasant provincial 
town, — its central situation in the 
beautiful province of Koshu, and its 
proximity to places of such peculiar 
interest as Mitake, Fuji, Minobu, 
the Eapids of the Fujikawa, etc., 




,U i 


g 


J\| '■■■■■•..- 


l'- 


-. ."^ 




\\ .-1 


\i 






■-\ ■•■■5 5 


■% 


\« 1 


\^ 





Railway from Tokyo to Koft 



a. 



279 



causing it to be includetl in so 
many different tours as to render a 
description of the several ways to 
and from it advisable. 

1. — From Tokyo to Kofu by rail. 



S.o 


Names 




g§^' 


of 


Remarka 


■S fno 






r^ 


Stations 












t5ky5 (Sbin- 






_ jiku) 




|m. 


Okubo 




3 


Nakano 




5i 


Ogikubo 




^ 


Kichijoji 


(For I-no- 
( kashira. 




Sakai 


For Koganei. 


Kokubunji Jet. 


17 


Tacliikawa Jet... 


/ForTamagawa 
I Valley, p. 281. 


19 


Hino 




20L 


ToYoda 




23 


HACHIOJI 




26 


Asakawa 




32 


Yose 




37 


Ueno-bara 




U 


Torisav/a 




46 


Enkyo 


Alight for 


48 


Ozuki 


Yoshida and 


55 


Sasago 


Fuji. 


59^ 


Hajikano 




65i 


Enzan 




m 


Kusakabe 




72i 


Isawa 




761 


KOFU 





This route affords the quickest 
means of reaching K5fu. It is 
also an alternative way from 
T5ky6 for those wishing to ascend 
Fuji from Yoshida on the N.E. 
slope of that mountain, or to 
proceed to Shoji and the lakes at its 
base (see Koutes 8 and 9). 

From nacbioji onwards, the lino closely 
follows the ancient and picturesque high- 
way known as the Koshu Kaido, from the 
fact of its connecting the capital with 
the province of Koshu. This province 
being encircled by a barrier of lofty 
mountains (7,000 to 10,000 ft.), a large 
amount of tunnelling had to be resorted 
to, with the result that much of the 
beauty of this route has been sacrificed. 
There are no less than 41 tunnels in all, 
with an aggregate length of 12 miles, out 
of the 53 miles traversed between Hachi- 
oji and Kofu. 



The run across the plain to 
Hacliioji and Asakaica takes IJ hr. 
(p 141). This wide plain is now left 
behind, and a long tunnel (1| m.) 
entered, which cuts through the Ko- 
hotoke Pass. Emerging on the other 
side, we enter the smiling valley 
of the Katsura-gaixa (known by the 
alternative name of Banyu lower 
down), whose tortuous windings are 
seen 1. at the bottom of a deep 
ravine. Beautiful vistas of moun- 
tain and valley open out beyond 
the river, which remains a constant 
companion for many miles. From 
Yose {Inn, Kado-ya) boats descend 
its rapids, reaching the T5kaid6 in 
about 6 hrs. The town of 

TJeno-liara [Inn, Yamada-kwan) 
stands nearly 1 m. from its station 
on a plateau high above the stream. 
Leaving this place, we cross the 
Tsuru-kaica, a tributary of the 
Katsura. After another long tun- 
nel, the peaky hills and tiny ham- 
lets on the r. bank of the latter 
river present a series of charming 
jjictures all the way on to 

Enkyo {Inn, Daikoku-ya). The 
station stands f m. from the town. 

Enkyo means the " Monkey's Bridge." 
It is also called Saru-hashi, the latter 
name being the pure Japanese pronuncia- 
tion of the same ideographs. The place 
derives its appellation from the bridge 
having formerly been a mere crazy 
plank, such aa monkeys alone might be 
supposed likely to venture across. The 
present bridge is of the cantilever sort, 
having the ends of the horizontal beams 
planted deep in the soil that covers the 
rock. 

Perpendicular cliffs frown down 
ui3on the dark emerald stream, 
which is narrow and deep at this 
point. The gorge and bridge can 
be well seen r. from the train as it 
crosses the river. 

Ozuki {Inn, Fujimi-kwan). 

[A tramway connects this place 
with Yoshida, (see p. 165), 12J 
miles, following up the valley 
of the Katsura-gawa, and pass- 
ing through the thriving town 
of Yamura {Inn, Naito), 8 
miles. The whole road is in a 



280 



Itoide 31. — Ways to and from Kqfu. 



manner dominated by Fuji, 
beginning near Oziilci, where 
the great volcano appears en 
vignette, and then gro\ys and 
grows till it fills up the entire 
foreground. It is also interest- 
ing to observe the gradual 
conversion of the lava into 
arable land, partly by weather- 
ing, partly by human toil.] 

After parting company with the 
Katsura-gavra just beyond OzuM, 
we slowly cHmb up the narrow 
valley of the Hanasaki-gaica, i3ass- 
ing by villages devoted to the 
breeding of silkworms. One fine 
glimpse of Fuji is caught on the 
vray, through an opening in the 
hills 1. 

Leaving Sasago, the train 
plunges into the longest tunnel in 
Japan (nearly 3 m.), which leads 
under the So.sago-tdge, a pass 3,500 
ft. above the sea. On the other 
side, the province of Koshu is 
entered, and splendid views of 
granite ranges are obtained. The 
principal summits on the 1. and 
ahead are Koma-ga-take, Ho-5-zan, 
Jizo-dake, Kwannon, and Yakushi, 
backed by a chain collectively 
known under the name of Shirane- 
san. Fuji also is visible later on 
over the tops of a range bounding 
the plain on the south. Snzan ( Inn, 
Koyo-kwan) jiossesses a sahne 
spring. — The line then passes 
through villages and vineyards into 
Kofu. 

2. — Koru AND Neighbourhood : 

MiTAKE AKD EXMPU-ZAN. 

Kofu {Inns, *B6sen-kaku, with 
Europ. restt. in the public garden ; 
*Sadok5 Hotel, *Yonekura), capital 
of the province of Koshii and of the 
prefecture of Yamanashi, stands in 
a wide, fertile plain, 860 ft. above 
sea-level, surrounded by lofty 
mountain ranges. At the station 
notice the huge monolith erected to 
commemoi-ate the completion of 
the Sasago tunnel, mentioned above. 



It was brought from Sendai in the 
north. 

During the middle age.s, the lords of 
this secluded province \Tere often practi- 
cally independent sovereigns. Most 
famous among them was Takeda Shingen, 
for whose adventures see p. 8-i. The 
grounds of their castle were partly clear- 
ed to make room for the buildings of the 
Middle School and for the railway. The 
spot where the keep formerly stood 
affords a fine view. 

The grounds of the Public Garden 
[Koenchi) formerly belonged to the 
Buddhist temple of Ichirenji. Ob- 
serve the twelve stone lanterns 
carved each with one of the signs 
of the zodiac. Kofu is noted for 
its kaiki, a thin silken fabric used 
for the linings of dresses and for 
bed-quilts. There are several silk- 
reeling and v>-eaving estabhsh- 
ments, employing each from 100 to 
400 hands, mostly females, whose 
work-hours are from 5 A.M. to 8 
and sometimes 11 P.M., without 
any interval for meals or any Sun- 
day rest ! This goes on all the year 
round, with the exception of a 
couple of months in winter. It 
should be added, in justice to the 
employers, that the workers appear 
healthy and contented. Perhaps 
the practice is not so bad as the 
theory. 

The province of Koshu produces 
excellent grapes, which are in their 
j>rime about the end of September 
or mid-October. An attempt is 
now made to manufacture wine. 
The grapes are also used for 
making sweetmeats. Crystals are 
found at Mitake in the neighbour- 
hood. A great festival, called 
Miyuki no Matsuri, is held in Kbln 
on the loth April, vrith the pious 
object of averting the floods of the 
FuefuM-gawa. 

From Kofu a delightful day's ex- 
cursion may be made to the temples 
of Mitake, distant about 4^ ri. 
Jinrikishas should be taken over 
the first flat bit as far as Chizuka 
(1 ri), or with two men even to 
Kissaica (2 ri from Kofu). At 
Kissawa a local guide should be 



Mitake and Kimpu-zan. Tamagawa Valley. 



281 



engaged, who will lead the pedes- 
trian up along the SJundo, or New 
Eoad, in the romantic gorge of the 
Arakawa, a torrent forcing its way 
between gaunt granite walls, with 
pines and other trees and flowering 
shrubs perched on every ledge of 
the lofty rocks. The valley widens 
out at Ikari, a hamlet lU cho below 
Mitake, and thenceforward the 
scenery becomes less wild. The 
vill. of intake has several decent 
inns, Daikoku-ya best. Specimens 
of rock crystal are sold in the 
village, being brought from mines 
in the neighbourhood of Kurobera 
on the way to Kimpu-zan. As for 
the temples, once so magnificent 
and still far-famed, modern Shint5 
iconoclasm, abetted by neglect and 
scarcity of funds, has wrought sad 
havoc ; but their site, and the grove 
of giant trees that shades them, 
still remain impressible. The 
yearly festival at Mitake is held on 
the 10th to 15th of the 3rd moon, 
old style, when azaleas and kerria- 
blossoms adorn the scene. 

On returning, one should take 
the Gedo, or Lower Eoad, which 
offers beautiful contrasts of upland 
and forest scenery with that of 
rocks inferior only to those of 
the Arakav/a gorge. Shirane-san, 
Koma-ga-take, Fuji, and numerous 
other mountains are seen to great 
advantage. 

An alternative way to Mitake 
leads by the vill. of Wada, 10 cho 
out of K5fu, whence w^alk. 

Kimpu-zan. The climb up and 
down this granite mountain, 8,300 
ft. high, might be accomplished in 
one long day from Mitake by 
maldng a very early start. But it is 
better to avail oneself of the rough 
quarters at the vill of Kami- 
Kurohera, or at the pilgrim hut of 
Muro, '2 1 hrs. further on, where the 
real climb begins at a height of 
6,550 ft. It is 1^ hr. hence to the 
summit, just below which stands 
another good hut, the v/ay leading 
over a granite buttress. At two 
places, ladders are fixed to assist 



the climber over difiicult gaps, and 
at two others chains give additional 
security ; but even without the help 
of these, there would be no danger. 
The top is crowned by a huge 
turret-like mass of granite, rising 
to a height of some 50 ft., and 
forming a landmark by which the 
mountain can be recognised at a 
great distance. The extensive 
view includes Asama-yama on the 
N., Yatsu-ga-take almost due W., 
Fuji to the S., and the lofty moun- 
tain range on the western boundary 
of the province of Koshu. 

3. — From Tokyo to Kofu by the 
Yalley of the Tamagawa. 

This exceptionally pretty route is 
much to be recommended in the 
spring-time, when the wild cherry, 
Pyi'us japonica, azalea, and other 
trees and bushes are in flower, 
Kofu can be reached by it in 2 1^ 
days. Fair accommodation is_to be 
had at Kochi-no-yu and at Ofuji ; 
elsewhere it is poor. Train across 
the jDlain of Tokyo in about 3 hrs. 
to Ome and Hinata Wada, and at 
the other end from Enzan, near 
Ofuji ; the rest of the journey must 
be performed on foot. 





Names 




lop 


of 


Remarks 


w fi-^ 






fi'^g 


Stations 












TOKYO (Shin- 






_ jiku Jet.) 




im. 


Okubo 




2i 


Nakano 




5| 


Ogikubo 




n 


Kichijoji 




»i 


Sakai 


(For Kavmgoe, 


13 


Kokubunji Jet... 


|adullcountrj- 
(town. 






17 


Tachikawa Jet. , . 


( Change for 
\ Ome. 


21| 


Haijima 


23 


Fuesa 




24| 


Hamura 




25i 


Ozaku 




28} 


OME 




2y| 


Hinata Wada 





282 



Route 31. — Ways to and from Kbfu. 



Itinerary by road. 
(distances approximate) 

HINATA WADA to : Bi ^f. 

Sawai 2 5 

Kotaba U 3| 

Hikawa 2 5 

K6cbi-no-yu (Yuba)... 3 T^ 

Ivamozawa 2 5 

Tabayama 2i G} 

Ochiai Sl 8^ 

Yanagizawa-t5ge 1 2^ 

Ofuji 3 7| 

IvTisakabe Ij 3| 

Hirashina 1 2 J 

Satogald 2 5 

KOFU 1 2J 

Total 26 G3.^ 



For tlie first portion of tbis 
journey see i^. 141. At Hamura, 
the -water of the Tamagawa is 
diverted into an aqueduct which 
supplies the cax)ital. 

Ome {Inn, Sakanoe) consists of a 
single long street lined with old 
gnarled fruit-trees, maples, crape 
myrtle, and j^ines, v\'hich give it a 
pleasing aspect. Kompira-san, the 
small hill rising directly behind 
the station, commands a fine view 
of the plain with the Tamagawa 
running through it. On leaving 
this town, the road at once enters 
the Valley of the Tamagaim, ascend- 
ing along its 1. banlc. The valley 
is here rather \vide and well- 
cultivated. Passing through the 
peach orchards of Mitamura, the 
bridge at the entrance of 

Sawai {Inn, Yamaguchi-ya) is 
crossed, beyond which x>lace the 
valley contracts and winds, and 
the lulls on either side increase in 
height, while in front rises the 
triple summit of Mitalce (see p. 141). 

Kotaba is the highest point 
from which rafts descend the river. 
Further u\), single logs are thrown 
into the water and left to float 
down with the current. The sce- 
nery continues charming ; the path 
constantly ascends and descends, 



sometimes rising to a great eleva- 
tion above the stream. Maize, 
millet, and jDotatoes constitute the 
chief crops grown in the district. 
Passing through a cryptomeria 
grove, we cross the Nii^para-gawa, 
and reach the vill. of 
Hikawa {Inn, Hikawa-ya). 

At this place, and elsewliere in the 
valley, may be observed bevelled water- 
wheels, used where the bank is too high 
for the ordinary undershot wheel. The 
floats are small and placed wide apart, 
and the axle is inclined at an angle in 
order to admit of the wheel dipping into 
the stream. 

Three ri up the valley of the 
Nippara-gawa are some remarkable 
caves in the limestone rock. The 
next stage beyond Hikawa is 
extremely picturesque. Below the 
path, which winds up and down 
the flank of the mountain, the 
stream dashes along a rocky chan- 
nel; while above, on either hand, 
rise steep hills, mostly covered ^vith 
timber, but wherever the exposure 
is favourable, cultivated up to the 
highest possible limit. 

K6clii-no-yu {Inn, Tsuri-ya), 
1,350 ft. above the sea, possesses 
tepid sulphur springs. Half a mile 
further we cross a tributary stream 
to the vill. of Kochi, and i)ass in 
succession through Mugiyama and 
Kaicano to 

Kamozawa (no inns), which 
stands in a striking situation on 
the hillside. From a point a short 
distance beyond, the road winds up 
the side of a magnificent wooded 
gorge for 4 or 5 miles, the river flow- 
ing away below, shut out by the 
shade of deciduous trees. At last 
we come in sight of the spacious 
upland valley in which lie 

Tabayama {Inn, Mori-ya), 2,000 
ft. above the sea, and one or two 
other hamlets. Beyond this, the 
scenery becomes even more re- 
markable. Striking views of deej) 
ravines and roclcy precipices occur 
a short way above Tabayama, 
where grey, fir-clad cliffs tower up 
to a height of over 2,000 ft. from 



Rapids of the Fujikawa. 



283 



the river-bed. But the grandest 
prospect of all is about 1^ m. 
below Ochiai, v^'here the road winds 
round the face of a lofty precipice 
commanding a view up a densely 
wooded gorge. From this point to 
Ochiai, which is a mere cluster 
of huts, and for 1 ri further to the 
top of the Yanaf/lzav:a-td(/e (4,600 
ft.), is a walk of about 2 hrs. 
The top of the pass affords a fine 
view of Fuji rising above an inter- 
vening range of mountains. De- 
scending on the K5fu side, the road 
follows the course of the Omogawa 
to the vill. of Kamikane. Here, 
for the first time, the great range 
dividing the provinces of Koshu 
and Shinslm opens out in full view. 
The chief peaks from r. to 1, are 
Koma-ga-take, H6-5-zan, and Jizo- 
dake, with the triple peaks of 
Shirane-san behind, all rising 
beyond a nearer and lesser chain. 
From 

Ofuji {Inn, Fnji-ya) jinrikishas 
can be taken to the railway at 
Enzan [Inn, K5y5-kwan), 20 chd 
distant, which xx)ssesses a cold salt 
spring. Should trains not serve, 
there is a good hasha road across 
the plain into Kofu. 

4. — Feom Kofu down the Rapids 
OF THE Fujikawa to Minobu 

AND THE TOKAIDO. 

This beautiful trip is recommend- 
ed alike for its scenery throughout, 
and for the artistic triumphs of 
Minobu. 

A tramcar (4 ri 26 chb) takes one 
in 2 hrs. across the mountain-girt 
plain from Kofu to 

Kajika-zawa [Inns, Fusui-kwan; 
Yorozu-ya), where one embarks for 
the descent of the Rapids of the 
Fujikawa. The charge (1907) is 6i 
yen for a private boat [kai-kiri) 
with four men, weather being favour- 
able ; seat in post or passenger boat 
[yfibin-hujie or jikan-bune) 50 sen, 
or 1 yen for reserved place. From 
Tambara the price is 6 yen. An 
extra charge of 2 yen is made if a 



night's halt be made at Minobu. 
Eemember that prices have a con- 
stant tendency to rise. With the 
river in its ordinary state, the times 
taken are as follows : — 

KAJIKA-ZAWA to :— Hours. 

Yoka-ichiba 1^- 

Hakii 1 

Nambu 1^ 

IWABUCHI 3l 

Total 7J 

In flood-time, jDolice regulations 
prohibit all boats from starting till 
the water falls to a certain level. 
In such circumstances of unavoid- 
able delay, the time may be spent 
in visiting the fine temple of Myd- 
hoji at Komuro, about 1 ri W. of 
Kajika-zawa ; or a small sheet of 
water called Lake Shihiri, 3 ri 
distant, popularly believed to be 
tenanted by a demon {nushi), who 
permits neither boat nor human 
iDeing to disturb the water. 

There is considerable traffic on 
the Fujikawa, some 500 boats being 
engaged in it besides numerous 
rafts ; and as we drop swiftly down, 
we meet boat after boat towed up by 
coolies bending double over their 
toilsome task. Placid at first, the 
river flows between green hills inter- 
sected by valleys that disclose glimj^- 
ses of the Shirane range, Yatsu-ga- 
take, and other distant mountains. 
Opposite the confluence of the Ha- 
yakawa, there juts out 1. a remark- 
able rock called Byobu-ivia; antl 
here the river, whose course has 
already been interrupted by several 
rapids, becomes larger and the cur- 
rent swifter. Fuji's snovz-covered 
cone first comes in view ahead 
below Manzaica, where the stream 
turns northward for a short time. 
The biggest rapid occurs not far 
from where the river divides, and 
where on the 1. bank stands the 
celebrated Tsuri-hashi, or " Hanging 
Bridge," which joins an islet to the 
mainland, and is worth stopping to 
see. 



284 



Uoute 31. — Ways to and from 



oru. 



Formerly this bridge was suspended to 
precipitous rocks on either side by means 
of stout ropes of bamboos split and 
twisted together, and consisted of small 
bundles of split bamboos some 6 or 7 ft. 
long, lashed close together and support- 
ing a single row of planks laid along the 
middle as a pathway. It had no hand-rail. 
It used to be renewed every antumn. 
Since 1897, the bamboo roping has been 
replaced by telegraph wire, and a low 
hand-rail has been added. The bridge, a 
type of many scattered over the wilder 
regions of Central Japan, has a single 
span and is altogether 165 ft. long, its 
height in the centre being about 26 ft., 
and at the bank 35 ft. The whole struc- 
ture shakes and sways considerably, 
though there is no real clanger. 

Immediately after passing it, Fuji 
again towers up grandly to the 1. 
and then the river Shiba-liawa from 
Shira-ito vraterfall (p. 170) faUs in 
also 1. On nearing 21atsuno, some 
interesting hexagonal andesite col- 
umns will be noticed on the r. bank. 
The current remains strong, and 
small rapids occur from time to 
time, the whole way to the river's 
mouth at 

Iwabuchi. Here the boat is 
taken along the canal to the land- 
ing-place close by the railway sta- 
tion {Inn, Tani-ya), v.hich stands | 
mile from the old town. 

On the way down the river, those 
v.'ith an extra day to spare should 
not fail to visit Minobu. This 
entails leaving the boat at Ilakii, 
Avhere it is rejoined next day, the 
v\-alk from the river to the viil. of 
Minobu occupying f hr. 

Minobu ( Inns, Tanaka;-ya, Tama- 
ya) consists of a single hilly street, 
lined with shops for the sale of 
rosaries. It is prettily situated in 
a valley surrounded by mountains 
still fairly well-wooded, among the 
most prominent being Oku-no-in 
v.hich rises immediately behind the 
temples, and Shichimen-zan at the 
head of the valley. 

The village owes its existence to the 
great Temple of Kuenji, founded in the 
Ijth century by the celebrated Buddhist 
saint, Nichiren (see p. 80), a portion of 
whose body is here enshrined. This 
temple is the headquarters of the Nichi- 



ren sect, and the new temples erected to 
replace the former buildings destroyed 
by fire in 1875, are choice specimens of 
Buddhistic architecture. The chief an- 
nual festival takes place on the 12th and 
13th days of the 10th moon, old style 
(some time in November). There is an- 
other great festival in the month of May. 
—A donation is expected from visitors 
either on arrival or departure. 

The traveller enters the grounds 
through a massive gate of keyaki 
vvood, finished in 1906, whence 
either a very steep flight of steps — 
the Otoko-mka — or a more gently 
inclined slope — the Onna-zaka — 
may be ascended to the actual 
temx^les. On reaching the tot) of 
the steps, and passing r. the belfry, 
1. the double-roofed little ly'dkotsu- 
do — a receptacle for believers' bones 
— the traveller will find himself in 
front of the Founder's Temple 
[Kaisan-do], from which a set of 
galleries leads to the Temple of the 
True Bones {Shinkotsu-do), to the 
Shaka-do which is hung round witli 
pictures, to the Temple of the 
Posthumous Tablets (Ihai-do), con- 
taining the tablets of aristocratic 
behevers, to the Pilgrims' Eesting- 
place {Kyaku-den) to the Eeception 
Rooms ( Taimen-jo), and finally 1. to 
the residence of the archbishop ( 
Ima) and r. to the business offices 
of the sect {Jimusho). The interior 
dimensions of the main hall of the 
Founder's Temple are : length 7.5 
ft., depth 120 ft., height 26 ft. from 
floor to ceiling, while the altar is 
24 ft. long by 15 ft. in depth. 
The porch has carvings of dragons, 
storks, birds flitting over the waves 
of the sea, and tortoises swimming 
through it. The ventilating jxanels 
over the grated doors contain angels 
and ijhcenixes brightly painted. 
The framework of the building 
and the pillars which support the 
ceiling are lacquered red and bLack, 
producing a noble effect. In the 
centre of the nave [ijejin), hangs a 
magnificent gilt baldachin^ pre- 
sented by the merchants of Osaka. 
Gilded pillars mark off the space in 
front of the main altar, which is 



Temple of Minobu. 



285 



lacquered red aud decorated with 
gilt carvings of lions and peonies. 
The two porcelain lanterns about 
8 ft. high, in front of the altar, 
are from the famous potteries of 
Hizen. The handsomely carved 
and gilded shrine contains a good 
life-size effigy of Nichiren, presented 
by the inhatiitants of Tokyo. The 
coffered ceiling of the chancel 
{'imijin) is pLiinly gilt, v^'hile the 
part of it immediately over the 
altar has gilt dragons, touched up 
v>'ith red on a gilt ground. To the 
v,'all behind the altar are affixed 
modern paintings of Eakan. The 
colours of the square brackets in 
the cornices are green, blue, red, and 
chocolate, often with an outhne in 
white or a lighter shade of the 
principal colour, and gold arabes- 
ques on the fiat surfaces. The 
priests will display the image en- 
shrined on the altar and i)erform a 
short service {kaichd) in its honour. 
The gem of Minobu, however, 
is the Temple of the True Bones, 
completed in 1880, where the lover 
of Oriental decorative art will 
find still quite fresh all those 
beauties which, in most of the re- 
ligious edifices of Japan, have al- 
ready been tarnished by the hand 
of time. The exterior is unj)re- 
tentious ; but on entering the ora- 
tory, the visitor should observe the 
lifehke paintings of cranes on the 
ceiling. A plain gallery leads hence 
to the sanctum sanctorum, where 
Nichiren's remains are enshrined. 
It is a small octagonal building, 
elaborately decorated and all ablaze 
with gold and colours. Round the 
walls, on a gold ground, are fuil- 
sized repre.sontations of the white 
lotus-flower, the emblem of purity 
and of the Buddhist faith. The 
horizontal beams above have colour- 
ed diapers and geometrical patterns, 
the brilliant effect of which is toned 
down by the black, mixed with 
gold, of the rafters. Black and 
gold are likewise the colours 
used in the ceiling, which is se- 
cured by admirably worked metal 



fastenings. In the ramma are 
carvings of the Sixteen Eakan, and 
on the doors are paintings of mu- 
sical instruments. Bright individ- 
ually as are the many colours in 
this temple, all are so cunningly 
blended and harmonised that the 
general elfect is one of exceeding 
softness and richness. The shrine 
[hbto), which was presented by the 
fiiithful of the province of Owari, is 
of gold lacquer and shaped like a 
two-storied pagoda. In it rests the 
crystal reliquary or casket contain- 
ing the bones of Nichiren, which is 
in the shape of a tiny octagonal 
iwgoda, standing on a base of 
silver formed of an upturned lotus- 
blossom, which itself rests on a 
reversed lotus of jade. Its frame- 
work is of the alloy called shakudo, 
and one of the pillars bears, in 
silver damascening, the date of A.D. 
1580. The other pillars are dec- 
orated with silver tracery attached 
to the surface of the shakudo. The 
top is hung with strings of coral, 
pearls, and glass beads. The height 
of the whole is a little over 2 ft. 
Above hungs a baldachin presented 
by the inhabitants of NagasaM. 
The only European innovation is the 
introduction of glass windows, which 
permit of a better examination of the 
building than is generally obtain- 
able in the " dim religious light " of 
Japanese sacred edifices. The room 
in the archbishop's residence where 
he receives the faithful, is a beauti- 
ful specimen of Japanese hoTise 
decoration in the old style. Note 
the exquisite modern open-M'ork 
carvings of cranes and wild-geese, 
and the fine paintings by Kano 
Motonobu in the alcoves of the 
Reception Rooms. 

The ascent to the Oku-no-ln winds 
up Ue-no-yama, the hill imme- 
diately behind the Founder's Tem- 
ple, and is an easy climb of 50 cho. 
After passing the small temple of 
Sanko-do, the road ascends through 
a forest of cryptomerias, and near 
the summit commands an extensive 
view, including Fuji, part of the 



28G 



Route 31. — Watjs to and ^rom Kofu. 



Gulf of Siiruga, and the peninsula 
of Izu. On the top stands a plain 
little temple dedicated to Nichiren, 
whose crest of orange-blossom is 
]irominent on various objects within 
the enclosure. 

A spare day at Minobu may be de- 
voted to the ascent of Shichimen- 
zan, whose summit is not quite 5 
ri distant. The best place to halt 
on the way is Akasaica {Inns, Edo- 
ya, Osaka-ya), 3 ri 2 c?id from 
Minobu. Tliere is a good path all 
the way up. The last 50 cho are 
marked by stone lanterns, number- 
ed from 1 to 50. No. 36 affords the 
best view, which includes the full 
sweep of Suruga Bay, with the 
peninsula of Izu stretching far out 
to sea, a magnificent prospect of 
Fuji, the fertile plain of K5fu inter- 
sected by the various streams that 
unite to form the Fujikawa, the 
valley of the Hayakawa beloM^ to the 
1., beyond which are seen Shirane- 
san and the Koma-ga-take of Koshti, 
while Yatsu-ga-take, Kimpu-zan, 
and distant ranges bound the pros- 
pect on the N. At the top, which 
the forest deprives of all view, 
stands a plain building dedicated 
to the goddess of the mountain. 

According to the legend, a3 Nichiren 
was one day iireacliing in the open air at 
Minobu, a beautiful woman suddenly 
made her appearance, and greatly excited 
the curiosity of his auditors. On Nichi- 
ren bidding her assume her true form, 
she explained that she dwelt among the 
Jiiountains to the west, and that seated 
on one of the eight points of the compass, 
.she dispensed blessings to the other 
seven. She then begged for watei-, which 
was given to her in a vase, and at once 
the beautiful woman was transformed 
into a serpent twenty feet long, covered 
with golden scales and armed with iron 
teeth. A terrible blast swept down from 
the mountains, and she disappeared in a 
whirlwind towards the point of the com- 
Ijass indicated. The words " seven points- 
of -the -compass" (sfUchi-vien) also mean 
" seven faces ; " and by an equivoque the 
popular belief has arisen that a serpent 
with seven heads had appeared to the 
saint, whom he deified under the name 
of Shichi-vien Daimybjin. Buddhist 
writers identify her with Srimahadeva, 
the god of lucky omen, another name for 
the Hindu god Siva. 



Game is plentiful on the hills 
surrounding Minobu. Deer and 
bears are occasionally seen. Shoot- 
ing, however, is strictly prohibited, 
as contrary to the tenets of the 
Buddhist faith. 

From Minobu, and even from 
Kajika-zawa, a road mostly by the 
river bank practicable for jinriki- 
shas may be availed of in case of 
flood. It passes through Kambu 
{Inn, Nii-ya) and Manzaim, and 
reaches the Tokaido K<iilway at 
Iwabuchi (p. 230). The distance 
from Minobu to Nambu is 3 ri, 
thence on to the ^Tdkaidoj.lO ri, 
makdng 13 ri in all. 

Another way from Minobu to the 
T5kaid5, also 13 ri and feasible for 
jinrikishas, leads via Nambu, Shi- 
shihara, and Ojima, over the Hira- 
parna-toge to Oldtsu, two stations 
further west. 

5.— From Kofu to Lake Suwa. 



Distance 
from Kofu. 


Names of Stations. 




KOFU 


2f m. 


Ptyuo 


8i 


Nirazaki 


15J 


Hinobaru 


23^ 


Kobuchi-zawa 


29i 


Fujimi 


32| 


Aoyagi 


37.^ 


Chino 


41.^ 


KAMI-SUWA 


44 


SHEVIO-SUWA 


63^ 


(Shiojiri Jet.) 



This railway is a continuation of the 
line from Tokyo, described on pp. 279-80. 
Though the section scheduled above 
traverses one of the most mouutainous 
regions in the country, a route which 
necessitated comparatively little tunnel- 
ling was adopted by following the Ioav 
hills on the 1. bank of the Kamanashi- 
gawa until these merge into the gentle 
slopes of Yatsu-ga-take, and the water- 
shed is reached at a height of 3,135 ft. 
Thence it drops into the leas picturesque 
valley of the Miyagawa, through which 
ran the old KosJiu Kaido, or main road 
between the provinces of Koshii and 
Shinshu. 



qfu-Suica Railway. 



287 



The Sbiogawa, an affluent of the 
Fujikawa, is crossed just before 
entering 

Nirazaki ( Inn, Ebisu-ya), 
whence the line begins to climb the 
hills. At various points splendid 
views are obtained 1. of the lofty 
range of which H6-6-zan and the 
Kdshu Koma-ga-take are the princi- 
l^al features, — the former recognis- 
able by a knob at the top, the latter 
higher and more pointed, both of 
them grand jagged masses of 
granite. Further on, Yatsu-ga-take 
appears to the r., while on looldng 
back, Fuji towers in the sky. 
From Ilinobaru station {Inn, 
Mshio-kwan), the whole sweep of 
the precipitous rocky mass 1. is seen 
to rare advantage, with Kimpu-zan 
and other high mountains away to 
the N.E. The vill. of Dai-ga-hara 
{Inn, Take-ya), whence the ascent 
of Koma-ga-take can best be made 
(l3. 293), lies 1 rl 15 cho from this 
station. The hamlet of Yamataka, 18 
cho from Hinobaru, boasts the oldest 
and larg est cherry-tre e in Japan . So 
far the pretty valley of the Kama- 
nashi-gawa lies mostly out of sight ; 
but glimpses are obtained of its 
affluent, the Nigori-gawa, whose 
dazzlingly white bed is formed of 
granite dust washed down from 
Koma-ga-take. The other rivers 
hereabouts show the same character- 
istic, but not so strongly. One of 
the peaks of Shirane now looms 
above the nearer range between 
H6-o-zan and Koma-ga-take. At 
Kobuchi-zavxi {Inn, Kami-ya), the 
line skirts the lower slopes of 
Y^atsu-ga-take, and at Fujimi {Inn, 
Ofujimi-kwan) attains its highest 
elevation. CJcino {Inn, Wata-ya) is 
noted for kanten, — a kind of jel- 
ly. On approaching Lake Suwa, 
the mountains on the borders of 
Hida come into view, the most 
conspicuous summits being Hodaka 
and Yari-ga-take. The lofty moun- 
tain in the distance to the 1. of the 
lake is the Shinshti Koma-ga-take. 
Observe the numerous tiny wind- 



mills in the rice-fields, employed to 
pump up water. 

Kami-Suwa {Inyis, Nuno-han, 
Suwa Hotel, Botan-ya, each with 
private hot spring) is a busy town 
on the margin of the lake. 

This lake, almo.st circular in form, i.s 
said to be 35 ft. deep, but is slowly filling 
up. Its present diameter ia about 2^ 
railea, its height above the Bea, 2,660 ft. 
It freezes over most winters so solidly 
that heavily laden pack-horses can cross 
it; but the inhabitants do not ven- 
ture upon the ice until it has cracked 
across, believing this to be a sign from 
heaven. Some attribute the cracking to 
the foxes. The fishermen make holes in 
the ice through which they insert their 
nets and manage to take a considerable 
quantity of fish, especially carp. The 
lake has become a skating resort since 
1906.— From the W. side of Lake Suwa 
issues the Teuryu-gawa, which flows into 
the sea near Hamamatsu on the Tokaido. 



Ichi no Miya, or chief Shinto temple 
of the province of Shinshu, which 
contains some excellent wood- 
carvings. The annual festival is 
held on the 15th April, when the 
inns are apt to be overcrowded. 

The small temple of Tenaga Jinja, 
just above the main street, com- 
mands a fine panorama of the lake 
and of the villages around its 
shores. But a still wider prospect, 
embracing most of the mountains 
already mentioned, can be gained 
on the way up to Karasawa-dera, 
a temj)le picturesquely situated at 
the toi5 of one of the small valleys 
N.E. of the town amongst rocks 
and pines and flowering trees. 
The climb will take 45 min. The 
main temi>le, dating from the 16th 
century, contains the funeral tab- 
lets of local worthies. Perched 
above it is a shrine to Kwannon, 
cut out of the rocky cliff, and con- 
taining tiny images of that deity. 

For an excursion on the lake, one 
might take boat to Osaka, on the 
S.W. shore, 1^ hr., where there is 
another temple to Kwannon. 

The line now skirts the N.E. 
shore of the lake to 



lioute 31. — V/ays to and from Kofu. 



Shimo-Suwa {Inns, *Eiky6-ya ; 
*Kaine-ya, both ^^^tll private 
springs). This place is noted for 
its hot springs, the principal of 
which, called Wata-no-yu, has a 
temperature of 113°.9 F. Of the 
two other principal sources in the 
town, one called Ko-yu, which con- 
tains alum, has the high tempera- 
ture of 145°.4; the other, called 
Tanga-yu, has a temperature of 
114°.8. ■ 

Two great Shint5 shrines, called 
respectiyely Akl-no-Miya (Autumn 
Temple) and Hani-no-Miya (Spring 
Temple), — the former situated near 
the inns, the latter on the W. 
outsldrts, 8 cho distant, — have long 
been celebrated, but are now much 
decayed. The wings on each side 
of the AM-no-Miya contain some 
curious ex-votos. 



These shrines derive their appellations 
from the fact that the divinities there 
wox'phipped are believed to change their 
abode from one to the other according to 
the season, moving into the Karii-no- 
Miya on the 1st February, and into the 
Aki-no-Miya on the 1st August, on each 
of which occasions a proces-sion takes 
place. The god and goddess worshipped 
are named respectively Take-mina-gata- 
tome-uo-Mikoto" and Mai-no-yasaka-tome- 
no-Mikoto. 



The silk industry of the neigh- 
bourhood has developed, of late 
years, by leaps and bounds, most 
of the filatures clustering about the 
next station Akaya, where the 
Tenryu-gawa, flowing from the lake, 
supplies the necessary motive 
power. From 5,000 to 6,000 per- 
sons, mostly girls and women, are 
employed there alone. Quinces, 
v.hich ripen in October, are pro- 
duced in abundance. Wild cats 
with long tails inhabit this district, 
noticeably different from the short- 
tailed cat of E. Japan. 

The railway from Suwa runs 
west for 19^ m. further along the 
old Nakasend5 (but avoiding the 
Shiojiri Pass) to Shiojiri Jet. (see j). 
246). 



6. — Fkom Kofu over the Misaka- 
t5ge to Yoshida and Gotemba. 

Itinerary. 

KOFU to:— Hi Ch5 M. 

Isawa 1 23 4 

Kami Kurogoma ... 2 8 5r^ 

Tonoki 1 26 4^ 

Kawaguchi 2 10 5^ 

Funatsu 1 8 3 

YOSHIDA 1 1 2J 

Total 10 4 24|- 



whence tram to Gotemba (see p. 
169). 

Time required, 2 days, stoj^ping 
at Yoshida the first night. Y^'oko- 
liama may easily be reached by 
train from Gotemba on the evening 
of the second day ; or else good 
walkers might cross over the 
Otome-toge to jNIiyanoshita. 

Jinrildshas should be tiiken to 
Tonold-Shinden, whence walk. At 
Isaica the road turns off to the r., 
and soon foUovrs up a narrow 
valley. From Kami Kurogoma it 
rises rapidly to Tdnoki, 3,200 ft. 
above the sea. It then ascends for 
about 1 hr. through the forest to 
the summit of the Misaka-toge, 
which is 5,120 ft. above the 
sea. The view of Fuji from this 
point, as it rises from Lake Kawa- 
guchi, is justly celebrated. Below 
is the vill. of Kawaguchi; on the 
opposite side of the lake are Funatsu 
and Kodachi ; further S. is Lake 
Y^amanaka. The prospect looking 
back towards the N. and W. includes 
Kimpu-zan, Y^atsu-ga-take, Koma- 
ga-take, Jizo-dake, and in the plain 
below, the vill. of Isawa. It is 1 hr. 
descent down the bare hillside to 
Kawaguchi, a poor vill. lying near 
the lake. Boats can be procured 
from here to Funatsu, (about J hr.), 
or else one may follow the road 
skirting the lake. From Funatsu 
to Yoshida, and on to Subashiri 
and Gotemba the road traverses the 
moor which forms the base of Fuji. 



Ascent of Tateshina and Yatsu-ga-take. 



289 



. — Feom Kaeuizawa to Kofu by 

THE HiRASAAYA-DaIMON-TOGE. 

Traill to Miyoda in | hr., whence 
by the following Itinerary : — 

MIYODA to :— Ei Cho M. 

Iwamurata 2 23 6 J 

Usuda 2 16 6 

Takano-machi 1 6 2| 

Toyosato 2 7 5| 

Umijiri 1 21 4 

Umi-no-luTchi 1 10 3 

Hirasawa 3 7 7| 

Tsugane 3 14 8^ 

Wakamilio 1 30 4 J 

Hinobarii 26 1| 

Total 20 16 50 



whence rail to Kofu in 1| hr. 

This route is not recommended, 
except to those bent on mountain 
climbing. Exclusive of such 
climbing, the journey will occupy 
2 days, hasha being available 
between Miyoda and Umijiri, The 
rest must be done on foot. The 
best accommodation is at Umi-no- 
Kuclii (Kaijo-kwan), and at Uino- 
haru station (Nishio-kwan). The 
scenery is mediocre, though the 
Chikuma-gawa whose upper course 
is followed for many miles, has 
some fine cliffs. The actual pass 
is an easy climb. Its name of 
Hirasawa-Daimon-toge serves to 
distinguish it from another Daimon- 
tdge further west. 

The hamlet of Hata, near Takano- 
machi, is the best place from which 
to ascend Tateshina-yama. This 
expedition requires the whole of a 
long day, but the climber is reward- 
ed by an extensive view. 

From Umijiri, at the end of the 
IwasaM gorge, one may go up to 
the Bonzaica baths (3 ri), situated 
at a height of 3,200 ft. above 
Umijiri. The summit of the Hon- 
zawa pass, some 40 min. walk 
beyond the Honzawa baths, is 7,400 
ft. above the sea. 

[It is possible to visit Mitake (p. 



280) by leaving the main 
road a little beyond Umi-no- 
kuchi and going to Ilara (2J ri), 
where there is a small inn. 
Thence a mountain path leads 
through the hamlets of Kuro- 
mori and Jlinata, and over the 
O-toge to Mitake (11 ri). The 
accommodation between Hara 
and Mitake is very poor, but 
the route affords some fine 
views. A guide is needed.] 

Honzawa (fair inn) makes the 
best starting-point for the ascent of 
the three peaks, Mikahuri, Yoko-o- 
dake, and Akadake, known under the 
collective name of Yatsu-ga-take. 
The expedition there and back 
takes a day. Leaving Honzawa, 
one first walks up to the top of the 
pass just mentioned, w^hence it is 
an easy climb southwards of f hr. 
to the summit of Mikaburi-yama. 
From here the way leads up and 
down for about 4 hrs., via the sharp 
broken ridge of Yoko-0-dake, to 
the highest summit, Akadake 
(9,150 ft.) A steady head is neces- 
sary in some places. Alpine plants 
abound. The view includes the 
whole of the Hida-Shinshu range, 
amongst which Yari-ga-take is con- 
spicuous to the N.W., Fuji is seen 
towering aloft S. by E., the Koshii 
Koma-ga-take S.W. by S., Shirane 
a little to its S., Ho-6-zan S.S.W., 
distinguished by the monumental 
pile of rocks at its summit, and 
Kimpu-zan S.E. by E. 

An alternative, on leaving Hon- 
zaAva, for those bound for Lake 
Suwa is to go down to Chino (see 
p. 287) on the railway, — a pleasant 
walk of about 6^ ri. 



290 



Route 32. — Valley of the Hayahaim. 



ROUTE 32. 



Yalley of the Hayakawa. 
Itinerary. 

MINOBU to :— Pd Clio M. 

Akasa\ra 3 — 1\ 

Goka-mura 2j — G 

Kyo-ga-sbima 2 — 5 

Hayakawa 1 — 2^ 

Shimo Yujima ... 3 J — 8^ 

Naracia 2 — o 

rVsliiyasu 5 — 12^- 

Arino 2 — 5 

Dodo 15 1 

IViidai 10 I 

KOFU 2 — 5 

Total 23 25 58 



These distances are approximate. 

An alternative plan, for those 
starting from Shdji, is to go down 
the Fujikawa as far as the hamlet of 
Bonn (fair inn), near the confluence 
of that river with the Hayaliawa, 
and join the above itinerary near 
Groka-miira, 3| ri from Itomi. 

This route is a very rough one ; 
for though so close to civilisation, 
the country through which it leads 
lies in the heart of the great moun- 
tain mass dividing Eoshu from 
Shinshu and Suruga, and both the 
people and the roads are in much 
the same state as they were in 
earlier centuries, before railways 
were known or foreigners heard of. 
The journey can only be accomplish- 
ed on foot, and one should travel 
as lightly as possible, for all bag- 
gage has to be carried by coolies, 
who are often difficult to obtain. 
The traveller will meet with no 
regular inns, except one at Hdmura ; 
but the officials and headmen of the 
various hamlets will provide the best 
accommodation their places afford. 
It is i^ossible to combine with this 
trip the ascent of the Koshu Shirane- 
san and other lofty peaks, which 
form the subject of the next route. 



At Alcasawa the path strikes r., 
in order to enter the valley of the 
Hayakaica, which it does near Go- 
ka-mura. A short way beyond this, 
it descends to a i)retty valley near 
the hamlet of Shio-no-ue, where the 
scenery is j)articularly striking. To 
the 1. rises Shichimen-zan, thickly 
wooded and seen to much better 
advantage here than from Minobu 
Directly opposite is the bold round 
summit of Amebata-yama, also 
called Zaru-ga-take, through the 
deep ravine to the 1. of which flows 
the Amebata-gawa. Below is seen 
the Hayakawa winding down the 
valley on the r., and forming an 
almost complete circle as it bends 
round a low wooded jDromontory, 
which from this point has the 
appearance of an island. The path 
now descends over a rough water- 
course to the bed of the river, and 
ascends the 1. bank to Kyo-ga- 
shima. Eight cho further on, it 
crosses the stream on a tsuri-hafihi, 
or " hanging bridge," to the hamlet 
of Hdmura {Inn, Hoshimi-ya), in 
whose neighbourhood a gold mine 
is worked. 

For a description of the tsuri-hashi of 
tlie mountain districts of Eastern and 
Central Japan, see p. 283-1:. Another 
pi'imitive bind of bridge, called mannen- 
hashi, has sometimes to be crossed on this 
route. It consists of a long piece of 
timber, which is simply tied at the end 
to projecting supports, such as are used 
in the hanging bridge. The span is not 
so great as that of the tsuri-bashi ; but 
the narrowness of the roadway, and the 
imperfect manner in which the project- 
ing beams are supported, give the travel- 
ler an uncomfortable feeling of insecuri- 
ty. The Japanese name is a hyiierbole 
signifying " Bridge of a Myriad Years." 

Beyond Homura, the path leads 
over one of the lower spurs of 
Dailioku-yama, and follows the 
steep side of the valley high above 
the stream. After passing the 
hamlet of Nishi-no-miya, the river 
is recrossed to 

Hayakawa. Decent quarters 
may be obtained 1 mile further on 
at the house of the Soncho (Mayor) 
of Misato, the " three villages " of 



Boiite 33. — Mountains between the Fujikawa & Tenryu. 291 



which Hayaka,wa is one. Gold is 
found in the neighbourhood, while 
plantations of the paper-tree and of 
tobacco line this part of the valley. 
Higher up, beyond the hamlet of 
Arakura, the scenery is charming. 
The river dashes along through a 
fine rocky glen, and is spanned by 
one of the mannen-haahi at a highly 
picturesque sjDot. After crossing 
this bridge, the road divides. The 
route to Narada tarns to the r., and 
ascends a very steep hill for about 
1 ri, winds round its upper slope, 
and descends again to the river 
through wild and rugged scenery, 
before reaching the hamlet of Shimo 
Yujima. About 40 cho on, and a 
little way up the ravine to the r., 
hes the hot spring of Kami Yujima 
(fair accommodation). 

Narada (accommodation at a 
Buddhist temple), the last inhabited 
place in the valley, consists of 
but a few households. All the in- 
habitants bear the same surname, 
and seldom marry outside the 
limits of their own village. They 
are a i:)rimitive folk of a peculiar 
type of countenance, who wear in 
summer a loose hempen dress, and 
deer and bear-skins in the winter. 
Their dialect is peculiar. Narada 
boasts "Seven Wonders" {Xana 
Fushigi), amongst which are enu- 
merated a brackish pool, the waters 
of which are said to have the pro- 
perty of dyeing black any article of 
clothing left to steep in them, for 
forty-eight hours, and a reed whose 
leaves grow only on one side of the 
stem. More interesting to the 
pedestrian than these village 
wonders will be the ascent of 
Shirane-san, for which see next 
page. 

The ordinary path from Narada 
to Ashiyasu winds up and down a 
succession of forest slopes, whose 
thick foliage almost entirely shuts 
out all view. Now and then, 
however, glimpses are caught of 
Shirane-san and of the valleys of 
the Arakawa and Norokawa. B nr- 
ther on the path divides, — r, to Kofu 



via Hira-bayashi, 1. to Kofu via 
Ashiyasu. The traveller is recom- 
mended to take the latter on 
account of its wild scenery. A 
portion of the way lies down a 
precipitous rocky ravine known as 
the Ide-zaim, where the gorge is 
in many places so narrow that its 
perTjendicular sides seem almost to 
meet overhead. The path, after 
crossing the Narada-toge (5,120 ft.), 
descends by the side of a torrent, 
crossing and re-crossing it on 
trunlvS of trees, and being carried 
over clefts and landslips on bridges 
of primitive construction. 

Ashiyasu, which stands on the 
1. bank of the Midai-gawa, consists of 
five hamlets named Kiitsuzawa (the 
highest up the valley), Ozori, Kozori, 
Furu-yashiki, and Arakura lower 
down. Those who contemplate 
making the ascent of H6-6-zan or 
of Kaigane shouJd stay at Kozori 



ROUTE 3^ 



The Mountains between the Fu.n- 

KAWA AND the TeNRYU-GAWA. 

1. SHIKANE-SAN (NODOKI, AI-NO-TAKE, 
kaigane). 2. H5-5-ZAN. 3. THE 
EOMA-GA-TAKE OP KOSHTT. 4. AKA- 
ISHI-SAN. 

The great mountain m.ass to the 
W. of K5fu, lying between the 
valleys of the Fujikawa, Oigawa, 
and Tenryu-gawa, is only second in 
orographical importance to the 
Etclid-Hida mountains described in 
Koute 30. Climbing in this range 
involves no little hardship, for the 
reasons stated in the introduction 
to the previous route, with which 
the greater part of this one may 
conveniently be combined. None 



292 Route 33. — Mountains between the Fujikawa & Temyu. 



but experienced 
should attempt it. 



mountaineers 



1.— Shieane-san (K5shu Shieane). 

In order to avoid confusion when 
arranging with peasant-guides and 
hunters, let it be understood that 
Shirane-san is not one individual 
peak, but a general name for the 
northern and more elevated portion 
of the range of which Nodori-san, 
Ai-no-take, and Kaigane are the 
chief peaks. 

Narada (p. 291) is the starting- 
jx)int for the ascent, — not that 
there is any regularly marked path 
thence to the top of the range, biit 
that guides are there procurable 
who know the way up, and will 
carry whatever is necessary in the 
way of provisions and bedding. 
Those who purpose to ascend all of 
Shirane's peaks must be prepared 
to sleep out three nights, and, tak- 
ing Nodori-san first, to cross on the 
fourth day from the base ef Kaigane 
to the vill. of Ashiyasu. Nodori 
and Ai-no-take involve sleej^ing out 
two nights and descending on the 
third day, — likewise to Ashiyasu. 
There is a hut at the E. base of 
Kaigane, but none on the top of 
the range. Ai-no-take cannot be 
ascended direct from Narada ; 
Nodori must first be climbed, and 
the track followed thence along the 
ridge. 

From Narada to the top of the 
ridge is a stiff climb of 9 hrs., fre- 
quent rests being needed by the 
guides who carry the baggage. The 
height is 8,400 ft. above the sea, or 
5,90;) ft. above Narada, and snow 
often lies there as late as July. 
Once on the ridge, the rest of the 
ascent is easy. In 2 hrs. the first 
peak, nameless on the maps, is 
reached. Half an hour more brings 
us to the top of Nodori, 9,970 ft., 
which commands much the same 
view as the previous summit, with 
the addition of Ai-no-take and 
Kaigane, the latter of which now 
comes in sight for the first time. 



From the summit of Nodori to 
that of Ai-no-take (10,260 ft.) 
takes 2 hrs. The tof) consists of 
bare rock ; but a little below, every 
sheltered nook has a patch of grass, 
gay with the flowers that iiihabit 
higher altitudes. Ten min. below 
the summit on the E. side, is an 
excellent camping-place. The view 
from the highest jx)int includes : 
Koma-ga-take a httle to the E. of N., 
Kaigane N.N.E., Yatsu-ga-take just 
on the E. of Kaigane ; Kimpu-zan 
N.E. by E., and Senj6-ga-take, a 
conical mountain on the 1. of the 
Norokawa, N. W. The source of 
this stream is perceived far down 
on the N.W. flank of Ai-no-take. 
In the far distance N. E. the 
Nikk5 Shirane can be descried. 
Towards the S. and beyond N5dori- 
san, a long range of mountains is 
seen stretching down the frontier of 
K5shu, and getting gradually lower 
as it approaches Minobu. Fuji 
rises between S.E. and E.S.E., 
while H5-6-zan and Jiz6-ga-take on 
the one side, and Ontake, Norikura, 
and Yari-ga-take stand up x)erfectly 
clear on the other. The descent 
from Ai-no-take to Ashiyasu is 
fatiguing as far as a stream some 
4,200 ft. above sea-level. This 
stream is the Arakawa, one of the 
sources of the Hayakawa. If the 
day is too far silent to allow of 
Ashiyasu being reached before 
nightfall, one may sleep at some 
wood-cutters' huts, 1^ hr. before 
getting to that village. 

Kaigane (10,335 ft.) can best be 
ascended from Ashiyasu, Avhere good 
accommodation and hunters to act 
as guides can be obtained at the 
house of Natori Un-ichi, the soncho 
of Kozori. A steep scramble 
of 5 hrs. takes one to the top of 
the Tsuetate-toge (7,100 ft.), near 
which the route to H5-5-zan 
diverges to the right, and a still 
rougher descent of 3 hrs. more into 
the bed of the Norokawa. From 
here the river bed or bank is follow- 
ed for 3 hours to a woodcutters' 
shelter called Hirokaica Eoya close 



Shirane. Ho-o-zan. Koshu Koma-ga-tahe. 



293 



to the E. base of Kaigane, on 
the E. side of the clear mountain 
torrent. Trout are abundant. 

The actual ascent of Kaigane 
begins after fording the Noroka\ya, 
and involves extremely rough work. 
For 4 or 5 hrs. a way is forced 
through the forest up a buttress at 
a steep angle over broken ground, 
often covered with fallen trees, until 
on reaching the N. ridge of the 
mountain we turn to the S., and 
after a climb of I2- or 2 hrs. along a 
narrow rocky arete we gain the 
summit. The view is magnificent, 
especially of the granite peaks of the 
Koshu Koma-ga-take range E., and 
of the Hida-Shinshu peaks to the N. 
W. A great variety of Alpine plants 
flourish on the summit ridge, and 
tame ptarmigan abound. 

[On returning to the shelter at 
the foot of Kaigane, there is a 
choice of routes. Ashiyasu 
may be regained either by the 
way just described, or directly 
down the bed of the Norokawa 
and its tributary, the Midai- 
gawa. Or else the same valley 
may be ascended northwards to 
a saddle west of Koma-ga-take, 
whence Takato in Shinshu may 
be reached. Some rude huts, 
resorted to by wood-cutters, 
afford the only shelter ; but the 
walk is very line.] 



2. — H6-0ZAN. 

The ascent of Ho-6-zan (9,554 
ft.), Y]ke that of Kaigane, is best 
made from Ashiyasu, the routes 
coinciding for the first 4 hrs., as far 
as the Tsuetake-toge (see p. 291). 
The climber should spend the night 
at the woodcutters' huts at Omuro, 
some 2 hrs. beyond and above this 
tbge, where shelter and water are to 
be found. From Omuro a scramble 
of 40 min. lands one on the main 
ridge at a point called Suna-harai or 
Kento-ga-take, whence the way 
leads along the ridge commanding 



magnificent views on either hand. 
From Suna-harai to Jiz5-dake, the 
main point of the ridge, marked by 
a surveying station, it is an easy 
walk of about h hr., a descent down 
broken slopes and through a wood 
leading to a saddle from which rises 
the imposing peak of H5-6-zan. 
This consists of two gigantic col- 
umns of granite which lean against 
each other so as to form an obelisk 
some 60 ft. in height, springing 
from a steep and broken pedestal 
150 ft. above the saddle. To the 
base of the actual peak is a hard 
scramble. The peak itself was first 
scaled with the help of a rope by 
the Rev. Walter Weston in 190i. 
The view is singularly striking, 
seen as it is from a little platform 
on an isolated pinnacle 5 or 6 ft. 
square, surrounded by most of the 
loftiest peaks in Central Jajoan. 
The chief features are : Fuji to the 
S.E., Koma-ga-take and Senjo-ga- 
take to the N. W., and the great 
triple summits of Shirane-san to the 
W. and S.W. 



3. — The Koma-ga-take of Koshu. 

The vill. of Dai-ga-hara, 1 ri 15 
c/io from Hinobaru station (p. 287), 
affords the best starting-point for 
this grand mountain, 9,843 ft. above 
sea-level. The distance to the top 
is called 7 ri, and will require 9 hrs., 
including halts. The best plan is 
to spend a night in the Murodo hut 
at the foot of some cliffs called Byo- 
bu-iwa, 5 or 6 hrs. walli from Dai-ga- 
hara, whence it is a steep but varied 
climb of about 2 hrs. more to the 
summit. 

After leaving Dai-ga-hara, the 
way leads across a nearly level 
stretch of forest for 1 hr. to the 
shrine of Mae-miya, near the 1. bank 
of the Ojira-gawa, which is crossed 
by a small bridge where the actual 
ascent commences. Most of the 
way to Uma-dome, nearly IJ ri, is 
very steep ; but the forest affords 
shade for a time. The track then 



294: Boule 33. — Jlountains between tJie Fujikaioa & Tenryu. 



continues for about 1 ri to the hut 
at Byobu-iica, and on to a s]K>t 
called Shichijd, where pilgrims 
sometimes bivouac, there being 
Avater near by. It is so narrow in 
l)laces that chains and a ladder are 
lixed to the rocks to help cHmbers 
lip. The tinal 1,300 ft. are less 
steep. The magnificent view em- 
braces all the loftiest peaks in 
Central Japan. 

It is possible to descend Koma- 
ga-take on the Shinshu side to Taka- 
to (see below); but the way down is 
extremely rough and T\-iil take a 
good chmber about 10 hrs., includ- 
ing halts, to Kurokaica, the first 
rill, where accommodation is likely 
to be found, although at Todai (1^^ 
hr. short of it) there are several 
cottages known to hunters by the 
collective name of Sen-gen-yado. 

Ehododendrons grow in great 
quantities on Koma-ga-take. Du- 
ring the latter part of July, when 
the trees, which attain to a con- 
siderable size, are in full bloom, 
they imj)art a charming hue to the 
scene. 



4 . — Ak AISHI-S AN' . 

This, though one of the highest 
peaks of the range separating the 
valleys of the Tenryu and the Oi- 
gawa, is little known, because not 
visible from any of the ordinary 
lines of travel. It is best approach- 
ed from Takato {Inn, Ikegami-ya), 
an important town situated in the 
valley of the Mabukawa, an affluent 
of the Tenryu. Takato can be 
reached either from Aoyagi station 
on the Kofu-Suwa railway (p. 286) 
from which village it is a pleasant 
walk of 3 ri 8 cho to MidogaUo {Inn, 
Echigo-ya), and then Sh ri more to 
Takato ; or else from Inct (p. 295), 2 
ri 23 cho. From Takatd the ro{\d 
leads due S. up the valley of the 
jMibukawa, affording good views of 
the W. side of the Kdshu Koma-ga- 
take, and over the Ichinose-toge 
(4,450 ft.) to Onm-taka 



This hamlet is said to derive its name 
from the fact that the women are here 
the heads of the households. It is also 
stated that if a man from any other place 
marries a woman belonging to this ham- 
let, he is sure soon to droop and die. 

and Ichiba, which latter is recom.- 
m.ended as a halting-place. Tillages 
f_urther on, where one may stay, are 
Okaicara, Kamazaica, and the warm 
sulphur baths of Koshiba. 

The actual ascent takes 11 hrs. 
from Koshibu, being an arduous 
scramble, during the first part of 
which the Ko.shibu-gawa has to be 
crossed and re-crossed more than a 
score of times. This is followed by 
a hard climb of 2 hrs. or so up the 
steej) tree-clad slopes of a spur of 
Akaishi-san, the ascent then lead- 
ing over bare loose rocks of a red- 
dish colour for 2 hrs. more to a 
point where it is necessary to turn 
and go straight up to the final 
arete. This is a moderate climb of 
1 hr., and another hour is needed 
to walk up to the highest point of 
the peak (10,145 ft.), which afliords 
a fine view of most of the high 
mountains of Central Japan. A 
night has to be spent in what the 
hunter-guides call a grand cave, but 
is a bare shelter between two rocks. 
Water is not always easily found on 
the mountain side. About 1 m. 
from the summit is a hollow, where 
the climber who wishes to see the 
sunrise might sleep. 

Instead of returning to Takatd, it 
might be possible_to cross over into 
the valley of the Oigawa, and either 
descend to the Tokaido, or strike 
the head-waters of the Hayaka^^•a 
across another range (see p. 290) ; 
but the country is rough in the 
extreme. 



Route 34. — Rapids of the Tenryu-gawa. 



295 



BOUTE 34. 



The Eapids of the TknkyO-gawa. 

These rapids, the finest in Japan, 
form a natural route connecting the 
Nakasendd and the Tokaido, — the 
two chief highways of the central 
I)ortion of the Main Island. The 
village where one embarks is called 
Tokimata {Inn, Umeno-ya). It is 
reached from the E. by travelling 
along the Nakasendd as far as the 
town of Shimo-Suwa, thence to 
Matsnshima on another important 
highway called the Ina Kaldb, and 
along that highway to lida {Inns, 
Shogo-do, Rjaishi-kwan), a large 
and flourishing town, formerly the 
residence of a Daimyo. The por- 
tion of the Ina Kaido included in 
this route is by no means lacking 
in the picturesque. It also brings 
the traveller into the vicinity of 
the Shinshti Koma-ga-take (p. 277), 
which may be ascended from. Akao 
or from Ina. — Those coming from, 
the W. along the Nakasendd may 
leave that highway either at Azu7na- 
hashi, whence 5 ri over the jpictur- 
esque Odaira-ioge to Odaira, on foot 
or in jinrikishas with 3 men ; and 
3 rt 7 did more to lida, by good jin- 
rildsha road ; or else at Shiojiri, 
whence a jinrikisha road leads to 
Matsushima as above, — 6 ri 15 c7to 
(15| m.). 

Itinerary. 

SHIMO-SUWA to :— HI Cho M. 

Matsushima G 13 15 J 

Ina (Sakashita) 2 28 6f 

Akao 3 21 8} 

lijima 1 35 4J 

HDA 6 13 lU 

TOKIMATA 2 15 6" 

Total 23 7 56J 



The best accommodation on the 
way to Tokimata is at Ina {Inn, 
Tomi-ya), and at Akao {Inn, *Koku- 



ya). The whole way from Shimo- 
Suwa to Tokimata is i)racticable for 
jinrildshas, and can be accomphsh- 
ed in 2 days ; but the occasional 
roughness of the latter j^art of the 
road necessitates the hiring of two 
jinrikisha-men. The passage by 
boat from. Toldmata down to the 
T5kaid5 generally occupies 12 hrs. 
Circumstances may render a break 
necessary. In this case, either 
Nishimoto {Inn, Koji-ya), or Futa- 
mata lower down, will do for a 
night's halting-place. The total 
distance travelled by water is 
estimated at 36 ri, say 90 miles ; 
but the latter portion of this is 
along a comparatively sluggish cur- 
rent. The boat does not take the 
traveller actually to the Tdkaido 
Eailway. Whether bound up or 
down the line, he alights at Naka- 
no-machi, for the station of Hama- 
matsu, 1 ri 28 cho distant (see p. 
235). Some, however, prefer to a- 
hght at Kajima higher up (about 5 rl 
from Hamamatsu by jinrikisha or 
basha), or else at Ikeda for the sta- 
tion of Naka-izumi, or to go on to the 
station of Tenriju-gawa ; but both 
these being small, the express does 
not stojD at them, and the only trains 
which do stoi3 have no first-class 
cars. 

The charge for a boat when the 
river is in a normal state has oscil- 
lated during several years past 
between 40 and 50 yen, the justifi- 
cation of this high price being 
that from 10 to 12 days are re- 
quired to tow the boat up stream 
again. All traffic is prohibited 
when the river is in flood. Boats 
not being always in readiness, it 
may be advisable to write before- 
hand (in Japanese, of course) to the 
innkeeper at Tokimata, to order one 
with 4 boatmen. Travellers are 
also recommended to time their 
movements so as to arrive at To- 
kimata on the afternoon previous 
to their descent of the rapids, which 
will enable them to make all ar- 
rangements overnight and to start 
early. It might also be possible to 



296 



Route 34. — Rapids of the Tenryu-gawa. 



make arrangements tlirongli tlie 
inn at lida. A necessary stipula- 
tion is that the boat shall take one 
the whole uay ; otherwise the men 
are apt to shirk the last part of the 
voyage, where the sluggish stream 
makes the work arduous, and en- 
deavour to make the passengers 
land en route, where jinrikishas may 
or may not be obtainable. Omni- 
bus boats descend from Tokimata, 
price 2 or 3 yen per head, but can- 
not always be counted on. One 
should be prepared for disa23point- 
ment in the event of continued wet 
weather, when the river rises con- 
siderably. Nothing will induce the 
boatmen to undertake the journey 
if the water is above a certain 
height. Under such circumstances, 
the alternative road over the 
Odaira-toge, mentioned on p. 244, 
may be availed of to rejoin the 
Nakasendo. The traveller ^^-ill then 
have the option of doing that pictur- 
esque route, or of rejoining the 
Tokaido by the short railway 
described on pp. 247-8. 

A spare hour at Toldmata can be 
pleasantly spent in visiting the 
picturesque bridge less than 1 ri 
down the river, at the spot where 
the rough-and-tumble -part of its 
course begins. 

The scenery of the Tenryu-gawa 
is impressive. After passing the 
bridge mentioned above, the river 
enters a rocky ravine ; and from 
this point on to Nishinoto — a pas- 
sage of some 6^ hrs. — is almost one 
continued series of rapids and races. 
Walled in between mountains that 
rise abruptly to the height of from 
1,000 ft. to 2,000 ft., the river twists 
and tears along their rocky base, 
carving for itself a channel where 
there seems no possible outlet. It 
is in such i)laces that the skill of the 
boatmen will be most admired, 
where the boat, which looks as if it 
must be dashed to pieces in another 
moment, is shot round the corner, 
only to be whirled on to some new 
danger equally exciting. 



Mr. Percival Lowell thus describes the 
scene below Mitsusliima, one of the 
hamlets on the bank: — "The river, its 
brief glimpse at civilization over, relapsed 
again into utter savagery. Rocks and 
trees, as wild apparently as their first 
forerunners there, walled us in on the 
sides, and appeared to do so at the ends, 
making exit seem an impossibility, and 
entrance to have been a dream. The 
stream gave short reaches, disclosing 
every few minutes, as it took us round a 
fresh turn, a new variation on the old 
theme. Then, as we glided straight our 
few hundred feet, the wall behind us rose 
higher and higher, stretching out at us 
as if to prevent our possible escape. We 
had thought it only a high cliff, and 
behold it was the whole mountain side 
that had stood barrier there." 



On api^roaching a rapid, the man 
forwarcf strikes the bow of the boat 
with his paddle, both as a signal to 
the others and in the superstitious 
belief that it will bring good luck. 
Of rapids properly so-called, there 
are upwards of thirty, the finest of 
which_are: Yagura (the Turret), 
near Oshima ; Shin-taki (New Cas- 
cade), 3 ri below Mitsu-shima ; 
Takaze (High Eapid) ; Chona (Adze), 
just beyond Otani ; Konnyaku (an 
edible root) ; Shiranami (White 
Waves) ; lorl-ga-taki (lori's Cas- 
cade) ; and Yama-buro (Mountain 
Bath), the grandest of all, despite 
its homely name. 



Route 35. — The Shrines of Ise. 



297 



ROUTE 35. 



The Shrines of Ise. 

1. peeliminaky information. 2. 
tokyo to yamada. 3. naba to 
yamada, 4. yamada and neigh- 
bourhood, the temples of ise. 

[province of SHIM a.] 

1. — Preliminary Information. 

Ise is the name, not of a town, but of 
a province lying to the E. and S. E. of 
Kyoto on the W. shore of Owari Bay. The 
temples, which rank highest among the 
holy places of the Shinto cult, stand on 
the outskirts of the to^va of Yamada, 
near the S. E. frontier of the province. 
It should be premised that the interest 
of the trip to Ise is chiefly antiquarian. 
Without going so far as to say, with a 
disapj)ointed tourist, that " there is noth- 
ing to see, and they won't let you see it," 
we may remind intending travellers of 
the remarkable plainness of all Shinto 
architecture, and add that the venera- 
tion in which the shrines of Ise are held 
is such that none but priests and Imper- 
ial personages are allowed to penetrate 
into the interior. The rest of the world 
may go no further than the first enclos- 
ure, and even there, on festival days, 
visitors are sometimes called on to re- 
move not only their hats but their over- 
coats. 

The ways of reaching Yamada are 

as foUows : 

I. From Tolcyo by Tdkaido Railway 
to Nagoya, 1st day. Thence by 
Kwansai Railway to Kameyama 
Junction, and on by Sangu Rail- 
way to Yamada, — 2nd day. 

n. From Nara by Kwansai Railway 
via Kamo to Kameyama, and on 
by Sangii Railway as in No. 1. 
This will take one day. 

III. From Kobe to Osaka, where 
drive across to Amijima station 
(20 min. with 2 men), and thence 
without change of car to Kamo 
Junction, after which as in No. 2. 
The section of the Kwansai line 
between Osaka and Kamo leads 
across the plain, through small 
places of no interest. It is trav- 
ersed in 2 hrs. 



2.— From Tokyo to Yamada. 

A full description of the 8| hrs. 
journey by Tokaid5 Railway from_ 
Tokyo to Nagoya will be found in 
Route 23. From Nagoya onwards 
the schedule is as follows : — 





Kwansai Railway. 


iai 


Names 




l?§o 


of 


Remarks 


ft ^ 


Stations 






NAGOYA 




im. 


Aichi 




6 


Kanie 




io| 


Yatomi 




121 


Nagashima 




15 


KUWANA 




19 1 


Tomida 




23 


yokkaichi 




27i 


Kawarada 




31! 


Takamiya 




371 


KAMEYAMA Jet. 


1 For Yamada 
(and for Kyoto. 


Sangu Railway. 


393 


Shimonosho i 


43 1 


Ishinden 




47 


TSU 




49i 


Akogi 




52 


Takajaya 




55^ 


Eokken 




59 


matsuzaka 




60| 


Tokuwa 




64 


Oka 




681 


Tamaru 




70j< 


Miyagawa 




72 


Suji-mukai-bashi 




73 


yamada 





Aiclii, only a minute or two 
from Nagoya station j^roper, is a 
suburb which gives its name to this 
important prefecture. The country 
through which the Hne passes is 
intersected by a network of rivers, 
which here debouch into the sea. 
The Kisogawa, swelled by the waters 
of the Nagara-gawa and the Ibigawa, 
is the largest of these, and by its 
liability to overflow its flat banks, 
offers grave engineering difficulties. 
Extensive works have been set on 
foot with the object of minimising 
the recurrence of destructive floods. 
The two longest bridges are between 



298 



Boide 35.— The Shrines of he. 



Yatomi and Kuwana, one of which 
has as many as fourteen spans, 
where the river measures two-thirds 
of a mile in width. The view of 
distant mountains is pretty all the 
way as one proceeds westwards, 
relieving the monotony of the sea 
of rice-helds on either hand. 

Kuwana ( Inns, Funat,su-ya, Kyo- 
ya), some 10 cho to the W. of its 
station, is a large town. Its attrac- 
tions are the Temple of the Gods of 
Kasiiga (lively festival, with numer- 
ous m^^thological cars on 5-7th 
July), and at the W. end, Atago- 
yama, whither the inhabitants go 
out on holidays for the sake of the 
view. The noted Shinto Temple of 
Tado, which stands in a glen 2 ri 
23 cho to the N.W., has lovely 
maples and flowering trees, and is 
altogether a picturesque and curious 
place. 

It is dedicated jointly to the Sun- 
Goddess and to Ichi-inoku-ren, a one-eyed 
dragon-god, who is very powerful as a 
rain-producer. Accordingly this temple 
is much resorted to in times of drought, 
the peasants carrying off gohei from it to 
their respective fields and villages. They 
must, however, be careful not to let the 
gohei touch the ground anywhere on the 
way ; for all the rain would then fall on 
that spot, and none would be left for the 
IJlaces where it is wanted. 

From Kuwana on to Yokkaichi, 
the chief thing to notice is the 
mountain range that separates the 
provinces of Ise and Omi. The 
little peninsula of Chita is also seen 
in the blue distance to the 1. The 
old T5kaid5 road is crossed two or 
three times. 

Yokkaich.i {Inn, *Yoshitaka-ya) 
was the first Japanese town to 
Europeanise itself with clusters of 
factory chimneys, now so common 
a sight throughout the empire. It 
is one of the " Special Open Ports " 
for the export of rice, wheat, flour, 
coal, and sulphur ; and much trade 
is carried on by sea, notwithstand- 
ing the extreme shallowness of the 
bay, which prevents any but quite 
small craft from approaching the 
shore at any ix>iiit- Among the 



principal products of Yokkaichi 
may be mentioned Banko faience, — 
a ware, for the most part, exceed- 
ingly light and having hand-model- 
led decoration in relief ; but every 
variety of it may easily be procured 
at Yokohama and Kobe. 

Between Y'okkaichi and Kame- 
yama the railway continues along 
the old Tokaido, whose avenue of 
pine-trees forms a characteristic 
feature. The mountains to the r 
are those on the borders of Omi, 
the most prominent being the 
Suzuka-toge, with Kama-ga-take at 
the N. and Kyo-ga-mine at the S. 
extremity. 

Kameyama [Inn, Arald-ya, at 
station, Europ. food). We here 
change from the Kv:ansai to the 
Sangu, or " Pilgrim Eailway," so 
called from the Shrines of Ise, 
which it was built to lead to. At 

Ishinden, stands an enormous 
Buddhist temple called Senshuji, or 
more commonly Takata no Gobb. 

This, the chief temple of the Takata 
sub-sect, was founded at Takata in Shimo- 
tsuke by the celebrated abbot Shinrau 
Shonin in 1226, and removed here in 1465 
by the priest Shin-e. 

The building closely resembles 
in style and scale the vast Hon- 
gwanji temples described under 
Tokyo and Kyoto, which is as 
much as to say that it is majesti- 
cally spacious and chastely rich. 
The architectural similarity is ac- 
counted for by the fact that the 
Takata and Hongwanji are sister 
sects, both being subdivisions of 
the great Shin sect. 

Tsu {Inns, Teicho-kwan, ]\Iatsu- 
zaka-ya at station), which, with its 
suburbs, is 5 miles long, is the capi- 
tal of the lorefecture of Mie. In the 
middle of the town, close to the 
inns, stand two noted Buddhist 
temples, — Kicannon-ji and Ko-no- 
Amida, the former rather tawdry, 
the latter exquisite though on a 
small scale. 

The legend on which the sanctity of this 
temiile rests, is a good example of the 



Temples of Tsu. 3Iatsuzaha. 



299 



fusion that took place between Buddhism 
and Shinto in early times. A Buddhist 
priest named Kakujo made a pilgrimage 
of one hundred days to the shrine of the 
Sun-Goddess at Ise, to entreat her to 
reveal to him her original shape, — the 
idea in those days being that the Shinto 
deities were avatars, or temporary mani- 
festations (Gongen), of which Buddhist 
saints were the originals (Honchi Butsu). 
On the hundredth night the Sun-Goddess 
appeared to Kakujo in a dream, com- 
manding him to go out next morning on 
the sea-shore of Futami, where she jiro- 
mised to show herself to him as she real- 
ly was. He did so, and there appeared 
floating on the surface of the waves a 
gold-coloured serxaent over ten feet long. 
But the priest was not yet satisfied. 
"This," cried he, "is bat a pious device 
on the part of the divinity, whose real 
shape that monster can never be," — and 
ao saying, he took off him his priestly 
scarf and flung it at the serpent, which 
vanished with it into the sea. Three 
nights later the Goddess api^eared to 
Kakujo in a second dream, a,ud said : 
" The serpent indeed was but another 
temporary manifestation. My real shape 
is preserved in the temple of Muryoju-ji at 
K6 in the district of Suzuka in this same 
land of Ise. Go thither, and thou shalt 
see it." lie went accordingly, and found 
that Amida was the Buddhist deity there 
worshipped. The image was considered 
so holy that the priests of the temple at 
first refused to show it ; but v/hat was not 
the astonishment of all in'esent when, on 
Kakujo's request being at last granted, 
the scarf which he had thrown at the 
sea-serpent was found twined round 
the image's neck!— The removal of the 
temple to Tsu took place about A.D. 1680, 
when the original shrine at Ko had fallen 
into decay, and the image had been found 
one day thrown down on the place where 
the temple now holding it has been raised 
in its honour. 



The holy image is enclosed in a 
shrine on the altar, and is only 
exhibited on payment of a fee, 
when a short service in its honour 
is performed and the legend recited 
by the attendant priest. R. and 1. 
are images of Kwannon and Seishi. 
Behind, and continuing all round 
the walls of the building, are dimin- 
utive images of all the Buddhas 
and Bosatsu, called Sen-oku Butsu 
("a thousand million Buddhas"). 
Among other objects of interest, 
note the very large wooden figure 
representing Buddha dead. It is 
laid on real quilts. The green 



coffered ceiling is covered with gilt 
Sanslvrit characters in relief. A 
small octagonal structure to the 1. 
contains gilt images of the Thirty- 
three Kwannon. 



Kwannon-ji was formerly noted for a 
boisterous festival called Oni-osae, or 
" Demon-quelling." Two fishermen rep- 
resenting demons were brought in a 
cage, with flaming torches on their heads; 
and it v/as their part to enter the temple 
and carry off the stone image here wor- 
shipped, which had been originally fished 
\il> out of the sea, while others of the 
guild repelled them with naked swords. 
A quieter festival, held on the lst-3rd 
March, has been substituted. 

At the far end of the town, stands 
1. a temple dedicated to Yukl-Kotsu- 
ke no Suke, a celebrated retainer of 
Kusunold IMasashige. It dsxtes from 
188-1, and offers an elegant example 
of modern Shinto architecture. 
The same grounds contain a small, 
but gaily painted, shrine of Hachi- 
man. A little further on, various 
paths marked by torli or by sign- 
posts, lead 1. to an ancient and pop- 
ular Shintd temple, situated in a 
pine-grove on the sea-shore, and 
called Karasu Gozen no YasJdro, 
that is, the Crow Temple. 

This temple is dedicated to Waka- 
hirume (also called Ori-hime, i.e., the 
Weaving Maiden), a younger sister of the 
Sun-Goddess. The name Karasu in itself 
points to some connection with the sun ; 
for that luminary is supposed to be in- 
habited by a crow. Hence a crow staring 
at the sun is a subject frequently treated 
by Japanese artists. 

The country is flat the whole of 
the rest of the way to Yamada, the 
well-cultivated plain to the 1. most- 
ly appearing boundless, because too 
level to allow of many glimpses 
being caught of Owari Bay which 
lies beyond. At 

Rokken, also called Mhcatari, 
there is a cross-country road follow- 
ed by pilgrims to Hase and the other 
Holy Places of Yamato. 

Matsuzaka {Inn, Kaishin). This 
tov/n is noted as the birthplace 
of Motoori (see p. 79). The town 



300 



lioide 35. — The Sltrines of Ise. 



is dominated by a hill called Yoio- 
no-!Mori, on which stand the re- 
mains of the castle founded in 1584. 
Below, at the entrance to the 
grounds, is a little Shinto temple 
dedicated to Motoori, called Yama- 
muro Jinja. The line here aban- 
dons the old pilgrim highway lead- 
ing to Yamada through JSaigu, 

Saigu was in ancient days the abode of 
the Imperial virgin princesses, who, until 
the civil wars of the 14th century, succes- 
sively held the office of high priestess of 
the Sun-Goddess. 

and goes south to the unimportant 
stations of Tokiiwa and Oka, before 
turning east to Tamaru and Miya- 
(jaica, so called from a large river 
which is there crossed. 
Yamada (see next page). 



-From Nara to Yamada by 

THE KwANSAI and SaNGIJ 
EATIiWAYS. TSUKI-GA-SE. 





Names 




a s 






j?§ 


of 


Remarks 


ft 


Stations 






XAKA 




|m. 


Daibutsu 




6i 


Kanio Jet. 




4 


Kasagi 




Okawara 




17 


Shima-ga-hara.., 


/Alight for Tsu- 
l ki-ga-se. 


21i 


UENO 




21 


Sanagu 








/Change for 


30i 


Tsuge Jet 


J Kusatsu on 




1 Tokaido Rail- 


36i 


Kabuto 


way. 


m 


Seki 


Change for 


43 


KAMEYAMA Jet. 


Yamada or 
Kagoya. 



A run through bare sandy hil- 
locks takes us to Kamo, which stands 
in an amphitheatre of high hills. 
Into this the line at once strikes, 
and follows up the 1. bank of the 
extremely narrow valley of the Kizu- 
gaica, the hillside having been cut 



dov,'n to make room for the per- 
manent way. About Kasag-i {Inn, 
Kasagi-kwan) we pass through wild 
and picturesque scenery. The fort- 
ress-like rocks of the mountain of 
the same name, noted in history as 
the scene of the Emperor Go-Daigo's 
defeat (p. 72), almost overhang and 
threaten to fall upon the rails. The 
dwellings perched on the side of the 
steep hills on the opposite bank, 
and the river flowing x^lacidly below 
between huge boulders, help to form 
a scene like those often depicted in 
Japanese art. Between Kasagi and 
Okawara we cross to the r. bank, 
and the hills become less perpen- 
dicular. The summit is marked by 
two tunnels, whence down through 
cultivated country to 

Shima-ga-liara. About 2 J ri 
from this place by jinrikisha lies 
the vill, of Tsuki-ga-se, famous 
for its plum-trees, which line the 
Kizugawa for upwards of 2 miles. 
No other place in Japan can boast 
such a show of the pink and white 
flowers of this fragrant tree, which 
bloom in mid-March. Some rapids 
form another attraction a little 
lower down the stream. 

TJeno (Inn, Tomo-chu), capital of 
the tiny province of Iga, stands in 
a fertile plain. Tsuld-ga-se is also 
easily accessible from here (4 ri). 

From Tsuge {Inn, Tsuru-ya), a 
branch line leads to Kusatsu on the 
Tokaido Bail way, 22 J m., affording 
the shortest route to Kyoto for those 
coming from the East. 

Another piece of striking hill 
scenery is that between Tsuge and 
Seki, where the gradient is steep 
enough to make the assistance of 
an extra engine necessary, although 
three tunnels pierce the steepest 
parts of the ascent. This is the 
ISuzuka-tdge. The long serrated 
peaks to the r. near Seld are Shaku- 
j6-ga-take and Kyo-ga-mine. At 
Kameyama we change cars, and the 
rest of the journey hence to Y''amada 
coincides with that given in the 
preceding section. 



Dances. Pilgrim Customs. 



301 



4. — Yam ADA and NeictHboukhood. 

Temples of Ise. Peovince 
OF Shim A. 

Yamada {Inns, *Gom-kwai, with 
Enrop. beds and food, at Furuiclii ; 
*Yamada Hotel, Jap. style, 10 min. 
from station ; *Abnra-ya) is a 
straggling town formed by the 
amalgamation of several smaller 
ones, — Yamada proper, Uji, Fura- 
ichi, etc. It lives by and for the Ise 
pilgrims, as does the railway which 
makes special terms for bands 
ranging from ten to three hundred, 
and allows them to break the 
journey in order to worship at 
the minor shrines on the way. 
The inns and tea-houses of Ya- 
mada are very lively, especially at 
night. At some of them a cele- 
brated dance is performed, called 
the Ise Ondo. This dance j)Ossesses 
much grace, added to the interest 
of a considerable antiquity. Un- 
fortunately, however, it is generally 
to be witnessed only at houses of 
a doubtful character. A religious 
dance, called Kagura, is executed at 
the temples for such pilgrims as 
choose to pay for it. It is divided 
into three grades, called " Small," 
"Great," and "Extra Great" {Sho, 
Dai, Dai-dai). The charges for 
these various dances are (1907) as 
follows : — 

Ise Ondo 3} yen 

Sho Kagura 5 „ 

Bai Kagura 10 „ 

Dai-dai Kagura 20 „ 

Among the peep-shows and 
booths in which the main street of 
Yamada abounds, are some devoted 
to yet another kind of dance, which 
may be seen for a cent or two. It 
is called Sugi Tama. The fun 
consists in the spectators flinging 
coppers at the faces of the girls who 
form the little orchestra, and who 
are trained to such skill in " duck- 
ing," that it is said they are never 
hit. The chief objects for sale at 
Yamada, besides holy pictures and 
medals and other articles of Shinto 



devotion, are ornamental tobacco- 
pouches made of a kind of oil-pa j)er. 
Many shops have life-size figures 
of gods, goblins, etc., which serve 
as advertisements. 

The best way to see the sights of 
Yamada and neighbourhood is to 
go the following round, which takes 
a day by jinrikisha to do comfort- 
ably :— from the inn to the Geku 
Temple, Futami, Toba (for the view 
from Hiyori-yama), the Naiku Tem- 
ple, and back to the inn. The road 
is mostly excellent and level, and 
an electric tram may be availed of 
for i^art of the way. One may 
lunch either at Futami or at Toba. 
In addition to this round, or in lieu 
of Toba, good pedestrians are ad- 
vised to climb Asama-yama (p. 307). 

Half a million of pilgrims resort annu- 
ally to the temples of Ise (Ise Daijingu), 
chiefly in winter and spring, when the 
country-folk have more leisure than at 
other seasons. The rationalistic educated 
classes of course take little part in such 
doings ; but even at the present day the 
majority of artisans in Tokyo, and still 
more in Kyoto and Osaka, believe that 
they may iind difficulty in gaining a 
livelihood unless they invoke the protec- 
tion of the tutelary goddesses of Ise by 
performing the pilgrimage at least once 
in their lives, and the ijeasants are even 
more devout believers. It is still not 
uncommon for schoolboys and 'prentices 
to abscond from home and make their 
way to Ise, subsisting on the alms which 
they beg from travellers. Having obtain- 
ed the bundle of charms, consisting of 
bits of the wood of which the temples 
are built, they make their way home in 
the same manner. This surreptitious 
method of i)erforming the pilgrimage 
is called nuke-vmiri, and custom forbids 
even the sternest parent or master from 
finding any fault with the young devotee 
who has been so far for so pious a 
purpose. Stories are even told of dogs 
having performed the pilgrimage by 
themselves. Formerly pilgrims who lived 
at Kyoto were met by their friends at the 
suburb of Ke-age on their return home 
The custom was for these friends— mostly 
females — to ride out singing the tune of 
the Ise Ondo dance, three persons being 
seated on each horse, one in the middle, 
and one on either side in a sort of wooden 
hod or basket. High revel was held at the 
tea-houses with which Ke-age abounded. 
This custom was termed saJca-ymikai. The 
Ise pilgrijns may be distinguished by 
their gala dress, and by the large bun- 



802 



Route 35. — The Slirines of Ise. 



dies of charms wrapped in oil-paper or 
placed in an oblonp varnished hox, which 
they carry suspended from their necks 
by 'a string. Besides these plebeian 
devotees, certain special occasions impose 
en some of the great officers of state the 
duty of presenting themselves at this 
centre of the national cult. The Emperor 
himself made a progress here in 1905 to 
render thanks for the triumph of Japa- 
ne^;e arms over Russia. 

The special character of sanctity attach- 
ing to the Ise temples arises partly from 
their hoary antiquity, partly from the 
pre-eminence of the goddesses to whom 
they are dedicated. The Nat'ku, lit. 
" Inner Temple," is believed by the Japa- 
nese to date from the year 4 B. C, and is 
sacred to the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu or 
Tenshoko Daijin, ancestress of the Sli- 
kados. Down to the 14th century, some 
virgin prince&s of the Imperial family 
was alwaj-s entrusted with the care of the 
mirror which is the Sun-Goddess's em- 
blem, and of which some Japanese writers 
speak as if it were itself a deity, while 
others take it to be merely the image 
of the goddess. It is kept in a box of 
chamaecyparis wood, which rests on a low 
stand covered with a piece of white silk. 
The mirror itself is wrapx>ed in a bag of 
brocade, which is never opened or re- 
newed ; but when it begins to fall to 
pieces from age, another bag is put on, 
so that the actual covering consists of 
many layers. Over the whole is placed a 
sort of wooden cage with ornaments said 
to be of pure gold, over which again is 
thrown a cloth of coarse silk, falling to 
the tloor on all sides. The coverings of 
the box are all that can be seen, when the 
doors are opened at the various festivals. 
The Geku, or " Outer Temple," so-called 
because of its slightly inferior sanctity, is 
now dedicated to the Goddess of Food, 
Toyo-uke-bime-no-Kami, also called Uke- 
mochi-no-Kami, but was in earlier times 
under the patronage of Kuni-toko-tachi- 
no-Mikoto, a god whose name sig-nifies 
literally "His Augustness the Earthly 
Eternally Standing One." In either case, 
this temple may be considered as sacred 
to the worship of a deification of the 
earth, while the Xaiku is dedicated to a 
deification of the sun, the great ruler of 
heaven. The native authorities do not 
inform us of the character of the emblem 
by which the Earth-Godde.=s is represent- 
ed. As in the case of other Shinto tem- 
ples, so here also at Ise many secondary 
deities {ai-(lono) are invoked. Those of 
the JVaiku are Tajikarao-no-Kami, lit. 
" the Strong-Handed-ilale-Deity," who 
pulled the Sun-Goddet-s out of the cave 
to which she had retired to avoid her 
brother's ill-usage, and a goddess who 
was one of the forebears of the Imperial 
line. The secondary deities of the Geku 
are Ninigi-no-Mikoto, grandson to the 
Sun-goddess and ancestor of the Imperial 



line, and two of the gods who attended 
him on the occasion of his descent from 
heaven to earth. — It may be mentioned 
that local Japanese parlance indicates 
respect for the great temples by suffixing 
the vf^OTd Snn, "Mr.," to their names,— 
thus Kaiku San, Geku San, pronounced 
Naixa.n, Gexan. 

The architecture seen at Ise is believed 
to represent the purest and most archaic 
Japanese style,— the old native hut, in 
fact, before' the introduction of Chinese 
models. A very ancient rule directs 
that the two great Ise temples, as also 
every minor edifice connected with them, 
shall be razed to the ground and recon- 
structed every twenty years in exactly 
the same style, down to the minute.-;t 
detail. For_this purpose there are, both 
at the Naiku and at the Geku, two closely 
adjacent sites. The construction of the 
new temples is commenced on the vacant 
sites towards the end of the period of 
twenty years ; and when they are finish- 
ed, the ceremony of Sengyo, or "Trans- 
ference," takes place, the sacred emblems 
being then solemnly and amidst a great 
concourse of pilgrims removed to the new 
buildings from the old. These are forth- 
with pulled down and cut up into myr- 
iads of charms (o harai), which are sold to 
pilgrims. The general renovation last 
took place in October, 1889, when 300.000 
yen were set apart out of the national 
revenue for the purpose ; but the Chief 
Shrine at the Naiku dates from 1900, the 
former building having been pulled down 
because the jpumping of some water on 
its roof during an alarm of fire in 1898 
was regarded as a desecration of its sanc- 
tity. "The immemorial antiquity of the 
Ise temples is therefore only the antiqui- 
ty of a continuous tradition, not that 
of the actual edifices. It is probable, 
however, that at no time for ma,ny cen- 
turies past could Ise have been seen to 
such advantage as at present, when the 
minute and enthusiastic researches of 
four generations of scholars of the " Shin- 
to Revival" school into the religious 
archaeology of their nation have at last 
naet with official encouragement, and the 
priests have been endowed with the pecu- 
niary means to realise their dream of 
restoring the Japan of to-day to the reli- 
gious practices, architectu'e, and ritual 
of pristine ages unsullied by the foreign 
influence of Buddhism. 

Closely connected with the great Ise 
Shrines are two smaller ones; the Izoyxl 
at Isobe on the frontier of Ise and Shima, 
some 4 or 5 ri beyond Toba, and the 
Talcihara Gu at Nojiri in Ise. The 
sanctity of these places is traced to the 
fact that they were in turn the temporary 
headquarters of the cult of the Sun-God- 
de.ss before it was fixed definitively in its 
present site. The Izocjv, scarcely deserves 
a visit. The Takihara Gu is described 
near the end of Route 43, 



Gehu Temple. 



303 



The Geku Temple. Tlie ap- 
proach is pretty, A Shin-en, lit. 
"Divine Park," containing a 
circular pond, has rei^laced the 
houses and fields that covered this 
place previous to 1889 ; and beyond 
rises a hill finely timbered with 
cryptomerias, huge camphor-trees, 
maples, keyaki, and the sacred 
though not imposing ma-sakaki 
[Cleyera japonica). The main en- 
trance is by the Irhi no Torii, or 
" First Gateway," to whose r. is the 
Sanshusho, lit. " Place of Assem- 
bly," where members of the 
Imperial family change their gar- 
ments i^revions to worshipi3ing in 
the temple. A broad road leads 
hence through the trees to the 
temple. A short way up it is the 
Ni no Torii, or " Second Gateway," 
near which stands a shop for the 
sale of pieces of the wood used in 
the construction of the temple, 
packets of rice that haA^e been 
offered to the gods, and o fuda, or 
paper charms, inscribed with the 
name of the Goddess of Food. 
Next door is a building where the 
kagura dances are performed at the 
request of pious pilgrims, and 
where the food offerings are sold 
for a few sen a meal. Beyond these 
buildings, we soon reach the enclo- 
sure containing the Geku, or actual 
temple, concealed for the most part 
behind a succession of fences. The 
outer fence, called Itmjaki, is built 
of cryptomeria wood, neatly planed 
and un painted. It is 339 ft. in 
width at the front, and 335 ft. in 
the rear ; the E. side is 247 ft., the 
W. side 235 ft. long, so that the 
shape is that of an irregular oblong, 
the formation of the ground rather 
than any necessary relation of 
numbers having determined the 
proportions. The temple on the 
alternative site, which was hewn 
down in 18S9, had its long side E. 
and W., and the short N. and S. 
A little to one side of the middle 
of the front face is the principal en- 
trance, formed of a torii similar to 
those already passed, but of small- 



er dimensions. The screen opposite 
is called Bampei. There are three 
other entrances in the lia-gaki, 
formed each by a torii, one on each 
side and one at the back, belonging 
to the Mike-den, xAiere the food 
offerings are set out twice daily. 
The S. to7-ii gives access to a small 
court, of which a thatched gateway 
ordinarily closed by a white curtain 
forms the further side, while the 
ends are formed by the Ita-gaki. 
On the r. hand is a gate-keeper's 
lodge. Unless the pilgrim be an 
Imioerial personage, he is prevented 
by the curtain from seeing much 
further into the interior. 

The thatched gatevray above-men- 
tioned is the principal opening in a 
second fence called the Ara-gaki, 
composed of cryptomeria trunks 
alternately long and short, placed 
at intervals of about 2^- ft. with 
two horizontal railings, one run- 
ning along the top, the other along 
the centre. The distance of this 
fence from the outer enclosure 
varies from 10 ft. to 36 ft. on 
different sides of the scjuare. 
Besides the torii on the S., there 
are three others, one on each side, 
corresponding to the other three 
main entrances of the boarded 
enclosure. These are unusual in 
style, being closed vnth solid gates, 
an arrangement rarely seen in 
Shintd temples. Inside the thatch- 
ed gateway is a shed 40 ft. by 20 
ft., called Shijo-den, a restoration 
of one of three buildings anciently 
called Naorai-dono, which were set 
apart for the entertainment of the 
envoys sent by the Mil^ado after 
the celebration of the Kan-name 
Matsuri, or "Festival of Divine 
Tasting" (see p. 3). Just inside a 
small torii are the Ishi-tsuho, — 
spaces marked out by larger stones, 
r. for the Milvado's envoy, 1. for the 
jDriests of the temple. At a distance 
of 33 yds. from the first thatched 
gateway is a second, v/hich gives 
access to a third court, surrounded 
by a palisade called Tama-gaki, 
formed of planks about 8 ft. high. 



The Geku Temple. 



305 



placed close together. Just within 
this court is a small wooden gate- 
way, immediately beyond which is 
a thatched gateway, forming the 
entrance to the central enclosure. 
This enclosure is surrounded by a 
wooden palisade called Mizu-gaki, 
and is almost a perfect square, be- 
ing 134 ft. by 131 ft. At the back 
of it is the Shoden or shrine, on the 
r. and 1. of the entrance to which 
are the treasuries {Hoden). 

The shrine is 34 ft. in length by 
19 ft. in width. Its floor, raised 
about 6 ft. from the ground, is 
supported on wooden posts planted 
in the earth. A balcony 3 ft. wide, 
which is approached by a flight of 
nine steps 15 ft. in width, runs 
right round the building, and ca